Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn from It (Extrait)

Both alone and in the company of Chagnon, I have made distributions of
goods near the end of a field season, and the immediate reaction of the
Yanomamö when they acquire such goods is instructive. As soon as distributions
are made, most of the men who are recipients either immediately depart to trade
those goods to neighboring villages or make plans to do so in the next few days.
Some may even give goods to covillagers who received little from us. So the
immediate consequence of payment of trade goods is intervillage trade. They
trade these Western goods for traditional items such as hunting dogs, hallucinogenic drugs, cotton, and hammocks. If the distribution of trade goods by
ethnographers and others immediately leads to trade, then one would have to
conclude that the motivation to attack a neighbor to attain these goods would be
sharply diminished

A Hallucinogenic Tea, Laced with Controversy (Extrait/Excerpt)

The indigenous and mestizo Amazonic hunters also trained and prepared
their dogs to specialize in a certain type of hunt. These animals were treated
in the same way that human hunters were, but the mouth of the animal was
also cleaned and rinsed with a combination of medicinal leaves. The animal
refined its olfaction to smell the prey at far away distances. The dog would
be submitted to a rigorous diet. He would be kept hungry for several days
and then made to smell the skin of the deer or whichever animal of the forest
the dog was to specialize in hunting. Different dogs would be trained to aid
in the hunt of a particular animal in this manner.

Handbook of South American Indians, Issue 143, Volume 5 (Google Books)

DOMESTICATED ANIMALS

In Neotropica there are four indigenous domesticated animals: llama, alpaca, cavy (guinea pig), and Muscovy duck. The dog has been present also, and from very early times, but it is not a Neotropical endemic. The European horse (Equus caballus) was unknown in pre-Columbian times, but was redomesticated from feral Spanish herds in the early 17th century by certain southern Indians (Tehuelche, Diaguita, etc.; see Handbook, vol. 1, pp. 14-15, 202-203). Extinct horses of other species were known to the early aborigines, and were hunted and eaten by them, but were not domesticated to our knowledge. The turkey is a Mexican domesticated bird, though it penetrated by cultural diffusion to Colombia, Venezuela, and northern Peru in pre-Columbian times. All members of the family Bovidae were absent from pre-Columbian Neotropica at any time; the Spaniards introduced domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs, and in many places cattle and pigs are now feral. The Asiatic water buffalo “bufalo” (Bubalus bubalis) was introduced from Italy to the lower Amazon region, especially the Isla de Maraj6, for agricultural purposes (plowing, transport, meat, milk), but the cultural response was largely negative, and the surviving buffalo are now raised for meat in a casual way or have become feral in the vast swamps on the northern edge of Marajo” Island where they constitute a menace to humans on account of their truculent and wily disposition and great size. True camels (undoubtedly the Arabian, or one-humped species, Camelus dromedarius) were introduced at an early date into the desert areas of coastal Peru, but were not integrated culturally and became entirely extinct. Eaton’s identification of the bison in a Cuzco grave (1912) was later withdrawn (1913) in favor of a post-Columbian cattle specimen. Chickens also were introduced (but see p. 394).

The dog poses a special problem. It was found in the form of at least nine breeds throughout Neotropica (and additional breeds were widely distributed throughout Nearctica). Owing to the fertility between dogs and wolves (with fertile offspring), it may be difficult to believe, as C. O. Sauer says (personal communication), “that the dog [in the New World] can be passed off as a series of mutations derived from an original Asiatic stock.” The situation is complex and confusing, but may be summarized here by the following statements: (1) Man brought a breed, or breeds, of dog with him from Asia, at least in his later immigrations; (2) all American aboriginal Indian dogs seem to be morphologically “dogs,” and not domesticated coyotes or foxes (most dogs seem to be sufficiently distinguishable from any other canid to justify the belief of most specialists that they form the distinct species, Canis familiaris); (3) dogs will mate easily, and have mated often, under favorable conditions in nature, with wolves, dingos, and perhaps coyotes and jackals (though crosses in nature with either of the latter two are probably rare), and the offspring are fertile; (4) dogs and foxes will not mate normally in nature, and rarely under control; (5) all the Recent canids of Neotropica are “foxes” of the genera Chrysocyon, Urocyon, and Dusicyon (including here Cerdocyon, Lycalopex, and Pseudoalopex, p. 377), and the aberrant bush-dog, Icticyon venaticus; (6) no wild member of the genus Canis (sensu stricto, e. g., wolf, coyote) has been known to occur very far south of the tableland of Mexico in the last several thousand’years and hence, not in that time in Neotropica; (7) however, in the late Pleistocene and perhaps early Recent, a true Canis (wolf type) did occur in South America, and perhaps was contemporaneous with early man, with or without domestic dogs of Palearctic (or Nearctic) stock; and (8) dogs of the world seem to have the same genetic constitution and hence mutational and gene-combinational potentialities, witness the independently derived breeds of “bulldog,” “greyhound,” or “foxhound,” “setter,” “terrier,” and “hairless” in the Old and New Worlds. (See Allen, G. M., 1920; Krieg, 1929, 1939; Cabrera, A., 1932, 1934; Young and Goldman, 1944.)

Krieg (1925) recorded the breeding of a female “Pseudalopex azarae” (Dusicyon gymnocercus) with a male fox terrier hybrid, (terrier X fox ?). Dusicyon is more like Canis than the other genera of South American “foxes,” and this may be significant.

The oft-used distinct terms “dog” and “wolf” perhaps need concrete definition. The most common dog characters are: Wolf-type skull with smaller dentition, rounder braincase, higher forehead, shorter snout, larger orbital angle and smaller audital bullae, ability to bark, and an erect and mobile tail. However, considering known interbreeding with wolves, it is obvious that these characters (and others alleged) are not absolutely constant in some individuals of some breeds of dog. (See Miller, 1912, p. 313; Iljin, 1941.)

The Neotropical breeds which have been adequately described are: Inca dog (medium size), long-haired Inca dog (medium), Peruvian pug-nosed dog (small, bulldoglike), Fuegian dog (small, terrierlike), Ona dog (medium, setterlike), Tehuelche dog (large, foxhound or greyhoundlike), Techichi dog (small, terrierlike), and small hairless dog. (See Allen, G. M., 1920; Cabrera, A., 1932, 1934.) The alleged wild indigenous “perro cimarron” of Argentina has been shown by A. Cabrera (1932) to be derived from feral European stock. Latcham (1922) expressed the view that practically all the breeds of Neotropical dogs were derived from native fox species; but this position is extreme.

Two other breeds are questionable: the mute dog and the humped dog. Mute dogs were recorded from the Antilles, adjacent coast of northern South America, Peru, and Mexico (Ignacio de Armas, 1888, pp. 32-34). Close examination of the quotations and text, however, reveals that these dogs were not truly mute, but merely nonbarkers, and that they represented several of the above-mentioned breeds. Some modern breeds or local populations of dogs do not bark normally (Eskimo dog, Basenji dog of Africa), and nonbarkers or their descendants learn to bark in association with barkers. Hence, it seems best to conclude now, in respect to these early Neotropical “mute” dogs, that they were local populations of one or of several breeds which, through severe conditioning (training) or through natural inclination and isolation, were nonbarkers. They could vocalize in whines and perhaps howls. Barking, and even howling, may have been sternly suppressed by severe punishment as a precaution against

disclosing hidden villages to human marauders. Some of these nonbarking dogs may have been tame foxes or bush dogs. Humboldt (Ross ed., 1852, 2:510, footnote) suggested that mute dogs might have been individuals castrated and raised for food, as was done in early Mexico.

The humped dog is perhaps even more of an enigma than the “mute” dog. There are several early Spanish references to humped dogs (“el dorso arqueado, formando una especie de joroba,” “pronunciada joroba,” “perros mal conformados,” etc.; Ignacio de Armas, 1888, pp. 37-40, quoting earlier authors), in the Antilles, Central America, “New Grenada,” and Peru. Like the “mute” dog, the humped dog seems to have included several breeds or local populations, though some might have been occasional deformed individuals.

In this study, no detailed examination of canid material was made.

Domestication is a phenomenon which is difficult to explain or define accurately, and it is equally difficult to make a list of domesticated animals. Rather than limit the definition to any single condition, it seems best to consider several conditions and several classes or degrees of domestication.

A distinction must be made between “domesticated” and “tamed wild” animals. The latter generally are isolated individuals which are caught wild (usually when young) and tamed as pets. However, such a condition grades into that in which animals are caught purposely in numbers in the wild state and kept for certain economic purposes, e. g., the elephant. All tamed wild animals are utilized, at least as pets in an esthetic sense, so the fact of utilization should not enter into the definition of either a domesticated or a tamed animal—all animals taken purposely by man into his company are utilized in some way.

A distinction is necessary also between “domesticated” and some “domestic” animals. Some of the latter, sensu stricto, are natural commensals such as the house fly, cockroach, house mouse, house rat, English sparrow, European stork, black vulture, etc., which have attached themselves “voluntarily,” and, in some cases, in spite of opposition, to man and his domicile. “Domesticated” never should be applied to the latter group of animals, though both “domestic” and “domesticated” can be applied to man’s conscious purposeful establishment of symbionts (domesticates). Both a domesticated animal and man have necessary interdependent and mutually beneficent relationships which arose from a commensalistic condition (natural or otherwise), but which later developed into a symbiosis. This symbiosis, however, is usually not obligatory—either partner may exist without the other, though the animal under this condition reverts to a wild state with usually a slight change of morphology; and man without his animal changes culturally. Some very highly specialized breeds obviously could not exist alone, or even revert to wild type before extinction; and vice versa, some human cultures could not exist without their domesticates (Arab in some places without camels and horses).

