University of Manila Journal of East Asiatic Studies
1959 – Snippet view – More editions
NOTES ON THE PHILIPPINES 41 6. … DOG. Mandarangan, the evil-spirit of the Bagobos of southern Mindanao, is said to keep two large dogs, which he sets … The same people also beat their dogs during an eclipse to scare the crocodile. 8.
Philippine Studies – Volume 52 – Page 418
2004 – Snippet view – More editions
Notes I wish to thank Froilan Havana and Inalo Yawinhay for inviting me to their respective hakyadan, both of which were … suguyan, spirit helpers of hunters; tumanod, guardian of hunting dogs; the umagad or spirit owners of game; and the …
Census of the Philippine Islands: Taken Under the Direction of the …
By United States. Bureau of the Census, United States. Philippine Commission (1900-1916)
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They are, as a rule, superstitious, and believe in apparitions, enchantments, and other witchcraft. Many relate that an ancestor died for having cut down a secular tree called “lwonk.” or old; others that they have seen an apparition called “tiktik” or “aswang” (malignant spirits in the form of animals, as a dog, a cat, or in human form, either of an old man or woman) under the house during the sickness of a member of the family. Even in the Bay of Bataan, where there are pearl beds, there is a place where no diver dares to work, as there is a belief that at the bottom, where there are beautiful shells containing pearls of large size, no one can go, on account of the presence of a large white turtle and an enormous fish, which watch these places and which kill every human being who descends to the bottom. Among the mountain tribes and low classes of the towns the transmigration of souls is believed in, and there are at the present time rascals who pass themselves off as Pope Macario and Father Juan, who have been dead for years. The former was celebrated during the Spanish revolution, having been one of the chiefs of the mountain tribes of Tapaz and Jamindan, who burned and pillaged many towns. The other was a coadjutor priest who lived in the mountains, performing miracles and marvelous cures, as the old inhabitants state, and who died in the island of Paragua, to which he was deported by the Spanish Government.
Governor-supervisor, province of Bohol (Visayans):
As a rule the people of Bohol do not differ greatly in their customs from other civilized Filipinos, but their characteristics, however, are love of peace and justice, respect under all circumstances, modesty, hospitality and courteous treatment to members of the family and strangers, and morality.
There are traditions regarding ancient superstitious customs, but the people of the present generation have uprooted them completely—that is to say, they are not practiced, being held as contrary to the dogmas of the religion they profess.”
The people of Bohol follow the mode of life rendered necessary by their uses and customs, and it can be said that their life from an economical standpoint is, and has been, adapted to the circumstances of the times. Perhaps the adoption of new methods and the relegation to the background of the ancient methods which they are using in the development and progress of agriculture, industry, and commerce, , which are at a standstill or in a state of embryo, will make their lives prosperous, changing them from what they have been up to the present time—that is to say, lives which can not be qualified as either poor or rich.
Governor-supervisor, province of Negros Oriental (Visayans):
The population is divided into three social classes. The first is composed of families who, on account of their wealth and culture, enjoy a leisurely and independent position. The second class is composed, for the most part, of honest and industrious families, possessed of small properties, who are very economical, and although having but little ambition, are lovers of order and hospitable. They are happy on account of having but few necessities, and enjoy a position relatively comfortable. The third class is formed of the poor, who are the farm laborers, servants, fishermen, etc. They are, as a rule, ignorant, and therefore fanatical and superstitious. Their lack of education has created but few necessities, and they are therefore indolent. They are generally sober and strong. Most of them eat but twice a day, and their food consists of corn meal cooked with water, and small salted fish, so that the average daily expense of a family in the country is about 25 cents Mexican, while those in town live on from 40 to 50 cents per day.
* This is thought to be rather sweeping and rhetorical. It is understood that all the Visayans have practically the same superstitions.—Director.
Governor-supervisor, province of Negros Occidental (Visayans):
It is believed that the Negritos were the first inhabitants of the islands, which they named, and that later they were driven to the interior by the primitive Malays. Both, refractory to the civilization offered them by the immigrants from Panay and Cebu, were in their turn relegated to the mountains by the new populators, who brought the island to its present condition. The natives of Panay and Cebtí brought with them to the island of Negros their civilization, habits, and customs. That is the reason why, in the zone west of the mountains, Panayan Visayan is spoken and the practices and customs of Panay are observed, while in the zone east thereof Cebuian Visayan is spoken and the habits and customs of the island near that region are observed. With regard to the province of Negros Occidental, the thirty-one towns of the latter on its western coast, from Isiu to Sagay, speak Panayan, while the language of the towns of Escalante, Calatrava, and San Carlos, on the eastern coast, is Cebuan. The Filipinos, therefore, of this part of the island do not differ at all from those of the rest of the archipelago, especially from those of neighboring islands. Their character is peaceable and respectful, and the customs of the wealthy and educated class are so different from those of the poor or laboring class, that while the former live in the European style and are studious and industrious, the latter still retain traces of primitive civilization and are fanatical in their religion and pass their time without bothering much about the future. Superstitions are prevalent among the illiterate class, composed of the poor, and they are so varied that a book could be written thereon. It will suffice, however, to cite some of them, as, for example, the belief that the spirits of their ancestors return after a certain invocation, so that spiritualism existed here long before the work of Allen Kardec made him famous. The belief in the spirit of the woods and in the spirit of rice among the country people is worthy of note on account of the general character thereof. Special offerings are made to these before the smallest piece of ground is cleared and before the sowing or harvesting of rice. Amulets are also believed in, as well as prognostications, incantations, and many other things which it would be difficult to embody in this report, and which, by their character, it would be possible to consider as imported on account of their resemblance to the superstitions known among certain classes of Spanish people. It is also necessary to confess, although it makes us blush to do so, that the prostitution of the Catholic religion, which the religious communities preach here as they see fit, has contributed greatly to the belief in superstitions and terrible fanaticism of the uneducated people. This gives rise to a belief in the most stupendous and ridiculous miracles, the most laughable practices, seeking the intervention of celestial advocates in the most trifling matters of ordinary life, and many other beliefs springing from fanatic ignorance and fermentations of the primitive, credulous, uncivilized State. Wealth and poverty in the country are, as a rule, permanent. The former is the patrimony, if so it can be called, of the higher class, which, as has been stated above, is the studious and industrious class, because it pursues the ideal of living comfortably, luxuriously, and in pleasure. A family with a moderate fortune seldom is ruined; but on the contrary this fortune increases daily, due to the constant labor to increase it. A wealthy Filipino does not generally desire to undertake daring speculations as the Saxon does, who increases a capital to fabulous proportions or reduces it to the lowest ebb. He is satisfied with gaining little, and that little on a very safe basis. Almost all are engaged in agriculture. Poverty is characteristic of the working class, and is of a permanent character. There have been cases—rare, to be sure—in which a laborer, by constant labor, honest habits, and careful calculations, finds himself with an enviable competency.
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