In Hellenic times the deity who was most closely associated
with the dog was Hecate, 10 of Thrace. Though the Thracians of
historical times were probably Aryans, the early inhabitants of
the land were Pelasgians. 11 They worshipped the characteristic
earth-deity of the Pelasgians, and profoundly influenced the re-
ligion of the invaders. 12 Hecate was markedly chthonic, 13 and
belonged undoubtedly to an ancient religious stratum. 14 In art
and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped
or as accompanied by a dog. 15 Her approach was heralded by the
howling of a dog. 16 The dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal,
and was often eaten in solemn sacrament. 17

Plutarch uses two words which give the dominant characteristics

68 The Lupercalia

of Hecate: x^ovLa and dTrorpoTrcua; 18 that is, she was a goddess
of the underworld and of purification. At the crossroads, which
were regularly sacred to gods of the lower regions, men sought
communication with Hecate. 18 She had the souls of the dead under
her especial charge, 19 and, as a natural result, was invoked by all
who worked in magic and witchcraft. 20 Hecate’s lustral power
became operative chiefly through the sacrifice of a dog, which,
Plutarch says, nearly all the Greeks employed as a means of puri-
fication. 18 Thus, in honor of Hecate, slain puppies were carried
through a city, and were used to strike anyone who was in need
of cleansing. 21 Among the Boeotians and the Macedonians a dog
was cut asunder, and persons walked between the parts. 22

Hecate was constantly identified by the Greeks with Artemis, 23
and was frequently grouped with Demeter and with other primi-
tive powers of vegetation, such as Pan, Dionysus, Cybele, and
Priapus. As goddess of the underworld, she was naturally asso-
ciated with, or even identified with, Hades and Persephone. 24 The
goddesses of women, rcreruAXts, and EtXioma, were regarded as
very similar to Hecate, and received a dog in sacrifice. 25 As a
deity of purification, Hecate came to be honored in the Orphic
Hymns beyond all other gods. 26 Ultimately the cult of Hecate
spread throughout the Greek world. 27 Mysterious and alien goddess
that she was, Hecate appealed to the imagination as one who could
save men from every form of evil.

It was a natural sequence of the cult of Hecate, or, perhaps, an
independent development of the same idea, that the dog became
the animal in whose form the powers of the underworld especially
appeared. In ancient times the dead were thought by the Greeks
to visit the earth in the form of a serpent, but later they were
believed to assume the shape of a dog as well. 28 The daemon of
Pestilence too, according to a legend, once disguised himself as
an old beggar; but when the beggar had been stoned to death,
it was a Molossian hound that lay in his place. 29 The same idea
seems the basis of a celebration at Argos, in which on a certain
day in the hot season men killed all the dogs that they met. 30 The
fact that every dog that was seen was killed indicates that they
were not lustral offerings, but the personification of pestilence.

The dog was prominent in the cult of Aesculapius. Certain
legends tell that when a babe he was rescued and suckled by a

The Dog as a Sacred Animal in Greece 69

dog. 31 Statues and coins show him accompanied by a dog. 32 At
the temples of Aesculapius, dogs were in attendance, and were
believed to heal the sick by licking them with their tongues. 33 In
Athens figurines of dogs were brought as votive offerings to the
Asklepeium, 34 and a dog was said to have protected the treasures
there from theft. 35

The worship of Aesculapius originated in Thessaly, which at a
very early date was overrun by bands from Thrace. 36 The oldest
sites of the cult were in the original seats of the Lapiths, the Phlegyae,
and the Minyae, 37 who were all pre-Aryans. 38 Aesculapius was an
earth-deity, as is shown by his oracular power, his healing art, and
the cult-practices at his shrines. 39 In his cult, the power of the dog
to ward off. evil became limited to freeing people from disease.

In a few sporadic instances, other deities had the dog as a sacred
animal. To the Thracian Ares dogs were sacrificed by the Carians
and the Spartans. 40 In both these places the cult was a Thracian
product. Caria was at one time overrun by Phrygians from Thrace,
and the cult of Hecate was deep-rooted there. 41 Sparta seems to
have gained the Ares cult from Boeotia, to which it was carried
from Thrace in pre-Hellenic times. 42

The Thracian cult of the dog spread even to Sicily. Its chief
center there was in the north-western corner of the island, which,
shortly after the fall of Troy, it seems, was colonized by the Ely-
mians, who claimed descent from either the Trojans or the Phrygians.
Dr. Freeman, after an acute analysis of the evidence about the
origin of this people and of the modern theories concerning them,
concludes that they probably came from Western Asia Minor,
and that they were non-Hellenic, but had evidently been in early
days closely connected with Hellas. 43 All this seems to class the
Elymians as one of the Pelasgian peoples of Asia Minor.

Legend explained the Elymian settlements in Sicily by the
story that when Troy, in the days of Laomedon, was harried by a
sea monster, a certain Trojan sought to save his daughters from
possible sacrifice to the monster by sending them to Sicily. When
they arrived there they established, in gratitude, a temple on Mount
Eryx to Aphrodite. This Aphrodite is called by Lycophron “the
Zerynthian Mother.” 44 Tzetzes explains that she was the Aphrodite
of Thrace and Zerynthus, and that she had a sacred cave on Zeryn-
thus. 45 Inasmuch as this island was famous as a seat of Hecate’s

yo The Lupercalia

worship, Dr. Freeman believes that the Zerynthian Aphrodite
was merely another name for Hecate. 46 At any rate, the dog was
sacred to Aphrodite of Eryx, for a coin issued by that city shows
Aphrodite on one side and a hound on the other. 47

The veneration which the Elymians had for the dog appears
also in the legend that one of the exiled maidens, named Segesta,
won the love of the Sicilian river-god Crimisus, and that he visited
her in the form of a dog. By him she became the mother of Agestes,
who founded the cities of Segesta, Eryx, and Entella. 48 This
legend figured prominently on the coins of the Elymians. Of
twenty-five coins of Segesta which are listed in the Hunterian
collection, all except two represent the head of Segesta on one
side and a dog on the other. 49 Sometimes the dog accpmpanies a
youthful hunter. Both dog and hunter are interpreted as repre-
sentations of the river Crimisus. 49 Other symbols that often appear
on the coins are a wheel, a grain-plant, or a head of grain. The
latter two seem to indicate that in Sicily the dog’s apotropaic
power was enlisted in the protection of the crops. 50

The cult of the dog early appeared in the eastern part of Sicily
as well as in the western. Coins of Syracuse, some of which were
issued before 500 B. C., represent a dog. 51 One of them bears on
one side the head of Apollo. This may easily be an echo of the
Cretan association of the dog with Apollo, 52 since Syracuse had
close connections with Crete, even in Minoan days- 53 At the foot
of Mount Etna was the shrine of Adranos, where one thousand
dogs were kept. They were the guardians of the temple, guiding
and protecting righteous pilgrims, but driving off or killing the
wicked. 54 Adranos is interpreted by Dr. Freeman as an ancient
fire-god of the Siculi, and a natural product of the volcanic moun-
tain. 55 There is nothing to indicate that Adranos was ever thought
of as dog-shaped, nor was a dog sacrificed to him. The dog had,
therefore, a less intimate place in his cult than in those of the
Elymian deities, and was probably an Aegean importation which
was grafted upon the cult of the Siculian god. By the days of
Timoleon, Adranos was worshipped through all Sicily; accord-
ingly, after the Mamertines overran North-Eastern Sicily, they fre-
quently represented on their coins the head of Adranos and a dog. 56

The cult of the dog was honored among the Pelasgians of Crete
and of Thrace, but had its chief development in the latter place.

The Dog as a Sacred Animal in Greece 71

From there is spread in pre-Hellenic days through Thessaly and
Boeotia, and ultimately through the whole Greek peninsula. Asia
Minor, too, was subjected to repeated waves of Thracian migration,
so that there the cult of the dog came to be highly venerated. The
Elymians, who came from Asia Minor, carried with them to Sicily
the sacred dog, and established his worship in their new home. The
dog was accepted as a sacrificial victim, Plutarch tells us, 57 by none
of the Olympian gods. To the Greeks the dog always remained
an animal of uncanny power, which, when offered in sacrifice,
had especial potency to purify and to ward off every form of evil.


1. Scr. Min., 208.

2. Whether this was due to the Minoan reverence of the dog as a sacred animal,
or to the later spread of Hecate’s cult to Crete, is immaterial for our purpose.

3. Stephanus, av&wvia.; Schol. ad Horn., Odyss., 19. 176; Stoll, in Roscher,
ii, 1674.

4. Head, Historia Nummorum, 391-2.

5. Gruppe, 1446.

6. Head, 402.

7. Suidas, TeXAUfftrcis.

8. Anton. Lib., 36.

9. Eratosth., 2.

10. The association of the dog with Hecate may have been due, wholly or in
part, to the influence of Persia, where the dead were often left to be devoured
by dogs (Herod., I. 140), and were believed to be guided to the lower world by
dogs (Liebrecht, 23; Gruppe, 407 n. i).

11. Wace and Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly, 253; d’Arbois, Les premiers
habitants de I’ Europe, i, 90-7; Kretschmer, 173; Pick, 99; Farnell, ii, 507.
L. J. Myres (A History of the Pelasgian Theory, J. H. S., xxvii, 173) notes that in
the Homeric catalogue of the ships the dominant folk between the Hebrus and the
Hellespont were not Thracians, but Pelasgians. Herodotus (i. 57) speaks of a
village in Thrace that was occupied by Pelasgians who, in his day, still spoke the
Pelasgian language.