Domestication should apply to an animal species which meets the following conditions: That it (1) is integrated into human culture; (2) is kept forcibly under human control for a purpose; (3) is dependent upon man, either voluntarily or involuntarily, for survival under this prior condition; (4) generally breeds under the artificial conditions of human control; and (5) generally is modified into breeds (or strains) through selective breeding by man.

This definition gives several degrees of domestication: (1) Ordinary, or highly domesticated animals—those which answer all conditions (generally widespread geographically also); (2) semidomesticated animals—those which answer at least the first three conditions. Some semidomesticated animals, e. g., pearl oysters, silkworms, honey bees, etc., have been called “cultivated.”

The reasons that some animals have been domesticated to any degree whatsoever are also difficult to state. However, they certainly involve cultural as well as zoological factors, and some of the following may be important: (1) Cultural stimulus (either religious, economic, or esthetic), which gives and sustains a purpose and value to the act and the animal, and which in most cases probably originates in concentrated settled populations of peoples who have already had the knowledge and background of cultivated plants; (2) calm and docile disposition of the animal, which results in easy adaptation to confinement and generally involves no difficulty in breeding; (3) play instinct well developed (in mammals); (4) chance (meeting of the animal and the culture); (5) perhaps a commensalistic or symbiotic tendency of behavior in the animal, which manifests itself (a) in some sort of stratified social organization in nature and docile subjection to man in captivity, and/or (b) in some degree of attraction to other organisms, especially under stresses of nature (famine, drought, cold, flood, extinction, etc.), because, generally, physically subnormal or exhausted animals are more easily tamed than robust healthy ones, and/or (c) in some “domestic” attachment to man which later turns into a domesticated symbiotic relationship; and (6) sometimes (adventitiously) a plastic germ plasm, which provides many combinations of genes in variations and mutations that can be utilized for selective breeding into distinct strains (though it seems likely that most selection is fortuitous, especially in the lower cultures). Young animals fall in the fifth category.

It would seem that there exist many wild animals which are potentially domesticable, and perhaps chance has so far prevented their domestication; but, on the other hand, nearly all of our truly domesticated animals have an ancient history, and few new ones have been added recently. Hence, there may exist very good zoological reasons, or lack of certain factors, zoological as well as cultural, which have prevented and will prevent domestication of such forms. A study of seemingly domesticable animals, from the cultural and biological viewpoint, may clarify the positive factors favorable or necessary for domestication of others.

Fear is a strong factor in the behavior (and in the domesticability) of an animal; some species are born without this emotion but acquire it later in life (most higher forms, including man). Young animals of these species are easier to tame than older members. However, some animals can be tamed in the adult as well as in the immature states (falcon, otter, etc.). There is obviously much to be learned about domestication, but also enough variability to preclude facile generalizations.

The establishment of special breeds of domesticated animals is an interesting phenomenon. The general idea of the mechanics of reproduction, and of heredity, must have been known to aborigines, especially to those with cultivated plants and domesticated animals, but it seems that the conscious establishment of a breed is generally a function of a high culture which gives a special stimulus to the production and preservation of the breed. Without some cultural stimulus, the perpetuation of domesticated stock appears to proceed haphazardly as far as selective breeding is concerned. However, with a stimulus from religion (producing breeds of black llamas, white llamas, white alpacas, and perhaps 5-toed llamas), or from economic pressure, or from war, hunting, or sheer amusement, special breeds will be perpetuated and perhaps consciously developed by merely isolating and breeding desired like with like and segregating the results. Special craftmanship, secret or public, with special hereditary groups of animal husbandrists, will subsequently develop, and this will accelerate the process of breed development and improvement. In addition, breeds or strains can be developed naturally and unconsciously by natural selection, whei* the domesticated animal in question is continually forced to live in more extreme conditions of climate or to perform more arduous conditions of work. In these cases, only those individuals with the inherent ability to survive and breed can perpetuate the species, with a consequent fixation of the naturally selected combinations of characters in the newly developing breed.

However, there is a limit to the amount of diversity which can be produced by selection—a limit fixed by the inherent gene-combination and gene-mutational potentialities of the germ plasma, unless mutation intervenes. It remains to be proved that the combinational and mutational possibilities of llama germ-plasm could have produced the alpaca, though such may be possible.

Domestication is such a large and controversial subject that it cannot be discussed further here.

A list of the Neotropical domesticates and semidomesticates and other animals important in ethnozoology is given on pages 346-347.

The Ecology of Large Herbivores in South and Southeast Asia (Extrait/Excerpt)

The Role of Predation in Controlling the Blackbuck
Population
The Indian peninsular wolf, Canis lupus pallipes, is currently the main predator of
adult blackbuck in relatively natural semi-arid habitats, and together with the
golden jackal (Canis aureus), is also the main predator of blackbuck calves (Jethva
and Jhala 2004). Feral dogs, if not controlled, are also a major threat to blackbuck,
both adults and calves. Wolves in the Bhal area were intensively studied using radio
telemetry between 1994 and 2002 (Jhala 1993b; Jethva and Jhala 2004). During this
time, a single pack consisting of four to six adults, used Velavadar National Park as
part of its territory. The diet of wolves was almost exclusively blackbuck, and
wolves were observed to feed on average at 4-day intervals and consume
1.8 kg/animal/day (Jethva and Jhala 2004). Since wolves are territorial, and the
small Velavadar National Park (34 km2 during the period of the study) with an
abundant blackbuck population was within the territory of a single wolf pack, the
numerical response of wolves to this localised food source was limited (Jhala
Fig. 6.1 a Population size of blackbuck in Velavadar National Park from 1965 to 2001. Between
1988 and 2001 the population was estimated by systematic total count by YVJ. A regression fitted
to loge(population) versus years for the data from 1989 to 2001 suggests that the population was in
stationary phase, which is well below the historical carrying capacity of the Park. The slope of the
regression line, which estimates instantaneous growth rate (r), was −0.0022 (SE = 0.01), with
R2 = 0.0065 and P = 0.52; suggesting that the population was stationary between 1989–2001.
b The proportion of the blackbuck population of Velavadar National Park in different age and sex
classes between 1998 and 2001 during the stable age distribution. AF—adult female, SaF—
subadult female, JF—juvenile female, AM—adult male, SaM—subadult male, JM—juvenile
male. Error bars are standard errors between years
6 Behavioural Ecology of a Grassland Antelope, the Blackbuck … 155
1993b; Mech and Peterson 2003). Therefore, although wolf predation had a profound effect in shaping population structure through selective predation on breeding
males, its role in population control was doubtful as wolf numbers were too small to
regulate the blackbuck population.
A radio telemetry study between 2000 and 2003 on another smaller predator, the
golden jackal, revealed a different aspect of the role of predation on blackbuck
populations. The golden jackal has a flexible social system, in which jackals occupy
home ranges of around 30 km2
, where only core areas (<5 km2
) of their home
ranges are exclusive (Aiyadurai and Jhala 2006). During times of super abundance
of food, i.e. the calving peaks of blackbuck, jackals congregate in the National Park
from as far as 30–40 km away. A mark-recapture population estimate, together with
density estimates using distance sampling, indicated that jackal numbers within the
National Park during calving peaks were as high as 38–40 individuals with a
density of 1.01 (SE = 0.21) jackal/km2 (Chauhan and Jhala unpublished). During
blackbuck calving peaks, the jackal’s diet was found to be dominated by blackbuck
(33 %, Aiyadurai and Jhala 2006), much of which is likely to be predated hidden
calves that jackals have been observed actively hunting. Considering wolf and
jackal densities and consumption rates, it is likely that a combination of jackal and
wolf predation on calves resulted in regulating blackbuck population below the
nutritional carrying capacity. Such regulation did not occur prior to the 1987 crash
possibly because, previously, predators were persecuted and even controlled in the
region, and therefore, their role in population regulation of blackbuck would have
likely been minimal. Unfortunately, no reliable information on predator densities
exists prior to our work.