Dictionary of Phrase and Fable: Giving the Derivation, Source, Or …, Volume 1 (Google Books)

Hecate (3 syl, in Greek, 2 in Eng.). A triple deity, called Phoebe or the Moon in heaven, Diana on the earth, and He cate or Proserpine in hell. She is de
scribed as having three heads—one of a
horse, one of a dog, and one of a lion. Her £of dogs, honey,
and black bs. She was sometimes
called “Trivia,” because offerings were presented to her at cross-roads. Shake £refers to the triple character of is goddess:
“And we fairies that do run By the triple Hecate’s team.” idsummer Night’s Dream, v.2.
Hecate, daughter of Persés the Titan, is a very different person to the “Triple Hecate,” who, according to Hesiod, was daughter of Zeus and a benevolent
goddess. Hecate, daughter of Persés, was a magician, poisoned her father, raised a temple to Diana in which she immolated strangers, , and was mother of Medea and Circé. She presided over magic and enchantments, taught sorcery #witchcraft. She is represented with a lighted torch and a sword, and is attended by two black dogs. * Shakespeare, in his Macbeth, alludes to both these Hecates. Thus in act ii.
1 he of “pale Hecate,” i.e. the
mother of Medéa and Circé, goddess of magicians, whom they invoked, and to
whom they made offerings.
“Now …. [at night] witchcraft celebrates Pale Hecate’s offerings.”
But in act iii. 2 he speaks of “black Hecate,” meaning night, and says be fore the night is over and day dawns, there
“Shall be done A deed of dreadful note;” i.e. the murder of Duncan.
N.B. Without doubt, sometimes these
two Hecates are confounded.

Intimidated by austerity

I sometimes think it’s one thing to want and get status symbols and having a lot of accomplishments, it’s another to be held up to a higher standard of morality (higher standard of self-restraint, austerity and obedience). If because the latter’s downright frightening and difficult to do that even those who try to be this self-restrained (in the sense of trying to be calm) will lapse into either addiction or worsening emotions.

Not to mention that some religions (though depending on sect and church) may’ve a low opinion of whatever’s cool. It’s not necessarily wrong to covet and want a fancy dog but certain fancy dogs (especially lapdogs) weren’t always looked favourably in the sense of being spinsters’ favourites. (I even think some popstars might get this eventually from doing Bible scholarship and theology.)

The odd fact that even nuns were at some point barred from owning lapdogs can suggest a higher standard of self-restraint and austerity (even a popstar might get this from studying). Though that doesn’t stop some from bringing their pets along and in some religions, dog ownership’s actually condoned for as long as it’s done within reason. Not that there’s anything wrong with having dogs or whatever.

But a higher standard of self-restraint’s frightening and intimidating that even some might get this.

Dante et Goethe dialogues par Daniel Stern (Google Books)

Vous avez raison; pour ma part, je tâcherai de ne plus interrompre.

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Vous avez vu que la tragédie de Gœthe repose, comme la Comédie de Dante, sur la donnée première des communications surnaturelles entre le monde terrestre et le monde céleste. Dès le prologue de Faust, le poëte germanique frappe l’accord qui nous ouvre les régions merveilleuses de la mythologie chrétienne. Nous sommes en pleine légende. La scène se passe dans le ciel. Les personnages sont Dieu le Père, les trois archanges, un suppôt de Satan, le démon Méphistophélès. Celui-ci, qui parait en assez bons termes avec le Seigneur, vient de temps en temps causer avec lui et l’entretenir de ce qui se passe sur la terre. Cette fois le bon Dieu lui demande des nouvelles du docteur Faust, qu’il appelle son serviteur et qu’il qualifie d’homme juste. Méphistophélès, impatienté de ces louanges données à une espèce de fou, à un métaphysicien tout absorbé à la recherche de l’infini et qui ne sait rien de la vie réelle, veut gager avec le Seigneur qu’il ne lui sera pas difficile de tenter cet esprit malade et de l’entraîner hors de la droite voie. Le Seigneur, en souriant, accepte la gageure, bien certain qu’il est de ne

pas la perdre, l’homme dans ses obscurs instincts ayant toujours, dit-il, conscience du droit chemin.


A la bonne heure ! Voici un bon Dieu qui parle fort bien. Il est de l’avis de la demoiselle de Gournay, cette aimable fille de notre grand Montaigne, laquelle écrit quelque part : « L’homme naît à la suffisance et à la bonté tout ainsi que le cerf naît à la course. »

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Après quelques paroles courtoises, échangées entre le bon Dieu et le démon, Méphistophélès quitte le ciel, et l’action terrestre commence. |

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C’est la vieille histoire de Job. Mais qu’est-ce au juste que ce démon qui n’est pas Satan en personne, et d’où vient ce nom de Méphistophélès ?

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Le nom de Méphistophélès, donné par Gœthe à son démon, n’est qu’une variante du Méphistophel, Méphostophiles ou Méphistophilus qui figurent dans la légende, du Méphistophlès des marionnettes et du Méphostophilis de Marlowe. Les commentateurs ne s’accordent pas entièrement sur sa signification. On le suppose provenant d’une mauvaise étymologie grecque, et voulant dire ou bien celui qui n’aime pas la lumière ou bien celui qui aime Méphitis, la divinité qui préside aux miasmes. Quant au caractère moral de Méphistophélès, il est tout simplement, dans les livres populaires, le tentateur des Écritures, qui promet à nos premiers parents de les rendre semblables à Dieu, et qui offre à Jésus la domination sur tous les royaumes de la terre. Gœthe, en transformant la légende du xvI° siècle selon le génie du xIx°, fait de son démon une incarnation du doute et de l’ironie inhérents à l’esprit humain. Son Méphistophélès est le Satan moderne, le Satan de bonne compagnie, commê l’a si bien dit Lamartine, le galant cavalier qui porte l’épée au côté, la plume au chapeau, le manteau court sur l’épaule, qui se fait appeler M. le baron et sait par cœur son Voltaire. C’est à peine si, au sabbat, les sorcières le reconnaîtront, tant il sent peu son enfer, si lestement il a dépouillé les attributs du vieux diable. Un des interprètes les plus profonds de Faust, le biographe de Hegel, Karl Rosenkranz, incline à croire que Gœthe, en créant ce diable contemporain, a voulu en quelque sorte dédoubler son héros, et que Méphistophélès, à la façon des sorcières dans Macbeth, personnifie la lutte intime des passions ambitieuses dans l’âme de Faust. Ce qui est certain, ce qui est clairement énoncé dans le prologue, c’est que, aux yeux du poéte, le mal personnifié dans Méphistophélès n’est pas le mal absolu, infernal, de la théologie chrétienne, mais le mal relatif, inséparable de la condition humaine et qui, dans l’ordre universel, est subordonné au bien.


C’est là encore, si je ne me trompe, une idée toute spinosiste. Spinosa ne dit-il pas quelque part que rien n’arrive dans l’univers qu’on puisse attribuer à un vice de la nature ?

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En effet.—Méphistophélès, c’est lui-même qui le dit, voudrait le mal, mais quoi qu’il fasse, finalement, il se trouve avoir coopéré au bien. Il est railleur des ambitions spéculatives de l’homme et de sa prétention à la vie angélique ; il est sensuel et libertin, convoiteux des plaisirs charnels; mais il n’est ni athée ni même méchant à outrance. Il a compassion des pauvres humains; il se fait quelque scrupule de les tourmenter; il se plaît dans la société du bon Dieu, qui, à son tour, le souffre et lui permet d’en agir à sa guise, afin d’exciter par la tentation et la contradiction la paresse naturelle de l’homme. Aussi Méphistophélès, tout en se flattant d’entraîner Faust à la perdition, va-t-il lui servir d’aiguillon et le pousser, de curiosité en curiosité , d’erreur en erreur, vers une vie plus | haute. Nous en sommes avertis dès le prologue.Le sourire du Seigneur nous rassure, non-seulement quant au salut de Faust, mais encore quant au châtiment du démon, le Père Éternel voulant la confusion de Méphistophélès, non sa réprobation, et n’ayant d’autre but, en acceptant la gageure, que d’amener la créature démoniaque à reconnaître la bonté native de la créature humaine. Il paraît même que, à l’origine, Gœthe avait formé le plan plus hardi de réhabiliter entièrement, de sauver Méphistophélès. Il avait pour lui un faible; il

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You are right; for my part, I will try not to interrupt.

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You have seen that the tragedy of Goethe rests, like Dante’s Comedy , on the first datum of supernatural communications between the terrestrial world and the celestial world. From the prologue of Faust,the Germanic poet strikes the chord which opens to us the marvelous regions of Christian mythology. We are in full legend. The scene is happening in the sky. The characters are God the Father, the three archangels, a henchman of Satan, the demon Mephistopheles. The latter, who appears on good terms with the Lord, comes from time to time to converse with him and tell him what is happening on earth. This time the good Lord asks him for news of Dr. Faust, whom he calls his servant and whom he calls a just man. Mephistopheles, impatient of these praises given to a kind of madman, to a metaphysician who is all absorbed in the search for the infinite and who knows nothing of real life, wants to make a wager with the Lord that it will not be difficult for him to attempt this sick mind and the drive out of the right lane. The Lord, smiling, accepts the wager, sure he is not

not to lose it, the man in his obscure instincts having always, he says, conscience of the right way.