Social Groups: Wide Variation in Group Size Linked
to Habitat Structure and Resources
Blackbuck are typically found in groups. The two main exceptions are: territorial
males, not all but those that defend dispersed, solitary territories; and females with
very young calves, who appear to leave groups to nurse their calves and/or remain
in the proximity of their calves. Calves typically have very small daily ranges in
their first few weeks of life (Mungall 1978). The main kinds of grouping associations seen are all-male groups, female groups which contain females of all ages
and juvenile males and mixed-sex groups with females and males of all ages
(Mungall 1978; Ranjitsinh 1989).
Blackbuck group sizes vary tremendously both within and among populations.
For example, group sizes are reported to range from 1 to 13 in Guindy National
Fig. 6.6 a Seasonal time
activity budget and b Daily
distance moved by blackbuck
in different seasons in the
Bhal (error bars are standard
errors). Six herds (30–128
individuals) were followed
from dawn to darkness for 6
days in each season. Scan
sampling was used to measure
behaviour and the movement
path of herds was estimated
by a hand held global
positioning system unit
6 Behavioural Ecology of a Grassland Antelope, the Blackbuck … 163
Park, India , and from 1 to 423 in Velavadar (Table 6.1). Across populations, the
range of mean group size is 3.3–52.9, and the range of typical group size (the
average group size that an individual is found in) is 5.6–223.4 (Isvaran 2007). Why
do we see such variation? If grouping is beneficial why do we not see uniformly
large group sizes across all populations?
The variation among and within populations is most likely maintained by
heterogeneity in the trade-offs associated with grouping, arising from variation in
ecological conditions (Isvaran 2007). Grouping behaviour is thought to be favoured
in open plains species, such as blackbuck, primarily because of its anti-predation
benefits (Jarman 1974). Grouping may reduce the risk of predation through several
ways. Larger groups may detect a predator earlier, predators find it more difficult to
focus on and attack an individual in larger groups (confusion-effect), and the
probability of attack reduces in larger groups because of the shared risk
(dilution-effect) (Krause and Ruxton 2002). Grouping may also reduce the cost of
being vigilant, allowing individuals to take advantage of the vigilance shown by
other group members and thereby reducing their individual vigilance. The time
saved by reducing individual vigilance could be allocated to other important
activities, such as feeding. The main cost associated with grouping appears to be
competition for food, and individuals in groups may have to range farther to find
sufficient food (Terborgh and Janson 1986).
Evidence from observing individuals in groups of different sizes within a
blackbuck population supports the idea that grouping is favoured by anti-predation
benefits but constrained by competition for food. In the Velavadar population, the
probability of detecting a threat increased with group size (benefit), the time spent
vigilant was negatively associated with group size (benefit), and the time spent
feeding was positively associated with group size (benefit). However, the distance
moved by a group increased with group size (cost) (Fig. 6.7, Isvaran 2007).
Table 6.1 Variation in group size across populations of blackbuck in India
Population Mean
group size
Typical
group size
Range in
group size
Reference
Mahavir Harina Vanasthali 2–30 Srinivasulu and
Srinivasulu (1999)
Mahavir Harina Vanasthali 3 16 1–69 Isvaran (2007)
Guindy National Park 4 6 1–23 Isvaran (2007)
Nannaj 19 76 1–183 Isvaran (2007)
Point Calimere 8 26 1–83 Isvaran (2007)
Point Calimere 2–129 Nair (1976)
Rehekuri 6 15 1–31 Isvaran (2007)
Savainagar 6 13 1–40 Isvaran (2007)
Rollapadu 10 38 1–82 Isvaran (2007)
Tal Chappar 37 162 1–325 Isvaran (2007)
Velavadar 53 223 1–419 Isvaran (2007)
164 Y.V. Jhala and K. Isvaran
Ecological conditions that influence these costs and benefits can change optimal
group sizes and therefore, result in variation in group sizes. A study examining
variation in group size among populations found that habitat structure and forage
abundance are two ecological conditions that influence trade-offs associated with
grouping and thereby, favour variation in group sizes (Isvaran 2007). Group sizes
appear to increase with habitat openness, with the largest groups found in areas with
large, open habitat patches (Fig. 6.8). Habitat structure is thought to influence group
size by affecting the degree to which grouping can provide anti-predation benefits
(Brashares and Arcese 2002). Specifically, the anti-predation benefits to grouping
are thought to increase with increasing habitat openness. This is because grouping
in large open habitats may reduce predation risk by increasing the ability to detect a
predator and providing confusion and dilution effects. However, in more closed
wooded habitats grouping may not provide as strong anti-predation benefits because
individuals may not be able to monitor other individuals in the group very well and
may also hinder each other’s ability to flee. In support of the idea that anti-predation
benefits of grouping are not as strong in more closed habitats, behavioural observations show that after controlling for group size, individuals in closed habitats are
more vigilant and detect potential predators earlier. These findings suggest that they
do not rely as much on group-related anti-predation benefits as do individuals in
open habitats.
Surprisingly predator presence, which might be expected to influence
anti-predation benefits, was not found to be associated with group size variation.
Typical group size was not larger in populations that live with wolves, predators of
adult blackbuck. However, the role of other sources of predation risk, including
village dogs and humans, has not yet been assessed. Forage abundance has also
been shown to be important (Fig. 6.9) and it appears to influence group size by
modulating the cost of competing for forage. Forage abundance was positively
related to group size suggesting that where forage is low, the costs of competing for
forage outweigh any anti-predation benefits, favouring smaller group sizes (Isvaran
2007).
(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 6.7 Trade-offs involved in grouping: associations between group size and a Time spent alert,
b Time spent feeding and c Distance moved while foraging (reproduced from Isvaran 2007 with
kind permission from Springer)
6 Behavioural Ecology of a Grassland Antelope, the Blackbuck … 165
To summarise, group sizes in blackbuck appear to reflect a trade-off between
anti-predation benefits and the costs of competing for forage. Habitat structure and
resource abundance appear to modulate this trade-off. The role of other costs and
benefits involved in the trade-off, such as the cost of transmitting diseases in larger
groups, and the influence of other ecological variables, such as the risk posed by
(a)
(b)
Fig. 6.8 Association between
habitat structure a habitat
openness and b habitat
patchiness and typical group
size across blackbuck
populations (reproduced from
Isvaran 2007 with kind
permission from Springer)
Fig. 6.9 Association between
forage abundance and typical
group size across blackbuck
populations (reproduced from
Isvaran 2007 with kind
permission from Springer)
166 Y.V. Jhala and K. Isvaran
village dogs and humans, is still not known. Further, the importance of interactions
between individuals in influencing observed group sizes in natural populations is
not fully understood. Observed group sizes appear to be larger than those predicted
by the shape of the relationships between costs/benefits and group size (Fig. 6.10);
understanding the factors that influence the difference between optimal and stable
group sizes in natural populations is an exciting research area.

Forest and Stream, Volume 7 (Google Books)

For Forest and Stream.

ANTELOPE HUNTING IN KANSAS. –4–SHORT time ago I visited Kansas, and there enA joyed the free and noble sport of antelope hunting. I started with a party of three from the little town of Hutchinson, a rapidly growing and business-like place, situated on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. To get to the portion of country abounding in antelope we had to ride about fifty miles south of Hutchinson, that part of the country being rolling prairie, and covered with buffalo grass; good succulent food for the game we were in search of. W. had a busy time getting our accoutrements, together, the principal thing being a large wagon with a heavy team, in which we packed all our camping outfit, provisions, etc. Besides this, two of us had our own horses—myself and my friend Willis, who owned a magnificent Canadian full-blood, very spirited and fleet of foot. We all had our rifles (I a Winchester), and also a good fowling piece. It was a bright, beautiful morning, when, mounted and fully equipped, we started. Our first camp was made at Castleton, a place consisting of only two or three houses and one school-house. We drove our wagon to a slight elevation on the prairie, which had now become rolling,

When the owner was sought for he was found

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The apparatus in use in the Aquarium for fish culture, is of the latest and most approved pattern, and consists of a large wooden reservoir divided lengthwise by a partition, in which are placed frames covered with a woolen screen which filters the water before it passes over the eggs. The hatching troughs, five in number, are placed with their heads abutting the reservoir and are supplied by brass cocks. In the troughs are placed frames covered with wire cloth, which, with the wood work, and in fact every part that the water comes in contact with, is coated with coal tar, which not only keeps the wire from rusting, but also prevents the jelly-like sap that always appears in new pine wood when under water, from exuding, while it also is a barrier to any vegetable growth upon it.

The eggs are laid upon these wire screens, of which several layers can be used in each trough, thus increasing their capacity. Only two troughs are in use at present, and are filled with the ova of the California salmon, which were presented by Prof. S. F. Baird, the Commissioner on Fisheries for the United States. They were obtained from his salmon breeding ranch on the McCloud River, California, in charge of Mr. Stone, the Deputy Commissioner. This variety of salmon is called by Naturalist’s the Salmo Quinnat, and from its being capable of passing through water that in summer reaches a temperature of 80 degrees Farenheit on its annual migration from the sea to its fresh water breeding grounds above, and which would kill its congenor of the Atlantic coast, is more valuable than the latter for stocking all our rivers south of the Connecticut. Many millions of the eggs have been taken, hatched and distributed by Professor Baird in the past two years, but as it requires three years for this fish to reach maturity and return to the place where it was deposited, it is too soon to See the results yet, though many young have been caught during the first year that they remain in fresh water.