All in good time ! Here is a good God who speaks very well. He is of the opinion of the young lady of Gournay, that amiable daughter of our great Montaigne, who writes somewhere: “Man is born to sufficiency and goodness, just as deer are born in the race. ”

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After a few courteous words, exchanged between the good God and the demon, Mephistopheles leaves heaven, and earthly action begins. |

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This is Job’s old story. But what exactly is this demon who is not Satan in person, and where does this name of Mephistopheles come from?

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The name of Mephistopheles, given by Goethe to his demon, is only a variant of the Mephistophel, Mephostophiles or Mephistophilus, which appear in the legend, the Mephistophles of Marlowe’s puppets and Mephostophilis. Commentators do not fully agree on its meaning. It is supposed to come from a bad Greek etymology, meaning either the one who does not like light or the one who loves Mephitis, the deity presiding over miasmas. As for the moral character of MephistoPheles, it is simply, in the popular books, the tempter of the Scriptures, who promises our first parents to make them similar to God, and who offers to Jesus the dominion over all the kingdoms of the earth. Goethe, by transforming the legend of the sixteenth century according to the genius of the nineteenth, makes his demon an incarnation of the doubt and irony inherent in the human mind. His Mephistopheles is the modern Satan, the Satan of good company, as Lamartine so well said, the gallant horseman who carries the sword to the side, the feather in his hat, the coat on his shoulder, who calls himself Baron and knows by heart his Voltaire. Hardly, on the Sabbath, the witches will recognize him, so little does he feel his hell, so lightly he stripped the attributes of the old devil. One of the deepest interpreters ofFaust, the biographer of Hegel, Karl Rosenkranz, inclines to believe that Goethe, in creating this contemporary devil, wanted to somehow split his hero, and that Mephistopheles, like the witches in Macbeth, personifies the intimate struggle of ambitious passions in the soul of Faust. What is certain, which is clearly stated in the prologue, is that, in the eyes of the poet, evil personified in Mephistopheles is not the absolute, infernal evil of Christian theology, but the relative evil, inseparable of the human condition and which, in the universal order, is subordinated to the good.


This is again, if I am not mistaken, an idea all Spinosist. Does not Spinosa say somewhere that nothing happens in the universe that can be attributed to a vice of nature?

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Indeed-Mephistopheles, it is himself who says it, would want evil, but whatever he does, finally, he finds himself having cooperated with good. He is mocking the speculative ambitions of man and his claim to angelic life; he is sensual and libertine, covetous of carnal pleasures; but he is neither an atheist nor even an extreme villain. He has compassion on the poor humans; he has some scruple to torment them; he enjoys himself in the society of the good God, who, in his turn, suffers him and allows him to do as he pleases, in order to excite the natural laziness of man by temptation and contradiction. Mephistopheles, while flattering himself to drag Faust to perdition, will he serve as a sting and push him, from curiosity to curiosity, from error to error, to a life more | high. We are aware of it from the prologue. The smile of the Lord reassures us, not only as to the salvation of Faust, but also as to the punishment of the devil, the Eternal Father wanting the confusion of Mephistopheles, not his reprobation, and having no Another goal, in accepting the wager, is to bring the demonic creature to recognize the native goodness of the human creature. It seems that Goethe had originally formed the bolder plan to rehabilitate entirely, to save Mephistopheles. He had a weakness for him; he bring the demonic creature to recognize the native goodness of the human creature. It seems that Goethe had originally formed the bolder plan to rehabilitate entirely, to save Mephistopheles. He had a weakness for him; he bring the demonic creature to recognize the native goodness of the human creature. It seems that Goethe had originally formed the bolder plan to rehabilitate entirely, to save Mephistopheles. He had a weakness for him; he

ne lui déplaisait pas du tout qu’on le reconnût luimême dans son cher démon. Il avouait à son ami Merck, qui ne s’en offensait pas, lui avoir emprunté, pour en douer Méphistophélès, les traits les plus piquants de son esprit railleur et cette verve satirique qui tant de fois avait contenu et ramené à la raison les élans désordonnés, les enthousiasmes excessifs de notre jeune Werther. Méphistophélès, dans la conception de Gœthe, n’est donc pas un obstacle au salut, mais un agent du salut, agent dont le concours est nécessaire, quoique subalterne. C’est en ce sens qu’il n’est pas très-différent du Virgile de la Comédie.

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Le Virgile de la légende, vous vous le rappelez, s’il n’est pas précisément un démon, est du moins un sorcier, un magicien. Il n’a pas connu le vrai Dieu ; Dante le met au premier cercle de l’enfer,

Nel primo cerchio del carcere cieco.

Il fait de lui le représentant de la raison naturelle, de la sagesse antique, comme Méphistophélès est le représentant du doute, de la critique, qui sont les éléments essentiels de la sagesse moderne. Virgile, pas plus que Méphistophélès, ne saurait entrer au paradis. Il quitte Dante au seuil, non pas, il est vrai, moqué, bafoué comme le sera Méphistophélès par les anges qui lui enlèveront l’âme de Faust, mais négligé, oublié, nous l’avons vu, se reconnaissant lui-même un guide indigne, inutile du moment que l’âme du poéte s’est ouverte à la sagesse divine qui lui apparaît sous les traits de Béatrice.


Je trouve votre interprétation ingénieuse , mais j’ai besoin d’y réfléchir avant de l’adopter, car, je l’avoue, elle me surprend un peu.

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Pas plus que pour tout le reste, Élie, je ne vous demande ici d’entrer dans mon sentiment sans le contrôler. Mon désir, c’est que, en nous quittant, vous emportiez de nos entretiens l’envie de relire les deux poémes, et que, de la comparaison que je vous aurai suggérée, il naisse dans votre esprit quelques clartés nouvelles. Mais où en étais-je restée ?

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Vous ne nous avez parlé encore que du prologue de Faust.

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La scène s’ouvre, comme dans la Comédie, aux premiers jours du printemps. C’est le moment où, selon la légende, le monde a pris naissance; c’est, pour l’Église chrétienne, le temps sacré de l’incarnation et de la résurrection du Sauveur. C’est, en astrologie, l’heure où brillent les constellations propices. En Allemagne comme en Italie, la douce saison, « la dolce stagione, » se célébrait en des fêtes charmantes.


Il n’y a pas longtemps que je lisais dans une lettre de Pétrarque le récit d’une fête du printemps à laquelle il assistait à Cologne. On ne peut rien imaginer de plus poétique. Ce devait être un reste de quelque solennité païenne. De longues processions de femmes, vêtues de blanc et ceintes de guirlandes, descendaient en chantant des cantiques sur les bords du fleuve. Elles lui portaient en offrande des touffes d’herbes symboliques qui, jetées au courant des flots rapides, entraînaient avec elles tous les malheurs de l’année.

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Il existe encore à cette heure une coutume toute semblable au royaume de Siam. Un marin de mes amis, qui a fait partie de l’expédition en Cochinchine, m’a décrit ce que les bouddhistes appellent le Jour du pardon. Pour apaiser l’ange du fleuve, que l’on suppose irrité de la souillure de ses eaux, les talapoins et généralement tous les bons bouddhistes viennent sur le rivage réciter à haute voix de longues oraisons fluviales. Jusque très-avant dans la nuit, au son des instruments de musique, à la lueur des torches et des lanternes, on lance incessamment au flot des dons de toute sorte, exvoto, amulettes, images peintes ou sculptées, monnaies d’or et d’argent, barques et radeaux chargés de fleurs et de fruits. Il paraîtrait que c’est le spectacle le plus curieux, le plus bariolé, le plus pittoresque du monde.


Pour nos deux.poëtes, le printemps était la saison sacrée. Ce fut dans les fêtes de mai qu’apparut pour la première fois à Dante Béatrice Portinari, en compagnie de sa jeune amie Vanna, qui fut plus tard l’amante de Guido Cavalcanti et qui avait pour surnom de beauté, persopranome di bellezza, Primavera. Quant à Gœthe, il appelait le printemps la saison lyrique, et se plaisait à y voir éclore ses créations les plus chères. Mais, non contents de commencer leur poëme à l’aube de l’année, Dante et Gœthe veulent encore qu’il s’ouvre à l’aube du jour.

Temp’era del principio del mattino,

dira l’Allighieri, en gravissant, au sortir du sommeil, la colline éclairée des premiers feux du matin. Ce sont les matines de Pâques, chantées aux lueurs crépusculaires du jour de la résurrection, qui vont arracher Faust aux appréhensions de la nuit, aux ténèbres de son propre cœur. Il est là, le vieux docteur, seul et pensif sous les sombres voûtes du laboratoire; il est là, tel que l’a vu Rembrandt, assis sur son fauteuil vermoulu, dans une atmosphère épaisse, entouré de livres poudreux, de parchemins enfumés, de crânes, de squelettes, d’appareils et d’instruments de toute sorte, gisant pêle-mêle et dans un désordre affreux. Il a passé depuis longtemps, lui, « la moitié du chemin de notre vie ; » il a perdu la droite voie, mais ce n’est pas dans la poursuite des plaisirs et des cupidités mondaines, dans les sentiers fleuris des vanités, c’est dans l’âpre recherche de cette science terrible du bien et du mal que notre premier père a payée de l’exil et de la mort. Au moment où le démon obtient la permission de le tenter, Faust n’est pas, comme Dante, endormi dans l’oubli de Dieu : il veille en proie aux tourments d’une âme ardente qui voudrait posséder Dieu à tout prix. Richesses, honneurs, plaisirs, amours, amitiés, toutes les joies périssables, Faust a tout négligé, tout dédaigné pour se vouer sans réserve à l’étude des lois éternelles, à la pénétration des causes. S’il a vieilli prématurément, s’il a pâli dans la solitude, c’est par amour pour la science, et par désir du bien de ses semblables; parce qu’il aurait voulu découvrir une vérité « capable de convertir les hommes et de les rendre meilleurs. » Philosophie, médecine, jurisprudence, théologie, magie même, toutes les sciences humaines, divines ou infernales, Faust a tout étudié, tout approfondi. Il sait tout ce qu’on peut savoir; il sait de plus « qu’on ne peut rien savoir. » Il est las de l’aridité des spéculations métaphysiques, las des formules de l’école. Il compare sa vie au vent d’automne qui souffle sur les feuilles sèches. Il sourit amèrement à la puérilité des satisfactions humaines, à l’éclat de la vaine gloire, au bruit de son nom, à la reconnaissance

He did not at all displease him that he was recognized in his dear demon himself. He confessed to his friend Merck, who did not offend him, to have borrowed from him, in order to endow Mephistopheles, with the most pungent features of his mocking spirit and that satirical verve which so many times had contained and brought back to reason the impulses disordered, the excessive excitement of our young Werther. Mephistopheles, in Goethe’s conception, is not therefore an obstacle to salvation, but an agent of salvation, an agent whose assistance is necessary, though subordinate. It is in this sense that it is not very different from the Virgil of Comedy.