The eggs are obtained from the living fish by pressure of the hand upon the abdomen, and such is the delicacy of touch and knowledge of condition acquired by an expert that a fish is seldom killed by them, and Mr. Mather states that he has taken eggs from the same trout for five years in succession without injury to them. After the eggs are taken in a pan that has been merely wet, a male fish is manipulated in the same manner over the eggs, and in a few minutes after the addition of a little water the fecnn

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as I am well aware, yet it may present the interest of nov. elty for many lovers of the dog and gun, while the details of the case I shall narate bear directly upon the coyote matter to which I have just alluded. During a recent visit to Cheyenne, Wyoming, I was informed by my friend and genial host, Capt. James Gilliss, of the army, that there was a litter of “wild dogs” living on the prairie nearby, and I lost no time in visiting the spot in his company. We rode a mile or so from the town and turned into a large inclosed but uncultivated piece of ground where the dogs were. There was a house not far off, but the person occupying it had previously assured Capt., Gilliss that the dogs were not his; that they were wild dogs owned, or at least claimed, by no one. Right on the open prairie in a burrow in the ground undistinguishable from any one of the thousands of wolves’ or foxes’ burrows which dot the plains of the West, I found this interesting family living. It consisted, at the time of my visit, of the mother and three pups-there had been five in the litter, but Capt. Gilliss had already secured one of them, and meanwhile some person had abstracted another. The mother was a dark brindled cur of no particular breed-a thorough cur about as large as an ordinary pointer. The pups were not in the least like her, being black, with white in bold patches; they might have been taken for Newfoundlands some six weeks or two months old. The whole five were females. The father WaS not with them. As we approached, the dogs were all in view near their burrow, nor did they retreat into it as would have been expected. They showed, in fact, scarcely any fear, merely shying off a little as we came up, with the the slight yelp or stifled bark usual with puppies when rather surprised than frightened. During the few minutes we spent examining their surroundings the mother quietly curled herself up near the entrance of the hole and Went to sleep, or pretended to, while her progeny walked about and eyed us, or sat on their haunches, perfectly unconcerned, after the first slight commotion our approach excited. How this interesting family lived was a mystery both to my companion and myself. They looked plump and sleek, and evidently fared well; yet there was not the slightest trace of food about their establishment. The pups appeared too old to be still nursing. Of the burrow itself there is little to be said, since, as already stated, it was indistinguishable from many others belonging to wild animals of the prairie. It had apparently been worked upon to meet the requirements of such a lusty family exactly as the deserted burrow of a badger or fox often is enlarged by the coyote. Here, then, was a case pure and simple of reversion of the domestic dog to a feral or wild state. The mother was an ordinary cur, without the slightest trace of wolf line. age, and though the father was not seen, there was nothing whatever in the appearance of the pups to indicate imme. diate cross with a coyote. Obviously the mother, a domestic dog, become pregnant by another domestic dog, had forsaken human society, constructed, or at least refitted, a burrow **he ground of the prairie, and there realed her progeny the whole family finding their subsistance as any other

wild animals might do. They were “wild in this sense;

about four hands sigh, orthodox breed, snub nose, broad chest, short legs, set in like the legs of a stool, tail good size and length. I am not learned in bull dogs, so do not know, but the correct tail should be short. Anyhow, Schnapps has the correct tail for him, with just the right “PWärd curve of complete self-respect, without conceita tail furled never, save when he has unwittingly provoked his master’s displeasure—always ready for a fight—this due to his blood. Never anxious for one-this due to his edu. cation….All minor accomplishments, such as sitting up on end, with cracker on nose to jerk off and catch it, rolling over, standing upon the backs of two chairs, fetching cap, or glove, or muffler, as directed, carrying packages to and fro between. house and store. These are his A, B, C. But what interests me especially are his sporting proclivities, engrafted upon a pure fighting nature by care. ful training, leading me to believe what a sage friend ad mitingly remarked after beholding Schnapps perform, “that a man might track a dog all he knew, if he didn’t know too much.” A woodchuck or skunk, a weasel or a rabbit, a coon or a mink, he goes for them unsparingly, and their days are never long in the land if he once gets after them, unless they climb a tree. ‘ Schnapps can’t climb a tree,” so his master says. Perhaps he can’t; but, then, again, perhaps he can—human Veracity always has a flaw Somewhere. Bumble bees are his special delight; standing over a nest, he snaps up each individual member of the irate community as he issues forth. If too many 99″ at once, they effect a lodgment upon the vunerable small of his back, rolling them flat instanter, and quick back to position as door keeper. It is affirmed that he inVariably grabs them by the nape of the neck; this I cannot Vouch for, but I believe it. The report of a gun is music in his ears. Woodcock or Snipe, quail or ruffled grouse, he takes the scent, working rapidly but cautiously, obedi. ent to command, rarely flushing a bird unless urged on. Once tried to make a point on a bevy of quail, but couldn’t manage his tail—never running in when birds rise, though taking all the lively interest in their de. struction that a thoroughbred setter would. Best of all, feturning dead or wounded birds without ruffling a feather. I respect you, Schapps, but you have had Opportunities You will weigh forty pounds. You are eight years old. I trust you will live to be a hundred. Only one thing yet for you to do-should like to try you upon deer—with your five inch legs. I know you would pull down a full grown buck with any dog of your size. If a bull dog can be taught to do all this, there is certainly some chance for the regeneration of the human race. ALIQUIS.

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cupation, without paying rent, but paying the taxes,

Lake fifteen miles up; and where this ice cold tributary joins the Montmorenci is the place to fish for trout. On this stream last July we met Manasseh Smith, of Portland, Maine, whose invitation to join an excursion to headwaters We were obliged to decline. But he and two friends, Willie and George P. Halls, went up and camped for several days, and here is the result of a single day’s fishing for three rods: 20 dozen fish of average size, weighing 150 pounds in the aggregate, and 19 big fish from two pounds upwards— the largest weighing 5+ pounds! A CURIOUS LAKE.-Higgins Lake in Roscommon county, Michigan, is believed to be one of the chief breeding places for the whitefish that populate the Great Lakes. It is six or seven miles long by three in width, and in some places 400 feet deep. It occupies the highest ground on the Whole Peninsula, and is some 800 feet above the Great Lakes, there being a water shed on all sides, away from it, with only one small stream coming into it, which origin. ates in a spring at no great distance from the lake, and in the summer is often nearly dry. But the stream which flows from Higgins’s to Houghton, and named the “Cut,” is a large serpentine stream fifteen miles long and navigable for row boats both ways. Now, will some one tell where all this water comes from? The answer usually given is, there are springs in the bottom of the lake. This is undoubtedly so—the whole lake is one great fountainflowing evenly and constantly through the ages. But this does not tell us where the water originates. There is no higher land to feed it within hundreds of miles. It has been suggested that it comes from the Rocky Mountains. But in this case it must flow all the way under the Missis. sippi and the Western States, and under Lake Michigan, all of which are much lower than this lake. The bottom of Lake Michigan must be some 1,800 feet lower than the surface of Higgins. It certainly is a curious arrangement, by which water finds its course all the way under the lower strata of the Mississippi Valley and Lake Michigan, and then appears here almost on the very top of the drift of Michigan. No wonder the Indians have superstitious traditions concerning it. They never pass accross it in a Loat. They say it is a bad lake-bad for Indians, and think there is somewhere in it a whirlpool, which will draw down any foolhardy Indian who should attempt to cross it. The whitefish that breed here pass through the “Cnt,” to Houghton Lake, and thence by way of the Muskegon river to Lake Michigan. The country adjacent abounds in deer, bear, ducks, and small game. There are some log houses on its borders built for the accommodation of those who come to fish and hunt. The lake is reached by the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad 80 miles from Bay City, and thence five miles by wagon. THE BIG FISH of ALAsKA – Salmon that weigh 100 Pounds-In 1874 a committee of Icelanders, who were deputed by the Icelanders of Wisconsin, went to Alaska, to examine the country with a view to settlement there. Their report was, on the whole, very favol able. “On October 15th,” the narrative reads, “we went on shore at Fort Nicholas [near the head of Cook’s Inlet], and were kindly received by the agent in charge of the Government buildings, who also gave us useful information, he being an old resident Here salmon are plenty in the rivers and

fect clearness in this water, we would state no less an authority than Mr. Lloyd, in his correspondence with Mr. Coup, has demonstrated that this lack of clearness at first is a necessary evil, which will soon be overcome be means of the system of aeration now actively going on. When it is remembered that the whale tank alone requires a boat load of water a day, some idea can be formed of the expense and difficulties attending this single effort.