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The Virgil of legend, you remember, if he is not exactly a demon, is at least a wizard, a magician. He did not know the true God; Dante puts him in the first circle of hell,

Nel primo cerchio del carcere cieco.

He makes him the representative of natural reason, of ancient wisdom, as Mephistopheles is the representative of doubt, of criticism, which are the essential elements of modern wisdom. Virgil, no more than Mephistopheles, can not enter Paradise. He leaves Dante on the threshold, not, it is true, mocked, scoffed at by Mephistopheles by the angels who will take away Faust’s soul, but neglected, forgotten, we have seen, recognizing himself as a guide unworthy, useless from the moment when the soul of the poet has opened to the divine wisdom which appears to him under the features of Beatrice.


I find your interpretation ingenious, but I need to think about it before adopting it, because, I admit it, it surprises me a little.

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No more than for all the rest, Elijah, I am not asking you here to enter my feeling without controlling it. My desire is that, on leaving us, you take away from our conversations the desire to reread the two poems, and that, from the comparison which I have suggested to you, some new light emerges in your mind. But where was I left?

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You have only spoken to us about Faust’s prologue .

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The scene opens, as in the comedy, in the first days of spring. This is the moment when, according to legend, the world is born; it is, for the Christian Church , the sacred time of the incarnation and resurrection of the Savior. This is, in astrology, the hour when the propitious constellations shine. In Germany as in Italy, the sweet season, “la dolce stagione,” was celebrated in charming festivals.


It was not long ago that I read in a letter from Petrarch the account of a spring festival which he attended at Cologne. We can not imagine anything more poetic. It must have been a remnant of some pagan solemnity. Long processions of women, dressed in white and garlanded, came down singing hymns on the banks of the river. They gave him as an offering tufts of symbolic herbs which, thrown into the swift waters, carried with them all the misfortunes of the year.

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At this time there is a custom very similar to the kingdom of Siam. A sailor of my friends, who was part of the expedition to Cochin China, described to me what Buddhists call the Day of Forgiveness. To appease the angel of the river, who is supposed to be irritated by the defilement of his waters, the Talapoins and generally all good Buddhists come to the shore to recite long fluvial orations aloud. Until very early in the night, to the sound of the musical instruments, by the light of torches and lanterns, we incessantly launch to the flow of gifts of all kinds,, amulets, painted or carved images, gold and silver coins, boats and rafts loaded with flowers and fruits. It would seem that it is the most curious, the most colorful, the most picturesque spectacle in the world.


For our two poets, spring was the sacred season. It was during the May festivities that Dante Béatrice Portinari first appeared with her young friend Vanna, who was later the lover of Guido Cavalcanti and whose nickname was beauty, persopranome di bellezza, Primavera . As for Goethe, he called spring the lyrical season, and was pleased to see the birth of his most cherished creations. But, not content to begin their poem at the dawn of the year, Dante and Goethe still want it to open at dawn.

Temp’era del principio del mattino,

said the Allighieri, as he climbed out of sleep, the hill lit by the first fires of the morning. It is Easter mornings, sung with twilight on the day of the resurrection, which will tear Faust away from the apprehensions of the night, from the darkness of his own heart. He is there, the old doctor, alone and thoughtful under the dark vaults of the laboratory; he is there, as Rembrandt has seen, sitting on his worm-eaten armchair, in a thick atmosphere, surrounded by dusty books, smoky parchments, skulls, skeletons, devices and instruments of all sorts, lying pell-mell and in a frightful disorder. He has long since passed him, “half the path of our life; He has lost the right way, but it is not in the pursuit of worldly pleasures and greed, in the flowery paths of vanities, it is in the harsh pursuit of this terrible science of good and evil that our first father paid for exile and death. At the moment when the demon obtains permission to tempt him, Faust is not, like Dante, asleep in oblivion of God: he watches prey to the torments of an ardent soul who would like to possess God at any price. Riches, honors, pleasures, loves, friendships, all perishable joys, Faust has neglected everything, all scorned for unreserved dedication to the study of the eternal laws, to the penetration of causes. If he has aged prematurely, if he has grown pale in solitude, it is out of love for science, and out of a desire for the good of his fellows; because he would have liked to discover a truth “capable of converting men and making them better. Philosophy, medicine, jurisprudence, theology, even magic, all the human sciences, divine or infernal, Faust has studied everything, deepened everything. He knows everything you can know; he knows more that “we can not know anything. He is tired of the aridity of metaphysical speculations, tired of the formulas of the school. He compares his life to the autumn wind blowing on the dry leaves. He smiles bitterly at the puerility of human satisfactions, at the

des hommes simples qui se croient guéris par son art, tandis qu’ils ne le sont que par la nature. Le mensonge des choses d’ici-bas répugne à sa conscience austère. Les élans de sa grande âme se heurtent et se blessent incessamment aux limites de son existence terrestre. Sa patrie est ailleurs. Son esprit, fait à l’image de Dieu, voudrait entrer en commerce avec ses pareils, les esprits divins qui président à l’harmonie des mondes, et plonger avec eux au sein toujours vivant de la nature infinie. A l’aide des formules de la magie qui lui sont familières, Faust évoque les esprits invisibles; il les interroge. Leur apparition fugitive, leurs réponses énigmatiques le consternent, car il voit que, s’il a eu la puissance de les appeler, il ne saurait ni les retenir ni les comprendre. C’est alors que le désespoir s’empare de lui, et que, n’attendant plus rien de la vie, il s’adresse à la mort. D’une main hardie il saisit la coupe des aïeux : il y verse le breuvage libérateur.

L’invocation de Faust, ce chant sacerdotal d’un sacrifice dont il est à la fois le prêtre et la victime, atteint aux plus sublimes hauteurs où puissent s’élever l’âme et la poésie. Pour Faust, la mort n’a rien de lugubre. Il n’y voit ni une fin, ni un néant, ni même un sommeil dans la tombe. Les images sous lesquelles elle s’offre à lui sont toutes de mouvement. C’est la vague qui l’emportera comme Dante « dans la grande mer de l’Étre; » c’est le char de feu qui le ravira jusqu’aux sphères célestes :

Zu neuen Ufern lockt ein neuer Tag,
Ein Feuerwagen schwebt, auf leichten Schwingen,
An mich heran !

Le suicide de Faust a plus de grandeur encore que le suicide de Caton ; car, en rejetant la vie, Faust ne proteste pas seulement, comme le vertueux Latin, contre l’esclavage politique dans la prison romaine : il proteste, vaincu dans le combat avec Dieu, contre l’esclavage de l’humanité dans sa prison terrestre.

Et pourtant, combien il faut peu de chose pour que Faust renaisse à l’espérance et pour que la coupe fatale échappe à sa main !

Un souvenir, le son lointain d’une cloche, un chant d’église, lui rappellent la fête de Pâques, où jadis son enfance heureuse célébrait, avec le retour du printemps, la résurrection du Sauveur des hommes. Il s’attendrit en songeant aux consolations apportées à la terre par le miséricordieux crucifié. Toute l’austérité de sa pensée s’amollit. Un souffle de tendresse dissipe les noires vapeurs amassées dans son cerveau par la science solitaire. Tout à l’heure, il va se faire simple avec les simples, enfant avec les enfants. Suivi de son disciple Wagner, il va se mêler à la foule des promeneurs, dont les gais propos, les rires, les chansons célèbrent à leur manière la fête chrétienne. Mais le spectacle de la vie extérieure ne saurait longtemps captiver l’âme de Faust. Lassé bientôt de ces joies bruyantes, il s’assied à l’écart; il contemple les magnificences du soleil couchant; son inquiétude renaît, sa soif de la lumière éternelle. Il voudrait suivre les rayons de l’astre qui va quitter notre hémisphère. Il envie à l’aigle son aile, à l’alouette son chant, à la grue qui traverse les airs la puissance de l’instinct qui la guide. Il appelle à son aide les génies qui planent invisibles entre la terre et le ciel, il les adjure de l’emporter avec eux dans l’espace. C’est alors qu’apparaît Méphistophélès. Sous la figure d’un chien, il s’attache aux pas de Faust; il le suit à son retour dans la ville; il entre avec lui dans le laboratoire. La nuit est venue. — Cette longue exposition terminée, qui dans la Comédie n’occupe que la moitié d’un chant, l’action proprement dite, la tentation va COIllIIlOIlCGI”. Je suppose, ma chère Viviane, que vous n’avez pas eu de peine jusqu’ici à reconnaître, sous les traits de Faust, Wolfgang Gœthe, à cette première période de sa jeunesse où nous l’avons vu, profondément troublé par l’incertitude et la discordance des choses de la vie, se jeter tout éperdu à l’enthousiasme de la mort.