t –>—A great deal of discouraging difficulty has attended the efforts to obtain specimens of tropical fish for the aquarium. Four expeditions have been dispatched and returned with absolutely nothing. In the first instance a storm encountered off Sandy Hook, killed all these fish, a second party lost their full cargo on crossing the Gulf Stream, and the third and fourth having landed safely at the New York dock, yet failed to bring their rare treasure to the Aquarium. Another expedition to Wood’s Hole, Mass., started homeward after a month of hard labor with a rare and rich cargo, but again a storm deluged the vessel, and not one of all the lot reached its city home in safety. Again an expedition has for a long time been out on the Pacific Ocean, and it is hoped that their efforts will result in the capture of walrusses and a sea elephant. -o-o->— A fisherman living at Sodus Point, Lake Ontario, caught a shad in the lake a few days ago weighing four pounds, and has forwarded it to Seth Green along with proper affidavits, which entitle him to a reward of $25 offered by Mr. Green, for the first shad taken from the lake weighing not less than 24 pounds. – -eGooD RESULTS IN VIRGINIA.—A Lynchburg correspondent of the Nashville Hural Sun writes:After the war, the streams of Virginia were found to be almost barren of fine game fish, when her legislators conceived the idea of a “fish and game” protective law, and appointing reliable commissioners to re-supply all the larger streams and tributaries with a full stock of game and pan fism, which has been done with astonishing success. No seining, no netting, no gigging with spikes, nothing but hook and line can be used under a heavy penalty; and the result is to-day one man can catch enough for a day’s supply with hook and line in an hour. Bass (or trout as your name) have taken possession of the stream, and are now caught, weighing from one to six pounds. There are also a multitude of silver perch, which are as fine to €at but not quite so gamey; they are caught with minnowsthe largest about eight to nine pounds. Pike are also abundant, and the salmon trout (our jack) are beginning to be plenty. The fish commissioners have established three hatching houses, Blacksburg, Lexington, and Nelson C. H., which can and do hatch five to seven millions annually, young bass, salmon, and pike, and distribute them every spring in the different streams, after they are sufficiently large enough to protect themselves. Thus, you see with a trifling expense to the State, and good protective laws, every citizen is benefited, and abundant supplies of the finest fish for table use in the world are at their command. Any boy can, with hook and line here, catch in an hour or so enough for a day’s supply; and the market is full and very cheap. –TROUT CULTURE IN TENNESSEE.-John C. Ferris, of Davidson county, Tennessee, gives to the Nashville Rural Sun the results of his efforts in trout culture, which indicate that these fish can be raised as easily in portions of that State as elsewhere. IIe says:“I began my fish pool the 2d of October, 1875, and finished it in two weeks. I commenced by digging out the earth from my spring the distance of 175 feet in length, 20 feet wide, and from four to seven feet deep. The water is pure, coming as it does, from three springs that rise at the head of the pool. I then stocked the pool with trout, black and white perch. I did this on the 30th of last October, and afterwards put in a few large fish of the same varieties as I heretofore put in. I made a bed of sand and gravel for them to spawn in, and the result was wonderful. They hatched out thousands. T1…ese little ones I protect by shallow-water, out of reach of the large fish. They are thriving finely. They are fed once or twice a week on bread and boiled liver, which is very good food for all sizes. “The first I put in, a year ago, are now very near full grown. Some of them are fourteen inches long, and are plump and fine. I dont dictate to them in regard to the ways and means of hatching their young, for I think they know best what to do in the premises. All that I do is to protect the young fish from the depredations of the old ones. I find that plenty of sand and gravel and shallow waters are the things at last. After I finshed the pond and leveled off the enbankment, I put out maple trees for shade, and some grass seed on the embankment, which is now very green and finely sodded. The water is not confined in this pool by the embank. Rhent, but is held by the earth, dug below the surface. This prevents the rats and minks from burrowing into the bank and letting out the water. I found that i had plenty of water for still a larger pool, and 1 have put up another one hundred feet long, twentyeight feet wide, and four to ten feet deep, and stocked this with black Lass, and our native trout, with a few perch. This last pond, so far, is doing well. I hope to make this a profitable business, and will not allow depredators to impose on my property. Fish can be raised as easy as house-flics, and will accumulate as fast, if you will give them plenty of fresh water, and prepare for them to live in a clear, healthy stream or pool. I encourage everybody to have their own fish in the country. It only requires a labor. Both of my pools cost me $210, all told. •-The London News says uat une Gatling mitrailleuse, which, despite its murderous action, has never found much favor with the army, is, by direction of the Admiralty, now being fitted in many of the vessels that are preparing, for sea. The Alexandra and Shannon are each of them to receive two of these weapons on board, to be especially employed against marksmen posted in the rigging, or hostile marines engaged in firing through the portholes, or in repc’ing any attempt at boarding. Again, it is also intended it an al our gunboats and sloops with the same destructive implements for coast and river fighting.

<latural #istory.

A VVORD OR TWO ABOUT SOME OF OU R RAIL.

EW of our birds are as little known to the unscientific as the species which are comprised in the family of the Rallidae. Migrating altogether by night, and passing their lives among the wet meadows and marshes, they are rarely disturbed, except by the ornithological collector, and for perhaps a month in the autumn by the sportsman. Yet they are very interesting little birds, active, energetic, and above all inquisitive. At high water they may often be seen in considerable numbers running rapidly about over the floating sedge, the head well thrown back and the short, pointed tail erect and brought as far forward as possible. At such times, if the observer will but remain perfectly motionless the nimble little feeders will approach within a few feet of him, and he may note each detail of form and coloring. At the least movement, however, all the birds take the alarm and run back to the shelter of the standing grass or rushes whence they came. Their swiftness of foot is surprising, and they splash along over the floating reeds and grass in a most reckless and noisy race. That they are not badly frightened, however, is shown by the fact that if all becomes quiet once more they will emerge from their hiding-places almost immediately to inspect the object which alarmed them, and after having satisfied their curiosity, will recommence feeding in their former jaunty and unconcerned manner. While thus engaged they do not confine themselves wholly to satisfying their appetites; they are not so eager for food that they cannot find time to stop for a little chatter and gossip with one another. Indeed they often indulge in quite protracted conversations, sometimes in the shrillest and most argumentative tones, and at others in low whispered chuckles that can hardly be heard at the distance of a few feet, Often the bilds can be called from their grassy hidingplaces by an imitation of their shrill cries, and we have sometimes drawn a dozen birds to the edge of the rushes, where they would stand and peer about until some slight movement drove them back to their cover. Ordinarily they seem very much averse to using their wings, and prefer to trust for safety to their powers of running and hiding. If possible they will always run to the thick grass or “cat-tails,” which the sportsman’s boat cannot penetrate. When they have not time to reach such places of refuge they may usually be forced to fly, though they will sometimes hide in a bunch of grass, and permit the boat to be pushed directly over them. Wounded birds resort to every expedient of diving, swimming under water and hiding, and unless the situation is exceptionally favorable for the marker, they are more often lost than secured. We have known them to cling for several minutes to the grass at the bottom, and it is believed that they sometimes drown in this way, rather than expose themselves to the chance of being captured. One of their commonest modes of concealment is to sink in the water near a clump of grass, leaving only the bill exposed above water, and this small object partially concealed by the sur rounding grass is easily overlooked. By far the most abundant species in the Middle States, especially during the migrations, is the so-called sora rail (Porzana carolina); next in abundance come the salt water marsh hen (Rallus longirostris), and the Virginia rail or corncrake (R. virginianus), the latter a bird most unwilling to use its wings, and ordinarily not to be started from the ground except by the aid of a dog. The coot (Fulica americana) is rather abundant in the middle districts, and from its size and habits is perhaps more generally known than the other members of the family. The Florida gallinule (Gallinula galeata) is rare hereabouts, but we have occasionally taken it. This family contains two or three species which are quite rare, and which are eagerly sought after by ornithological collectors. The yellow-breasted rail (Porzana noveboracensis) is one of these, and the black rail (P. jamaicensis) another, the latter being regarded as one of the rarest of North American birds. The European corncrake (Crew pratensis) is only found on this continent as an accidental visitor. We were fortunate enough a few weeks since to make some observations on the habits of P. noveboracensis which deserve to be briefly noticed. While working a young puppy on snipe over a wet meadow we were somewhat annoyed by the dog’s often making what we supposed false points. We were unable to start any birds from before him, and several times called him away, supposing that he was standing on the scent of a bird that had recently been there. At length, however, the dog was seen, after standing for a moment, to reach down and grasp at something in the grass before him, and immediately afterwards a small rail rose and flew a short distance. Recognizing it as a rail and seeing that it was very different from anything which we are accustomed to see in this vicinity, we shot the specimen, and when it was retrieved were surprised and pleased to find that it was a yellow-breasted rail. Subsequent examination of the meadows proved that the species was quite common, and we did no small injury to our dog’s training by allowing him to hunt the birds after his own method. The little creatures were astonishingly tame, and would hide among the bogs on the meadow or creep into holes in the ground, from which the dog would draw them forth in his mouth. We caught one in our hands, and killed another with a dog whip. A third flew

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against the legs of one of the party, and then dropped down into the grass again. In all about a dozen specimens (of which nine were preserved) were taken in an hour of two, and no doubt had more time been at our command this number might have been materially increased. It was apparent that the species was migrating in considerable humbers, and that its supposed rarity is in a great meas. ure due to its retiring habits and to its propensity for hidlug when it can instead of flying. It is evident that a collector familiar with these habits would have no difficulty in securing a goodly number of specimens. The facts just related would seem to indicate that if collectors did but know where and at what time to look for them, some of the migrating birds now considered rare in certain localities might be found there in considerable numbers, and that as our knowledge of bird life and habits becomes more and more extended the so-called rare species will gradually be eliminated from our lists, until finally the time will come when we shall know just where and when to look for any given species. -o-o-e

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list of Gunner’s Names for Birds and Wild Fowl obtained in Plymouth Bay, Mass.:

A ulia marila. Troop fowl.

Melanetta velvetina. White-wing.

Pelionetta Perspicillata. Surfer.

Qidemia americana. Coppernose.

Somateria mollussima. Sea duck.

Bucephala americana. Whistler.

Harelda glacialis. Quandie.

Bucephala albeola. ” or dopper.

Pa/ila acuta. Sprigtail, English duck.

Spatula clypeata. Spoonbill.

# #” Sheldrake.
Olymbus torquatus. Adult –

% # “‘ loon. Pond loon; young,
Meptentrionalis. Pegging awl or pegmo

Podiceps. All va’ £ nk

Graculus carbo. Shag.

Mergulus alle. Pine knet.

Sterna. All varieties. Mackerel gulls.

Chroncocephalus philadelphia. Square-tail gull.

£issa tridactylus. , Square-tail, also bay.

# #. £ ull. … argentatus. Adult, white;

Botaurus lentiginoeus’ £” ng, gray gull.

Charadrius, virgintcus. Squealer.

Aquatarola helvet ca. Bottle head.

Aegialitts melodus. Beach bird.

Haematopus palliatus.” Brant bird. Limosa: Humility.

strepsilas interpres. Chicaric.

Tranga canutus. Adult, red- – –
T. apuna. Stile. * breast; young, gray-back.
Z. Bonapartei. White-tailed stile.
T. maculata, Marsh plover.
£reunetes petrificatus. Oxeye.
Calidris arenaria. Skinner.
Gambetta melanoleuca. Large cucu.
G. flavipes. Small cucu.
Aumenius longirostris. Sickle bill.
N. borealis. Doe Lird.
Al/acrorhamph is griseus. Driver.

We print above an interesting “List of Gunner’s Names,” received from Mr. F. C. Browne, of Massachusetts. The list is valuable as showing, by comparison with others previously published, the different names given by gunners at the various localities along the coast, to the same bird. It is interesting to see how the mind in many cases seizes the striking point about the bird and names it from that salient feature. For example, who that has ever seen the full plumaged scoter (Ordemia americana in Mr. Browne’s list) could fail to see the applicability of the name “copper. nose”? The adult male of the so-called coot or whitewing (Melanetta velvetina) is on the Connecticut coast called “snuff-taker,” another striking name, given no doubt in allusion to the bright red of the bill near the nostril.

Mr. Rrowne informs us that this list “was made, and the birds identified, during a season’s residence at Clark’s Island, of Pilgrim fame, in the harbor of Plymouth, Mass., in 1852.”

sheep loon.

—-SINGULAR INCIDENT.—The following incident, related by a Brooklyn correspondent is worth mention:“In reading over one of the recent numbers of the above named paper I saw an article in which it spoke of a partridge flying against a car window and breaking it, and then being found on the floor of the car, stunned. A similar occurance came to my notice about two months ago, when a partridge flew against a window of the Riverview Military Academy, at Poughkeepsie, breaking the window, then flying across a large room and breaking through a window on the opposite side, falling on the piazza outside of the window, where it was found somewhat stunned, but not dead. These window glasses were not so thick as those of a car window. W. STANTON.

A TRAP FoR SKUNKs.—A barrel balanced on the bilge over a pole, about seven inches high, with open end brought down to the ground, and bait put in bottom. The skunk will walk into the open end, and when he gets past the middle the barrel will right upon the bottom, leaving the skunk a prisoner. This has often been tried successfully.–Canada Farmer.

—It is proposed that Oregon take for its motto, Possumus, “We can,” as it is the greatest State in the world for canned salmon.—Ev.

—Psychological Senior—“There is no such thing as motion. It is your inner consciousness, the mind, the soul, that weighs.”

—A telescopic gun-sight has been introduced in English artillery practice.

as well think herself on land and have done with it. But the night couldn’t pass in perfect quietness, for when the tide had fallen so much that we careened on to the bilge, I was aroused to explain what it was that was tipping us over backwards, and how her feet had got so much higher than her head. Now, I don’t know whether she really wanted that informution as much as her alarm would have indicated, but her fears were soon sufficiently calmed to suggest that we try and see if the watermelon was ripe while the children were asleep. It was ripe, of course, and such a hole was made in it, that when it was produced at breakfast the children thought some one had been on board during the night, and my youngest sailor thought that in future we had better anchor in deep water, so that visitors wouldn’t find it so handy to come on board. [To be continued.]

*For Forest and Straem. MEMORIES OF ALEXANDRIA BAY.

** A H, this is the kind of a ‘cordial for a human # to have,” said my excursion friend, as he stoo hatless and with expanded chest on the dustless balcony of the Thousand Island House, taking in pientiful draughts of pine-scented air between the vowels which compose this agreeable sentence! “This,” continued he, stretching out his arms as though taking a fresh hold on life, “is more invigorating than the salt breezes of Houlgate or Etretat.” My friend was an appreciative excursionist. He had dined, sometime during the early heat of summer, across the ocean, at the Champs Elysees, under a vine-covered arbor, and called it “tolerable,” although he found that even well trained ivies failed not to send down their usual detachment of flies and spiders. Better still, he had dined in the beautiful gardens of the Bois de Bologne, within hearing of a soft-sounding waterfall and in sight of the Long Champs race course. He visited many charming resorts, both fashionable and unfashionable on the French coast. He had wandered by the sea for hours, and watched dreamily, while the ocean fanned him, the great black ships and the smaller boats with white sails glide in and out like the spirits of good and evil which contend for the mastery of the world. As the chariot of the Sun rolled down behind the heaving billows, the carriages of men, supplemented with high stepping Arabian steeds, rolled up to these lovely gardens. Expanded nostrils, flashing harness and scarlet ribbons were their accessories, and they in turn were the heralds of infinite witcheries to come, in the train of music, dancing and moonlight, and of brilliant women with silken dresses, fashioned, one would imagine, to resemble Patc.”–>yuh … folded, trailing wings. And, “still

was too fine to be eaten. The Captain was dispatched to beg or buy from the “camp meeting” larder. A moderate allowance of pork and dough nuts was the result; but these dainties flanked with the little black bass and spiced with an Alexandrian appetite, made it a finer dinner then could be bought at the Fifth Avenue Hotel. Everybody knows that to catch a mascalonge is to put an end to all fishing for one day at least, so we wandered the nooks and knolls of the island for a while and then with our precious freight safely wrapped up in an army blanket we rowed back to the Bay. As we came near the landing and saw a group of young men and women and nut brown sailors, and a pair of pretty city girls in fishing hats with pink ribbons, which as yet had seen but slight service, I confess that I felt a pang of jealousy and imagined that my friend’s silence was the silence of “awful pride.” As we made the last stroke an uncommon burst of sunset splendor, flooded the wooded islands, the lovely river, and the tall tower, and new dyed the pink ribbons and bronze faces. My friend stepped on shore, but he forgot the big mascalonge in the army blanket and didn’t seem to mind the bright eyes that glanced out from under the freshly trimmed hat. I took up the treasure as carefutly as though it had been a girl baby and laid it down in the midst of an £ crowd. When the owner was sought for he was foun sitting in the sun-gilt tower, and had caught a “splendid View.” –A/or Forest and Stream.

ANTELOPE HUNTING IN HANSAS.

SHORT time ago I visited Kansas, and there enjoyed the free and noble sport of antelope hunting. I started with a party of three from the little town of Hutchinson, a rapidly growing and business-like place, situated on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. To get to the portion of country abounding in antelope we had to ride about fifty miles south of Hutchinson, that part of the country being rolling prairie, and covered with buffalo grass; £ succulent food for the game we were in search of. e had a busy time getting our accoutrements, together, the principal thing being a large wagon with a heavy team, in which we packed all our camping outfit, provisions, etc. Besides this, two of us had our own horses—myself and my friend Willis, who owned a magnificent Canadian full-blood, very spirited and fleet of foot. We all had our rifles (I a Winchester), and also a good fowling piece. It was a bright, beautiful morning, when, mounted and fully equipped, we started. Our first camp was made at Castleton, a place consisting of only two or three houses and one school-house. We drove our wagon to a slight

ally revert to the wild state. The main fact is not novel, as I am well aware, yet it may present the interest of nov. elty for many lovers of the dog and gun, while the details of the case I shall narate bear directly upon the coyote matter to which I have just alluded. During a recent visit to Cheyenne, Wyoming, I was informed by my friend and genial host, Capt. James Gilliss, of the army, that there was a litter of “wild dogs” living on the prairie nearby, and I lost no time in visiting the spot in his company. We rode a mile or so from the town and turned into a large inclosed but uncultivated piece of ground where the dogs were. There was a house not far off, but the person occupying it had previously assured Capt. Gilliss that the dogs were not his; that they were wild dogs owned, or at least claimed, by no one. Right on the open prairie in a burrow in the ground undistinguishable from any one of the thousands of wolves’ or foxes’ burrows which dot the plains of the west, I found this interesting family living. It consisted, at the time of my visit, of the mother and three pups-there had been five in the litter, but Capt. Gilliss had already secured one of them, and meanwhile some person had abstracted another. The mother was a dark brindled cur of no particular breed-a thorough cur about as large as an ordinary pointer. The pups were not in the least like her, being black, with white in bold patches; they might have been taken for Newfoundlands some six weeks or two months old. The whole five were females. The father WaS not with them. As we approached, the dogs were all in view near their burrow, nor did they retreat into it as Would have been expected. They showed, in fact, scarcely any fear, merely shying off a little as we came up, with the the slight yelp or stifled bark usual with puppies when rather surprised than frightened. During the few minutes we spent examining their surroundings the mother quietly curled herself up near the entrance of the hole and went to sleep, or pretended to, while her progeny walked about and eyed us, or sat on their haunches, perfectly unconcerned, after the first slight commotion our approach excited. How this interesting family lived was a mystery both to my companion and myself. They looked plump and sleek, and evidently fared well; yet there was not the slightest trace of food about their establishment. The pups appeared too old to be still nursing. Of the burrow itself there is little to be said, since, as already stated, it was indistinguishable from many others belonging to wild animals of the prairie. It had apparently been worked upon to meet the requirements of such a lusty family exactly as the deserted burrow of a badger or fox often is enlarged by the coyote. Here, then, was a case pure and simple of reversion of the domestic dog to a feral or wild state. The mother was an ordinary cur, without the slightest trace of wolf line. age, and though the father was not seen, there was nothing whatever in the appearance of the pups to indicate imme. diate cross with a coyote. Obviously the mother, a domestic dog, become pregnant by another domestic dog, had forsaken human society, constructed, or at least refitted, a burrow in the ground of the prairie, and there realed her progeny, the whole family finding their subsistance as any other wild animals might do. They were “wild” in this sense;

elevation on the prairie, which had now become rolling,

-E

thoroughly enjoyed ourselves, not only killing antelope,

but ducks and geese of various kinds which fly from slough

to slough o’er the beautiful and rolling pranies of Kansas. – JoHN L. PETRIE.