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La fiction est transparente, et Dante n’est pas plus Dante, ce me semble, que Faust n’est Gœthe.

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Un coup d’œil sur la relation qui se noue entre Faust et Méphistophélès nous rendra plus sensible encore cette identité. Bien loin que le suicide de Faust et sa tentation nous soient donnés par Gœthe comme un signe de déchéance, il les entoure d’une solennité religieuse. C’est au moment où l’âme de Faust vient de s’exalter dans la contemplation d’un grand spectacle de la nature, c’est lorsque, absorbé dans une profonde méditation, ému, attendri, il cherche d’un cœur droit « mit redlichem Gefühl, » pour le mettre à la portée de tous, le sens véritable des Évangiles, c’est à l’heure du recueillement et d’un pieux travail que Méphistophélès, quittant son apparence de chien, se présente au grave docteur. De même, lorsque Faust consent à se laisser arracher par le démon à ses rêveries solitaires, pour se jeter avec lui au train du monde, lorsqu’il va signer le pacte et qu’il en dicte fièrement les conditions, il se montre de tout point supérieur à celui qu’il appelle avec dédain « un pauvre diable, » et la pensée intime du poëte devient manifeste. Faust n’admet pas un instant que l’esprit de l’homme puisse être compris de Méphistophélès et de ses pareils. « Si tu peux m’abuser par les flatteries, lui dit-il, de telle sorte que je me plaise à moi-même, si tu peux me séduire par la jouissance, si jamais je goûte le repos dans le plaisir, que ce soit là mon heure dernière et que mon âme soit ta proie! » Mais que veut-il donc, qu’attend-t-il du démon, ce dédaigneux Faust? Lui-même il va nous le dire; il y va insister de peur qu’on ne s’y méprenne. « Tu m’entends bien, dit-il à Méphistophélès, il n’est pas question de plaisir. Mon esprit, guéri du désir de savoir, veut vivre désormais de la vie active, et telle qu’elle est faite à l’humanité tout entière. Je veux étreindre tout ce que la destinée humaine enferme de bien et de mal; toutes ses douleurs, toutes ses joies, je les veux ressentir ;

je veux éperdument me plonger dans l’immense tourbillon de son activité sans relâche; puis, comme elle et avec elle, à la fin, être brisé ! » Vous le voyez, à peine l’âme de Faust a-t-elle perdu l’espoir de pénétrer par la science et par la philosophie jusqu’à l’essence de Dieu, que, intrépide, elle se jette à l’espoir de pénétrer par le sentiment, par l’action, jusqu’à l’essence de l’humanité. Serait-ce là une défaillance, une dépravation de sa noble nature ? Aucunement. C’est une ambition moindre à laquelle il se résigne, après qu’il a reconnu vaine son ambition première. De vulgaires appétits, de lassitude, nulle trace dans les conditions altières de son pacte démoniaque. Nous y sentons toujours le même Faust dont l’âme est « habitée de Dieu. » Nous y sentons notre insatiable Gœthe dans la fougue généreuse, et que l’on disait endiablée, de son ardente jeunesse.

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Pardon si je vous interromps. Vous venez de nous dire que Méphistophélès quittait son apparence de chien; pourquoi ce chien? aurait-il, comme les bêtes de la Comédie, un sens allégorique?

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Dès l’antiquité, le chien est un animal démoniaque. La déesse protectrice des sorciers, Hécate, Luciféra, se plaît à ses aboiements. Elle-même, elle prend souvent la forme d’une chienne. De la sorcellerie païenne, le chien magique passe dans la sorcellerie chrétienne ;

simple men who believe themselves cured by his art, while they are only by nature. The lie of things here below is repugnant to his austere conscience. The impulses of his great soul collide and hurt each other incessantly at the limits of his earthly existence. His homeland is elsewhere. His mind, made in the image of God, would like to enter into commerce with his fellow beings, the divine spirits who preside over the harmony of worlds, and to plunge with them into the ever-living womb of infinite nature. With the familiar formulas of magic, Faust evokes the invisible spirits; he questions them. Their fleeting appearance, their enigmatic answers, consternate him, for he sees that, if he had the power to call them, he could neither retain them nor understand them. That’s when despair seize him, and that, waiting for nothing of life, he addresses himself to death. With a bold hand he seizes the cup of the ancestors: he pours in the liberating drink.

The invocation of Faust, that sacerdotal song of a sacrifice of which he is at once the priest and the victim, reaches the most sublime heights where the soul and the poetry can rise. For Faust, death is not dismal. He sees neither an end, nor a nothingness, nor even a sleep in the grave. The images under which she offers herself to him are all moving. It is the wave that will prevail as Dante “in the great sea of ​​the Etre; It is the chariot of fire that will delight him to the celestial spheres:

Zu neuen Ufern lockt ein neuer Tag,
Ein Feuerwagen schwebt, auf leichten Schwingen,
An mich heran!

Faust’s suicide is even greater than Cato’s suicide; for, by rejecting life, Faust not only protests, like the virtuous Latin, against political slavery in the Roman prison: he protests, conquered in the fight with God, against the slavery of humanity in his earthly prison. .

And yet, how little is needed for Faust to be reborn in hope and for the fatal cup to escape his hand!

A memory, the distant sound of a bell, a church song, remind him of Easter, where once his happy childhood celebrated, with the return of spring, the resurrection of the Savior of men. He is moved by the consolations brought to the earth by the merciful crucified. All the austerity of his thought is softening. A breath of tenderness dispels the black vapors amassed in his brain by solitary science. Just now, it will be simple with the simple, child with children. Followed by his disciple Wagner, he will mingle with the crowd of walkers, whose gay talk, laughter, songs celebrate in their own way the Christian festival. But the spectacle of the external life can not long captivate the soul of Faust. Soon tired of these noisy joys, he sits apart; he contemplates the magnificence of the setting sun; his anxiety is reborn, his thirst for eternal light. He would like to follow the rays of the star that will leave our hemisphere. He envies the eagle with its wing, the lark with its song, the crane through the air, the power of the instinct which guides it. He calls to his aid the genies who hover invisible between the earth and the sky, he adjures them to carry with them in space. That’s when Mephistopheles appears. Under the figure of a dog, he clings to Faust’s footsteps; he follows him on his return to the city; he enters with him in the laboratory. The night has come. – This long exhibition ended, which in the Comedyoccupies only half of a song, the action itself, the temptation goes well. “I suppose, my dear Viviane, that you have not had any difficulty so far in recognizing, under the features of Faust Wolfgang Goethe, at this first period of his youth, when we have seen him, deeply troubled by the uncertainty and discordance of the things of life, throws himself utterly lost to the enthusiasm of death.

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The fiction is transparent, and Dante is no more Dante, it seems to me, than Faust is Goethe.

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A glance at the relationship between Faust and Mephistopheles will make us even more aware of this identity. Far from the fact that Faust’s suicide and his temptation are given to us by Goethe as a sign of decay, he surrounds them with religious solemnity. That’s when Faust’s soul comes from to exalt oneself in the contemplation of a great spectacle of nature is when, absorbed in profound meditation, moved, moved, he seeks with a straight heart “mit redlichem Gefühl,” to put him within reach of all, the true meaning of the Gospels, it is at the hour of recollection and a pious work that Mephistopheles, leaving his appearance as a dog, presents himself to the grave doctor. Likewise, when Faust agrees to let himself be snatched by the devil from his solitary reveries, to throw himself with him to the world, when he goes to sign the pact and proudly dictates the conditions, he shows himself everything. a point superior to that which he calls with disdain “a poor devil,” and the intimate thought of the poet becomes manifest. Faust does not admit for a moment that the spirit of the man can be understood from Mephistopheles and his like. “If you can deceive me with flattery,” he said to her, “so that I please myself, if you can seduce me with pleasure, if I ever enjoy rest in pleasure, whether it be there my last hour and my soul be your prey! But what does he want, what does he expect from the devil, that scornful Faust? He himself will tell us; he will insist, lest they be misunderstood. “You understand me well,” he said to Mephistopheles, Is he waiting for the demon, that scornful Faust? He himself will tell us; he will insist, lest they be misunderstood. “You understand me well,” he said to Mephistopheles, Is he waiting for the demon, that scornful Faust? He himself will tell us; he will insist, lest they be misunderstood. “You understand me well,” he said to Mephistopheles,there is no question of pleasure. My mind, cured of the desire to know, wants to live henceforth from the active life, and as it is made to the whole humanity. I want to embrace all that human destiny encloses with good and evil; all his pains, all his joys, I want them to feel;

I desperately want to immerse myself in the immense whirlpool of his activity without rest; then, as she and with her, in the end, be broken! As you can see, hardly has Faust’s soul lost the hope of penetrating through science and philosophy to the essence of God, that, intrepid, she throws herself to hope to penetrate through feeling, through action, to the essence of humanity. Would this be a failure, a depravity of his noble nature? No. It is a lesser ambition to which he resigns himself, after he has acknowledged his first ambition vain. Vulgar appetites, weariness, no trace in the lofty conditions of his demonic pact. We always feel the same Faust whose soul is “inhabited by God.