<fish Qulture.

FISH CULTURE AT THE AQUARIUM.

The apparatus in use in the Aquarium for fish culture, is of the latest and most approved pattern, and consists of a large wooden reservoir divided lengthwise by a partition, in which are placed frames covered with a woolen screen which filters the water before it passes over the eggs. The hatching troughs, five in number, are placed with their heads abutting the reservoir and are supplied by brass cocks. In the troughs are placed frames covered with wire cloth, which, with the wood work, and in fact every part that the water comes in contact with, is coated with coal tar, which not only keeps the wire from rusting, but also prevents the jelly-like sap that always appears in new pine wood when under water, from exuding, while it also is a barrier to any vegetable growth upon it. The eggs are laid upon these wire screens, of which several layers can be used in each trough, thus increasing their capacity. Only two troughs are in use at present, and are filled with the ova of the California salmon, which were presented by Prof. S. F. Baird, the Commissioner on Fisheries for the United States. They were obtained from his salmon breeding ranch on the McCloud River, California, in charge of Mr. Stone, the Deputy Commissioner. This variety of salmon is called by Naturalist’s the Salmo Quinnat, and from its being capable of passing through water that in summer reaches a temperature of 80 degrees Farenheit on its annual migration from the sea to its fresh water breeding grounds above, and which would kill its congenor of the Atlantic coast, is more valuable than the latter for stocking all our rivers south of the Connecticut. Many millions of the eggs have been taken, hatched and distributed by Professor Baird in the past two years, but as it requires three years for this fish to reach maturity and return to the place where it was deposited, it is too soon to see the results yet, though many young have been caught during the first year that they remain in fresh water. The eggs are obtained from the living fish by pressure of the hand upon the abdomen, and such is the delicacy of touch and knowledge of condition acquired by an expert that a fish is seldom killed by them, and Mr. Mather states that he has taken eggs from the same trout for five years in succession without injury to them. After the eggs are taken in a pan that has been merely wet, a male fish is manipulated in the same manner over the eggs, and in a few minutes after the addition of a little water, the fecun

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about four hands “gh, orthodox breed, snub nose, broad chest, short legs, set in like the legs of a stool, tail good size and length. I am not learned in bull dogs, so do not know, but the correct tail should be short. Anyhow, Schnapps has the correct tail for him, with just the right upward curve of complete self-respect, without conceita tail furled ”Ver, save when he has unwittingly provoked his master’s displeasure—always ready for a fight—this due to his blood. Never anxious for one-this due to his edu. cation… All minor accomplishments, such as sitting up on end, with Cracker on nose to jerk off and catch it, rolling over, standing upon the backs of two chairs, fetching cap, or glove, or muffler, as directed, carrying packages to and fro between. house and store. These are his A, B, C. But what interests me especially are his sporting proclivities, engrafted upon a pure fighting nature by care. ful training, leading me to beiieve what : Sage friend ad miringly remarked after beholding Schnapps perform, “that a man might track a dog all he knew, if he didn’t know too much.” A woodchuck or skunk, a weasel or a rabbit, a coon or a mink, he goes for them unsparingly, and their days are never long in the land if he once gets after them, unless they climb a tree. “ Schnapps can’t climb a tree,” so his master says. Perhaps he can’t; but, then, again, perhaps he can—human Veracity always has a flaw somewhere. Bumble bees are his special delight; standing 9’er a nest, he snaps up each individual member of the irate community as he issues forth. If too many * * *nce, they effect a lodgment upon the vulnerable small of his back, rolling them flat instanter, and quick back to position as door keeper. It is affirmed that he in: variably grabs them by the nape of the neck; this I cannot vouch for, but I believe it. The report of a gun is music in his ears. Woodcock or snipe, quail or ruffled grouse, he takes the scent, working rapidly but cautiously, obedi. £nt to command, rarely flushing a bird unless urged on. Once tried to make a point on a bevy of quail, but couldn’t manage his tail—never running in when birds rise, though taking all the lively interest in their de struction that a thoroughbred setter would. Best of all, returning dead or wounded birds without ruffling a feather. I respect you, Schapps, but you have had opportunities You will weigh forty pounds. You are eight years old. I trust you will live to be a hundred. Only one thing yet for you to do-should like to try you upon deer—with your five inch legs. I know you would pull down a full grown buck with any dog of your size. “If a bull dog can be taught to do all this, there is certainly some chance for the regeneration of the human race. ALIQUIs.

-eNO-TAILED DOGS. Boston, Oct. 30th, 1876.

EDITOR FOREST AND STREAM:Noticing your answer to “Jaco,” Turner Junction, Ill., in last issue, let me add that one casc in my observation occurred where one male pup in a litter of five Scotch terriers, the result of breeding in-and-in two generations, had at birth tail and ears seemingly cut short after the manner of its ancestors-an incident of interest as bearing on the question of transmitted accidental qualities. The mere amputation of any member while still in a foetal condition being a very common-place occurrence in human and other animal life as you very truly say. SAWBones. “—The fact that there are 2,000 or more deserted farms in New Hampshire has attracted the attention of the Board of Agriculture of that State, and it is proposed to make an effort …to reclaim them by the appointment of a board of commissioners, who shall fix the price of the land to be paid by the purchaser after two or three years of oc. cupation, without paying rent, but paying the taxes,

the Montmorenci is the place to fish for trout. on this stream last July we met Manasseh Smith, of Portland, Maine, whose invitation to join an excursion to headwaters We were obliged to decline. But he and two friends, Willie and George P. Halls, went up and camped for several days, and here is the result of a single day’s fishing for three rods: 20 dozen fish of average size, weighing 150 pounds in the aggregate, and 19 big fish from two pounds upwards– the largest weighing 5 pounds! A CURIOUs LAKE.—Higgins Lake in Roscommon county, Michigan, is believed to be one of the chief breeding places for the whitefish that populate the Great Lakes. It is six or seven miles long by three in width, and in some places 400 feet deep. It occupies the highest ground on the whole Peninsula, and is some 800 feet above the Great Lakes, there being a water shed on all sides, away from it, with only one small stream coming into it, which origin. ates in a spring at no great distance from the lake, and in the summer is often nearly dry. But the stream which flows from Higgins’s to Houghton, and named the “Cut,” is a large serpentine stream fifteen miles long and navigable for row boats both ways. Now, will some one tell where all this water comes from? The answer usually given is, there are springs in the bottom of the lake. This is undoubtedly so—the whole lake is one great fountainflowing evenly and constantly through the ages. But this does not tell us where the water originates. There is no higher land to feed it within hundreds of miles. It has been suggested that it comes from the Rocky Mountains. But in this case it must flow all the way under the Mississippi and the Western States, and under Lake Michigan, all of which are much lower than this lake. The bottom of Lake Michigan must be some 1,800 feet lower than the surface of Higgins. It certainly is a curious arrangement, by which water finds its course all the way under the lower strata of the Mississippi Valley and Lake Michigan, and then appears here almost on the very top of the drift of Michigan. No wonder the Indians have superstitious traditions concerning it. They never pass accross it in a Loat. They say it is a bad lake—bad for Indians, and think there is somewhere in it a whirlpool, which will draw down any foolhardy Indian who should attempt to cross it. The whitefish that breed here pass through the “Cnt,” to Houghton Lake, and thence by way of the Muskegon river to Lake Michigan. The country adjacent abounds in deer, bear, ducks, and small game. There are some log houses on its borders built for the accommodation of those who come to fish and hunt. The lake is reached by the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad 80 miles from Bay City, and thence five miles by wagon. THE BIG Fish of ALAskA – Salmon that weigh 100 Pounds.-In 1874 a committee of Icelanders, who were deputed by the Icelanders of Wisconsin, went to Alaska, to examine the country with a view to settlement there. Their report was, on the whole, very favorable. “On October 15th,” the narrative reads, “we went on shore at Fort Nicholas [near the head of Cook’s Inlet], and were kindly received by the agent in charge of the Government buildings, who also gave us useful information, he being an old resident Here salmon are plenty in the rivers and

fect clearness in this water, we would state no less an authority than Mr. Lloyd, in his correspondence with Mr. Coup, has demonstrated that this lack of clearness at first is a necessary evil, which will soon be overcome be means of the system of aeration now actively going on. When it is remembered that the whale tank alone requires a boat load of water a day, some idea can be formed of the expense and difficulties attending this single effort.