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I’m sorry if I interrupt you. You have just told us that Mephistopheles was leaving his dog’s appearance; why this dog? would he, like the animals of the Comedie, have an allegorical meaning?

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From ancient times, the dog is a demonic animal. The protective goddess of the wizards, Hecate, Lucifera, enjoys his barking. She herself often takes the form of a dog. From pagan witchcraft , the magic dog passes into Christian sorcery ;

de la légende d’Apollonius de Tyane, le chien noir passe dans celle d’Agrippa, le nécromancien allemand. Celle-ci nomme le chien du plus ancien Faust, qui n’est autre que le diable en personne, Praestigiar. Gœthe, que nous avons vu très-superstitieux, n’était pas exempt d’une certaine antipathie fort peu rationnelle pour la race canine.

Mais continuons. La supériorité morale de Faust sur Méphistophélès se marque de plus en plus à mesure qu’on avance dans le drame. Quand Méphistophélès, qui a promis à Faust de lui faire faire un cours complet du petit et du grand monde, le mène à la taverne d’Auerbach, rendez-vous de gais compagnons et d’étudiants en goguette, quand il le conduit à la cuisine de la sorcière pour y boire le philtre qui lui rend la jeunesse, Faust n’exprime que répugnance et dégoût. Dans la taverne, il assiste, impassible, aux expansions bruyantes de l’insipide orgie, et n’exprime qu’un désir, celui de quitter de tels lieux. Chez la sorcière, son dégoût est au comble. Mais là, tout à coup, dans un miroir magique, il aperçoit une figure de femme qui attire et captive son regard. Cette femme qui ne ressemble à aucune autre, cette apparition céleste, cette beauté pure dont la seule image, au milieu des laideurs d’une basse sorcellerie, le fait tressaillir d’amour, c’est Marguerite.

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Je vous admire, Diotime. Vous avez le talent de l’Église catholique en son premier génie; vous transformez les démons en saints ou en quasi-saints. Vous venez de nous habiller très-joliment Méphistophélès en Virgile; je suis curieux de voir comment vous allez vous y prendre pour vêtir la petite Gretchen des rayons de Béatrice.

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Si vous voulez, nous dirons auparavant deux mots de l’idée générale que nos deux poétes se faisaient de la femme, de son caractère, de sa vocation, de sa puissance morale; vous comprendrez plus aisément l’analogie que je crois voir entre Marguerite et Béatrice.

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Je suis on ne peut plus curieux, sérieusement curieux, quoi que vous en puissiez croire, de connaître, à cet égard, vos idées.

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Pour Gœthe comme pour Dante, mon cher Marcel, la femme dans ce qu’on pourrait appeler sa double nature, doublement mystérieuse et sacrée, la femme vierge et mère est un être supérieur à l’homme.

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Mais pourquoi ? Elle est visiblement inférieure en force physique; elle est inférieure en génie, car elle n’a jamais rien inventé; et quant à son être moral, il me semble que les récits bibliques ne laissent aucun doute sur son infériorité.


· A mes yeux, il n’y a ni supériorité ni infériorité d’un sexe sur l’autre. Les deux sexes ont des dons qui leur sont communs, et chaque sexe a une supériorité qui lui est propre. Mais si je devais traiter à fond ce sujet, il me faudrait vous dicter tout un livre ; cela ne vous amuserait guère, et ce n’est pas ici le lieu. Nous n’avons besoin de savoir en ce moment qu’une seule chose : l’opinion de nos deux poëtes. C’est poétiquement que Dante et Gœthe mettent la femme au-dessus de l’homme. Dante, tout pénétré de l’idéal catholique, tel qu’il s’est dégagé peu à peu des rudesses bibliques et des sévérités qui restent encore dans l’Évangile, a mis dans la prière de saint Bernard, au dernier chant du Paradis, toute la sublimité de son sentiment, tout son idéal de l’amour féminin. Béatrice, dans ses cantiques, semblablement à Marie, est toute beauté, toute grâce, toute miséricorde, toute compassion. Même au sein de la béatitude, elle se trouble à la vue des périls de Dante ; elle est remplie d’angoisses pour son ami; pour « son ami qui n’est point l’ami de la fortune, »

L’amico mio e non della ventura,

dit-elle avec une subtilité charmante et toute féminine. Elle a une hâte, une impatience toute féminine aussi, de

· le voir délivré des ténèbres et des bêtes féroces. Elle

presse Virgile de voler à son secours; au secours de son fidèle, de « celui qui l’aima tant et qui sortit pour elle de la foule du vulgaire. » Ses beaux yeux, « plus brillants que les étoiles, » se voilent de pleurs. Elle veut être consolée,

L’aiuta sl Ch’io ne sia consolata.


Est-ce que cette compassion, ces larmes, ce besoin de consolation dans le ciel, sont bien orthodoxes ?

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J’en doute; comme aussi du plaisir qui s’accroît dans les âmes bienheureuses quand elles peuvent satisfaire aux questions de Dante,

Per allegrezza nuova che s’accrebbe,
Quand’io parlai, all’ allegrezze sue.

C’est le sentiment que nous verrons exprimé aussi dans le ciel de Faust quand le Père Séraphique et les jeunes anges s’exaltent dans la joie de voir arriver l’âme pardonnée du pécheur. En plusieurs rencontres déjà nous avons vu que nos poëtes, tout en traitant un sujet tiré de la légende chrétienne, en usaient librement avec l’orthodoxie, et qu’ils avaient, l’un et l’autre, de ces belles inconséquences sans lesquelles la plupart des dogmes seraient inacceptables. La compassion de Béatrice descendue en enfer pour secourir Dante, la joie qu’éprouve son royal ami, Charles Martel, à le revoir au ciel de Vénus, c’est la protestation éternelle du cœur humain qui repousse l’indifférence dogmatique des béatitudes du paradis, aussi bien que la justice implacable des châtiments de l’enfer. — Mais je reprends. Dante ne conçoit son propre salut, comme le salut de l’humanité, que par la médiation de cet amour miséricordieux, désintéressé, de cette grâce par excellence et véritablement divine qui réside au sein de la femme. C’est le rayon des yeux de Béatrice qui l’attire à sa suite dans la droite voie, tant qu’elle demeure ici-bas; c’est après qu’il l’a perdue qu’il se perd luimême. C’est elle qui l’avertit, par des songes et des révélations, des dangers qui le menacent; c’est dans l’espoir de la retrouver, sur l’assurance que lui en donne Virgile, qu’il prend courage et s’avance au travers des flammes d’enfer. C’est par « l’occulte vertu qui d’elle émane, » qu’il peut gravir la montagne purificatrice. Parvenu au seuil de la béatitude, Dante reconnaît humblement « la grâce et la vertu, la puissance et la bonté, la magnificence de la femme aimée, qui l’a conduit de la servitude à la liberté, des choses mortelles aux choses divines, de la perdition au salut.»

Dal tuo podere e dalla tua bontate
Riconosco la grazia e la virtute.
Tu m’hai di servo tratto a libertate
Per tutte quelle vie, per tutt’i modi
Che di cio fare avean la potestate.

C’est le même idéal de la grâce féminine qui inspire à Gœthe, au quatrième acte de Faust, les vers admirables où il décrit l’apparition céleste de Marguerite, ce mystérieux regard, cette forme pure qui s’élève dans
from the legend of Apollonius of Tyana, the black dog passes into that of Agrippa, the German necromancer. It names the dog of the oldest Faust, who is none other than the devil himself, Praestigiar. Goethe, whom we have seen to be very superstitious, was not exempt from a certain antipathy which was not very rational for the canine race.

But let’s continue. The moral superiority of Faust over Mephistopheles is more and more marked as one advances in the drama. When Mephistopheles, who promised Faust a full course in the big and small world, took him to Auerbach’s tavern, a rendez-vous with gay companions and students on a spree, when he drove him to the the kitchen of the witch to drink the potion that makes her youth, Faust expresses only repugnance and disgust. In the tavern he attends, impassive, the noisy expansions of the insipid orgy, and expresses only one desire, that of leaving such places. At the witch’s, her disgust is at its height. But there, suddenly, in a magic mirror, he sees a woman’s figure that attracts and captivates his eyes. This woman who does not look like any other,sorcery, makes it shudder with love, it is Marguerite.

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I admire you, Diotime. You have the talent of the Catholic Church in her first genius; you transform demons into saints or quasi-saints. You have very nicely dressed Mephistopheles in Virgil; I’m curious to see how you are going to dress Little Gretchen with Beatrice’s rays.

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If you wish, we will say beforehand two words of the general idea that our two poets had of the woman, of her character, of her vocation, of her moral power; you will understand more easily the analogy which I think I see between Marguerite and Beatrice.

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I am most curious, seriously curious, whatever you may believe, to know, in this respect, your ideas.

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For Goethe, as for Dante, my dear Marcel, the woman in what might be called her double nature, doubly mysterious and sacred, the virgin and mother woman is a being superior to man.

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But why ? It is visibly inferior in physical strength; she is inferior in genius, for she has never invented anything; and as for its moral being, it seems to me that biblical accounts leave no doubt about its inferiority.


· In my eyes, there is neither superiority nor inferiority of one sex on the other. Both sexes have gifts that are common to them, and each sex has a superiority of its own. But if I had to deal with this subject thoroughly, I would have to dictate a whole book; that would not amuse you, and this is not the place here. We need only know one thing at this moment: the opinion of our two poets. It is poetically that Dante and Goethe put the woman above the man. Dante, all imbued with the Catholic ideal, as he gradually emerged from the biblical harshness and severities that still remain in the Gospel, put in the prayer of St. Bernard, at the last song of Paradise, all the sublimity of his feeling, all his ideal of feminine love. Beatrice in his hymns, like Mary’s, is all beauty, all grace, all mercy, all compassion. Even in bliss, she is troubled by the sight of Dante’s perils; she is filled with anguish for her friend; for “his friend who is not the friend of fortune,”

The amico mio e non della ventura,

she said with a charming and feminine subtlety. She has a haste, a feminine impatience too, to

· See him delivered from darkness and ferocious beasts. She

press Virgil to fly to his aid; to the aid of his faithful, of the one who loved him so much and who went out for her from the crowd of the vulgar. Her beautiful eyes, “brighter than the stars,” are veiled with tears. She wants to be comforted,

The aiuta sl Ch’io did not consolidate.


Is this compassion, these tears, this need for consolation in heaven, very orthodox?

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I doubt; as well as the pleasure that grows in happy souls when they can satisfy Dante’s questions,

Per allegrezza nuova che becomes accombbe,
When’io spoke, all ‘allegrezze sue.

This is the feeling we will see expressed also in the sky of Faust when the Séraphic Father and the young angels are exalted in the joy of seeing the forgiven soul of the sinner arrive. In several meetings already we have seen that our poets, while treating a subject taken from the Christian legend, used it freely with orthodoxy, and that they had, both of them, these beautiful inconsistencies without which most dogmas would be unacceptable. Beatrice’s compassion descended to hell to rescue Dante, the joy experienced by her royal friend, Charles Martel, to see him in the sky of Venus, is the eternal protest of the human heart that repels the dogmatic indifference of blessings of paradise, as well as the implacable justice of the punishments of hell. – But I resume. Dante conceives his own salvation, as the salvation of humanity, only by the mediation of this merciful, disinterested love of that par excellence and truly divine grace which resides in the womb. It is the ray of Beatrice’s eyes that draws her after him in the right way, so long as she remains here below; it is after he has lost it that he is lost himself. It is she who warns him, by dreams and revelations, of the dangers which threaten him; it is in the hope of finding her, on the assurance that Virgil gives her, that he takes courage and advances through the flames of hell. It is by “the occult virtue that emanates from it,” that he can climb the purifying mountain. Having reached the threshold of beatitude, Dante humbly acknowledges “grace and virtue, power and goodness, the magnificence of the beloved woman, who led her from bondage to freedom, from mortal things to divine things, from the perdition to salvation. ”

Dal tuo podere e dalla tua bontate
Riconosco the grazia e the virtuoso.
You have me di servo tratto a libertate
Per tutte what life, per tutt’i modi
Che di cio fare avean la potestate.

It is the same ideal of feminine grace which inspires Goethe, in the fourth act of Faust, the admirable verses in which he describes the celestial apparition of Marguerite, that mysterious look, that pure form which rises in

the ether and which attracts to her “the best of her soul. ”

Wie Seelenschönheit steigert sich die holde Form,
Lös’t sich nicht auf, erhebt sich in den Aether hin,
Und zieht das Beste meines Innern mit sich fort.

And this design | Platonist of beauty, of love, Goethe puts it at the end of his poem in the mouth of the Queen of Heaven:

Komm! hebe dich zu höhern Sphären!
Wenn er dich ahnet, folgt er nach.

“Come, go up to higher spheres; if he press you, he will follow you, “said Mater Gloriosa to Marguerite, already transfigured.

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Beatrice is similar in one of her aspects to Marguerite, she symbolizes pure love, as I do; but Beatrice is also, in hymns, wisdom. She never failed, as far as I know; she exposes to Dante the true doctrines; she speaks at least as well as St. Thomas. She resembles the Lady Philosophy, the superb Stoic who consoled Boéce, much more than this ignorant Gretchen who has never learned anything but a little catechism, who lets herself be abused like a poor villager she is, who kills or has killed, without much suspicion, his mother, his brother, his child, and who loses at the end of the tragedy the little common sense, the insignificance that she had at the time.

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At the end of the first part, Marcel; but in the second, when we shall see her appear transfigured, she will be as powerful in her humility as the haughty Beatrice. I do not want to deny, however, that your remark is just a certain way. Margaret, even in heavenly glory, always remains the candid and simple girl who has sinned, who has suffered. Una Paenitentiumis his name. She is neither a Stoic nor a heroine, the poor child, but a sweet Christian. She never knew anything, wanted nothing down here but to love, to love with that deep love of the heart in which the senses have only an unconscious part; and that is why she remained pure, innocent even in crime, and that is why, when the soul of Faust is still dazzled with celestial splendors, she is called to initiate him to the brightness of the new day.

Vergönne mir ihn zu belehren,
Noch blendet ihn der neue Tag.


I confess that I find this ideal all Christian

rather strange and very little in agreement with what was so pagan in Goethe’s genius.


Do not worry, Marcel. The pagan ideal will not lose its rights in the Germanic poem. To introduce him, Goethe will split his type of woman. Of even as he represented the virile nature under two faces in the figure of Faust and Mephistopheles, so he will show his Eternal Feminine, under his double antique and modern aspect, in the person of Helen and Marguerite. The legend authorized him as Dante to this introduction of the pagan element in his Christian action. But do not anticipate too much on the march of the drama. We are still at the moment only at the appearance of the image of Marguerite in the mirror of the witch. The love which lights up at his sight in the soul of Faust, and which will form the knot of tragedy, has been celebrated at home by all the arts; he obtained grace in France for the philosophy of the poem. Let’s briefly recall its character and development. When Faust is led by Mephistopheles in the modest retreat of the absent girl, at the sight of this asylum where days of innocence pass by, in this “sanctuary,” it is the expression that Goethe can not find. too high, Faust is seized with respect. The presence of Mephistopheles, in such a place, the important; he dismisses him; remained alone, he opens his soul to the ineffable sweetness of this atmosphere of peace. He contemplates the venerable chair of the grandmother; with a trembling hand he raises the curtains of the virgin bed; he shudders at the thought that he might want to seduce so much candor. Mephistopheles came suddenly to warn that Marguerite is here to go: “Let’s go, let’s go,” he said, moving away in haste, “never, never will I come back!” ” The days of innocence are unknown, and in this “sanctuary,” Goethe’s expression is not too high, and Faust is seized with respect. The presence of Mephistopheles, in such a place, the important; he dismisses him; remained alone, he opens his soul to the ineffable sweetness of this atmosphere of peace. He contemplates the venerable chair of the grandmother; with a trembling hand he raises the curtains of the virgin bed; he shudders at the thought that he might want to seduce so much candor. Mephistopheles came suddenly to warn that Marguerite is here to go: “Let’s go, let’s go,” he said, moving away in haste, “never, never will I come back!” ” The days of innocence are unknown, and in this “sanctuary,” Goethe’s expression is not too high, and Faust is seized with respect. The presence of Mephistopheles, in such a place, the important; he dismisses him; remained alone, he opens his soul to the ineffable sweetness of this atmosphere of peace. He contemplates the venerable chair of the grandmother; with a trembling hand he raises the curtains of the virgin bed; he shudders at the thought that he might want to seduce so much candor. Mephistopheles came suddenly to warn that Marguerite is here to go: “Let’s go, let’s go,” he said, moving away in haste, “never, never will I come back!” ” The presence of Mephistopheles, in such a place, the important; he dismisses him; remained alone, he opens his soul to the ineffable sweetness of this atmosphere of peace. He contemplates the venerable chair of the grandmother; with a trembling hand he raises the curtains of the virgin bed; he shudders at the thought that he might want to seduce so much candor. Mephistopheles came suddenly to warn that Marguerite is here to go: “Let’s go, let’s go,” he said, moving away in haste, “never, never will I come back!” ” The presence of Mephistopheles, in such a place, the important; he dismisses him; remained alone, he opens his soul to the ineffable sweetness of this atmosphere of peace. He contemplates the venerable chair of the grandmother; with a trembling hand he raises the curtains of the virgin bed; he shudders at the thought that he might want to seduce so much candor. Mephistopheles came suddenly to warn that Marguerite is here to go: “Let’s go, let’s go,” he said, moving away in haste, “never, never will I come back!” ” he shudders at the thought that he might want to seduce so much candor. Mephistopheles came suddenly to warn that Marguerite is here to go: “Let’s go, let’s go,” he said, moving away in haste, “never, never will I come back!” ” he shudders at the thought that he might want to seduce so much candor. Mephistopheles came suddenly to warn that Marguerite is here to go: “Let’s go, let’s go,” he said, moving away in haste, “never, never will I come back!” ”

In the walk in the garden, arranged by Mephistopheles who pursues her plan of seduction, Faust’s words to Marguerite are still marked by a deep respect. He admires from the best of his heart, as the most beautiful gift of nature, the simplicity of the girl; the love she inspires him, he feels “inexpressible, divine, eternal. The end of such love, he exclaimed exalted, would be despair! No ; end point! end point!

What do you say, Elijah? Is this the skeptic, the libertine, the indifferent poet whom French criticism has discovered in Goethe, and who can not be compared to Dante?

l’éther et qui attire à elle « le meilleur de son âme. »

Wie Seelenschönheit steigert sich die holde Form,
Lös’t sich nicht auf, erhebt sich in den Aether hin,
Und zieht das Beste meines Innern mit sich fort.