t —>-A great deal of discouraging difficulty has attended the efforts to obtain specimens of tropical fish for the aquarium. Four expeditions have been dispatched and returned with absolutely nothing. In the first instance a storm encountered off Sandy Hook, killed all these fish, a second party lost their full cargo on crossing the Gulf Stream, and the third and fourth having landed safely at the New York dock, yet failed to bring their rare treasure to the Aquarium. Another expedition to Wood’s Hole, Mass., started homeward after a month of hard labor with a rare and rich cargo, but again a storm deluged the vessel, and not one of all the lot reached its city home in safety. Again an expedition has for a long time been out on the Pacific Ocean, and it is hoped that their efforts will result in the capture of walrusses and a sea elephant. -o-o->— A fisherman living at Sodus Point, Lake Ontario, caught a shad in the lake a few days ago weighing four pounds, and has forwarded it to Seth Green along with proper affidavits, which entitle him to a reward of $25 offered by Mr. Green, for the first shad taken from the lake weighing not less than 24 pounds. – -eGooD RESULTS IN VIRGINIA.—A Lynchburg correspondent of the Nashville Rural Sun writes:After the war, the streams of Virginia were found to be almost barren of fine game fish, when her legislators conceived the idea of a “fish and game” protective law, and appointing reliable commissioners to re-supply all the larger streams and tributaries with a full stock of game and pan fish, which has been done with astonishing success. No seining, no nelling, no gigging with spikes, nothing but hook and line can be used under a heavy penalty; and the result is to-day one man can catch enough for a day’s supply with hook and line in an hour. Bass (or trout as “by thkūf) b/txe, taken possession of the stream, and are reel, and it should be made of a size sufficient (6’8āfty2u. yards of line without being perfectly full. Van Hoeff is the best reel maker in the city. He caps the works, so as to protect them from salt water and consequent rust, while they run as regularly, and are as finely-balanced in their running works, as is a first class Geneva watch.” “But for bass tackle, to fish the waters about the eity of New York, a reel to carry 400 feet of fine linen bass line will answer, and be preferable, except for Hell Gate trolling, to the large reels used at Cuttyhunk, West Island, and Newport. And while menhaden is the best bait to angle with in the ocean surf, shedder crab is the best bait for still fishing from a boat on our bays and estuaries, and the live squid-cuttle fish—is the best bait for trolling; and a rig for trolling includes a baiting needle and the shaped sinker, illustrated in the book on Fishing in American Waters.’”

#-A Newfoundland correspondent estimates that 25 fishing vessels have been lost on the Labrador coast the past season. Loss on fish 12,000 quintals, or more.

LOBSTERS.-There is considerable inquiry at the eastern ports for lobsters, and the supply is not equal to the demand. A large order was received at Gloucester, on Wednesday last, direct from New York, but only half of the quantity oldered could be forwarded, as there is at present a scarcity of these fish. The quality, however, is better than it has been for years, thanks to the law which prohibits the catchiug of the smaller sizes.

VIRGINIA-Leesbuag, Nov. 1st–Bass fishing good; water clear; weather pleasant; quail shooting on cool days fine; 86 birds to a couple of guns in a few hours. T. W.

MOVEMENTS OF THE FISHING FLEET.—The Bank fish. ermen are returning from their fall trips, the number of arrivals the past week being 26, a larger number than for any week since July. The Georges fleet is small, the number of arrivals for the week being 5. There have also been 3 arrivals from the Bay St. Lawrence, making the whole number of fishing arrivals for the week 34. The receipts for the week have been about 800,000 pounds. Bank codfish, 60,000 pounds. Georges cod, 275,000 pounds of halibut, 800 barrels mackerel and 100,000 pounds off shore fish.-Ann Advertiser, Nov. 8d.

The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America (Google Books)

Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and …
https://books.google.com.ph › books

Joseph A. Chapman, ‎George A. Feldhamer – 1982 – ‎Snippet view
… Rice 1981) (Brittell 1978) (Brittell 1979) Sealander 1978) VI Pinnipedia and Sirenia Keith Ronald Seals Jane Selley Phocidae, … Predators. Bobcats are not commonly preyed upon. Kittens may be taken by foxes, owls, and adult male bobcats … Feral dogs were reported to kill lynxes in Newfoundland (Saunders 1961).

Vertebrate pest control and management materials: … – Page 292
https://books.google.com.ph › books

ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides – 1979 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Several sheep were killed by predators near Delta Junction in 1978, and the owner felt feral dogs were probably involved. One report of feral dogs attacking a yearling moose (Alces alces) was received. The observer described six to ten dogs, …

Wild reindeer – Page 148
https://books.google.com.ph › books

Evgeniĭ Evgenʹevich Syroechkovskiĭ, ‎David R. Klein – 1995 – ‎Snippet view
There are no eye-witness accounts of the golden eagle attacking reindeer calves [159]. Feral dogs occupy a special position as an enemy of wild reindeer. Concrete data are available only for the Lapland sanctuary. Formerly, feral dogs were …

Subpart B—Feral Animals

30.11 Control of feral animals.

30.12 Disposition of feral animals.

Authority: Sec. 2, 33 Stat. 614, as amended, sec. 5, 43 Stat. 651, sec. 5, 45 Stat. 449, sec. 10, 45 Stat. 1224, sec. 4, 48 Stat. 402, as amended, sec. 2, 48 Stat. 1270; 5 U.S.C. 301, 16 U.S.C. 685, 725, 690d, 715i, 664, 43 U.S.C. 315a; sec. 2, 80 Stat. 926; 16 U.S.C. 668bb.

Subpart A—Range Animals

§ 30.1 Surplus range animals.

Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle, determined to be surplus to the needs of the conservation program may be planned and scheduled for disposal.

[38 FR 16356, June 22, 1973]

§ 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals.

Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled disposal program periods, except in the event of emergency conditions affecting the animals or their range. Surplus range animals may be disposed of, subject to State and Federal health laws and regulations, by donation to public agencies or institutions that are entirely tax supported, or charitable institutions, for specific purposes, or sold on the open market.

[38 FR 16356, June 22, 1973]

Subpart B—Feral Animals

§ 30.11 Control of feral animals.

(a) Feral animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, reindeer, dogs, and cats, without ownership that have reverted to the wild from a domestic state may be taken by authorized Federal or State personnel or by private persons operating under permit in accordance with applicable provisions of Federal or State law or regulation.

[31 FR 16027, Dec. 15, 1966]

§30.12 Disposition of feral animals.

Feral animals taken on wildlife refuge areas may be disposed of by sale on the open market, gift or loan to public or private institutions for specific purposes, and as otherwise provided in section 401 of the act of June 15, 1935 (49 Stat. 383, 16 U.S.C. 715s).

 

 

Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly, Volume 2 (Google Books)

SOUTHERN SCENES,

SHOOTING WILD HOGS–A NEGRO CABIN ON THE EDISTO RIVER,

WHILE the “peculiar institution ” was yet a feature of Southern life, and the great plantations were still unvexed by rumors of war or edicts of emancipation, the plantation darkeys were much given to hunting, in season and out of season, and the freedmen of to-day are no less ardent votaries of sport. It is true that for lack of proper weapons the slave-huntsmen were unable to attack large game, but they were untiring in their pursuit of “de ‘possum and de coon,” and, aided by packs of mongrel curs, succeeded in bagging great numbers of these “varmints.” Since the war they are no longer restricted from possessing firearms, and to find a Southern darkey without a shooting-iron of some sort is rare indeed. Consequently they are no longer confined to coon and ‘possum hunting, although they have by no means abandoned those sports. In many parts of the South the necessity, during the civil war, of permitting live stock to run at large, resulted in the formation of large herds of wild hogs, who became as savage and unapproachable as the fiercest boars of Europe or India. In some cases it becomes absolutely necessary to thin them out, as these animals are extremely destructive to growing crops, and the negroes are not slow to avail themselves of the opportunity. Armed with guns of every conceivable pattern, a part of their number carrying long poles, and accompanied by a score or two of yelping curs, the negro hunters proceed to beat up the game, shouting, whooping, and laughing, until one might suppose that all the game in the country would be frightened away by the hullabaloo. They soon start the pigs, however, and then ensues a scene of great excitement, noise, and confusion, generally resulting, after the expenditure of a vast amount of powder, and no end of powerful language, in the capture of one or two porkers. Then the game is borne home in triumph to a rude, lowroofed log-cabin, like that seen in our picture, where a grand feast “upon hog and hominy” is quickly organized. Both pictures are from sketches made on the Upper Edisto River, in South Carolina, a region noted in former times for its fine plantations, but now almost deserted by the whites and left to the occupancy of negro squatters, who eke out their scanty store of food-crops by hunting and fishing. Scenes such as these we have depicted are of everyday occurrence, and the traveler whose pleasure or business brings him among these people will find their peculiarities a study at once amusing and interesting.