Et cette conception | platonicienne de la beauté, de l’amour, Gœthe la met à la fin de son poême dans la bouche de la Reine du ciel :

Komm ! hebe dich zu höhern Sphären !
Wenn er dich ahnet, folgt er nach.

« Viens, élève-toi vers des sphères supérieures ; s’il te pressent, il te suivra, » dit la Mater Gloriosa à Marguerite déjà transfigurée.

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Béatrice est semblable par un de ses aspects à Marguerite, elle symbolise comme elle l’amour pur, je le veux bien ; mais Béatrice est aussi, dans les cantiques, la sagesse. Elle n’a jamais failli, que je sache; elle expose à Dante les vraies doctrines ; elle parle pour le moins aussi bien que saint Thomas. Elle ressemble à la Dame Philosophie, à la superbe stoïcienne qui consolait Boéce, beaucoup plus qu’à cette ignorante Gretchen qui n’a jamais rien appris qu’un peu de catéchisme, qui se laisse abuser comme une pauvre villageoise qu’elle est, qui tue ou fait tuer, sans trop s’en douter, sa mère, son frère, son enfant, et qui perd à la fin de la tragédie le peu de bon sens, le peu d’esprit qu’elle avait au COmmencement.

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A la fin de la première partie, Marcel; mais dans la seconde, où nous la verrons reparaître transfigurée, elle sera aussi puissante dans son humilité que l’altière Béatrice. Je ne veux pas nier cependant que votre remarque ne soit juste en une certaine manière. Marguerite, même dans la gloire céleste, reste toujours la candide et simple jeune fille qui a péché, qui a souffert. Una Paenitentium est son nom. Elle n’est ni une stoïcienne ni une héroïne, la pauvre enfant, mais une douce chrétienne. Elle n’a jamais rien su, rien voulu ici-bas qu’aimer, aimer de ce profond amour du cœur où les sens n’ont qu’une part inconsciente ; et c’est pourquoi elle est demeurée pure, innocente jusque dans lc crime, et c’est pourquoi, lorsque l’âme de Faust est tout éblouie encore des splendeurs célestes, elle est appelée à l’initier aux clartés du jour nouveau.

Vergönne mir ihn zu belehren,
Noch blendet ihn der neue Tag.

M A R C E L .

Je vous avoue que je trouve cet idéal tout chrétien

assez étrange et fort peu d’accord avec ce qu’il y avait de si païen dans le génie de Gœthe.


Rassurez-vous, Marcel. L’idéal païen ne perdra pas ses droits dans le poéme germanique. Pour l’y introduire, Gœthe va dédoubler son type de femme. De même qu’il a représenté la nature virile sous deux faces dans la figure de Faust et de Méphistophélès, ainsi il montrera son Éternel-Féminin, sous son double aspect antique et moderne, dans la personne d’Hélène et de Marguerite. La légende l’autorisait comme Dante à cette introduction de l’élément païen dans son action chrétienne. Mais n’anticipons pas trop sur la marche du drame. Nous n’en sommes encore pour le moment qu’à l’apparition de l’image de Marguerite dans le miroir de la sorcière. L’amour qui s’allume à sa vue dans l’âme de Faust et qui va former le nœud de la tragédie, a été célébré chez nous par tous les arts; il a obtenu grâce en France pour la philosophie du poéme. Rappelons brièvement son caractère et son développement. Lorsque Faust est conduit par Méphistophélès dans le modeste réduit de la jeune fille absente, à la vue de cet asile où s’écoulent ignorés des jours d’innocence, dans ce « sanctuaire, » c’est l’expression que Gœthe ne trouve pas trop haute, Faust est saisi de respect. La présence de Méphistophélès, dans un tel lieu, l’impor, tune; il le congédie ; resté seul, il ouvre son âme à l’ineffable suavité de cette atmosphère de paix. Il contemple le fauteuil vénérable de l’aïeule ; d’une main tremblante, il soulève les rideaux du lit virginal; il frémit à la pensée qu’il pourrait vouloir séduire tant de candeur. A Méphistophélès survenu brusquement pour l’avertir que Marguerite est là qui va rentrer : « Partons, partons, dit-il en s’éloignant avec précipitation, jamais, non jamais je ne reviendrai! »

Dans la promenade au jardin, ménagée par Méphistophélès qui poursuit son plan de séduction, les paroles de Faust à Marguerite sont empreintes encore d’un respect profond. ll admire du meilleur de son cœur, comme le plus beau don de la nature, la simplicité de la jeune fille; l’amour qu’elle lui inspire, il le sent « inexprimable, divin, éternel. » La fin d’un tel amour, s’écrie-t-il exalté, ce serait le désespoir ! Non ; point de fin ! point de fin !

Qu’en dites-vous, Élie? Est-ce bien là le sceptique, le libertin, le poête indifférent que la critique française a découvert en Gœthe, et qu’il n’est pas permis de comparer à Dante ?


J’ai bien peur que vous n’arrangiez un peu tout cela à votre belle façon imaginative.

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Aucunement, je vous jure. Et ce que j’essaye de vous rendre dans ma prose sans génie, il n’est besoin de vous le dire, n’approche ni de près ni de loin des élans passionnés de la poésie de Gœthe.

Le monologue de Faust sur les cimes alpestres où il a fui le tentateur, est d’une poésie plus profonde encore que le monologue si cèlèbre du commencement. Arraché par un effort de sa volonté à l’entrainement des sens, l’âme de Faust a repris l’empire d’elle-même. Au souffle pur des hautes solitudes, elle se rouvre au sentiment de la vie universelle. Mais le démon ne le

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laisse pas longtemps à ses contemplations. Il accourt vers lui; il raille sa vie d’anachorète. Par des images licencieuses, il essaye de réveiller en lui les appétits charnels. Puis, voyant que les suggestions des sens ne troublent plus la sérénité de Faust, il s’adresse à son cœur; il lui peint les tristesses de Marguerite, l’amour qui la consume, le regret qui la ronge dans le cruel abandon de celui qu’elle ne saurait plus oublier. Faust s’émeut. Ce cœur si fort ne saurait supporter la pensée des douleurs qu’il a causées. Il se défend encore contre Méphistophélès, mais sa défense faiblit. Il commande · au tentateur de s’éloigner, mais sa voix tremble. Avec la pitié, la passion est rentrée dans son cœur. Toutes les péripéties, toutes les émotions de cette passion terrible qui entraînent l’innocence de Marguerite à la faute, au crime, à la plus épouvantable catastrophe, vous sont trop présentes pour que nous nous y arrêtions, malgré leur beauté. Je voudrais seulement vous rendre attentifs à l’idée morale qui en ressort.

Dictionary of phrase and fable. [A dictionary of English literature] by W.D … (Google Books)



the power of restoring the aged to youth aod beauty. — Greek mythology.

Wreathed smiles
Hnoh as hang on ilea’s cheek.
Ami love to live Id dimple sleek.

JftUo*. •* VAttvn,’

Hebe Vases. Small vases like a cotyligcos. So termed because Hebe is represented as bearing one containing Dec tar for the gods.

Hebertistes (3 syl.). The partisans of the vile demagogue, Jaques Rene’ Hehert, chief of the Cordeliers, a revolutionary club which boasted of such names aa Anacharsis Clootz, Ronsin, Vinceni

Heb’ron, in the satire of “Absalom ud Achitophel,” in the first part stands for Holland, but in the second part for Scotland. Heb’ronite (3 syl.), a native of Holland, or Scotland.

Hec’ate (3 syl. in Greek, 2 in Eng.). A triple deity, called Phoebe or the Moon in heaven, Diana on the earth, and Hecate or Proserpine in hell. She is described as having three heads—one of a horse, one of a clog, and one of a lion. Her offerings consisted of dogs, honey, and black lambs. She was sometimes called “Tri’via,” because offerings were presented to her at cross-roads. Shakespeare refers to the triple character of this goddess.

And we fairies that do ran
Bj th« triple Hecate’s team.

“Uidtummer Aiyfti’s Urmm,* v. 1.

Heeale, daughter of Perses the Titan, is a very different person to the “Triple Hecate,” who, according to Hesiod, was daughter of Zeus and Deme’ter. This latter was a benevolent goddess, for whom Zeus had more regard than for any other deity. The former was a Titan who poisoned her father, raised a temple to Diana in which she immolated strangers, and was mother of Mede’a aod Circe1. She presided over magic and enchantments, taught sorcery and witchcraft. She is represented with a lighted torch and a sword, and is attended with two black dogs.

Now witchcraft oclehrntee
Vn.h Hecate’s offerings.

Ohaktgytart, “Uacbeth,” jL 1.

Hector. Eldest son of Priam, the noblest and moat magnanimous of all

the chieftains in Homer’s “Iliad” (a Greek epic). After holding out for ten years, he was slain by Achilles, who lashed him to his chariot, and dragged the dead body in triumph thrice round the walls of Troy. The “Iliad” concludes with the funeral obsequies of Hector and Patroclos.

The Hector of Germany. Joachim II., elector of Brandenburg. (1514-1571.)

Hector. A leader; so called from the son of Priam and generalissimo of the Trojans.

Hector. To bully, or play the bully. It is hard to conceive how the brave, modest, noble-minded patriot came to be made

the synonym of a braggart and blusterer like Ajaz.

You wear Hector’s cloak. You are paid off for trying to deceive another. You are paid in your own coin. When Thomas Percy, earl of Northumberland, in 1569, was routed, he hid himself in the house of Hector Armstrong, of Harlaw. This villain betrayed him for the reward offered, but never after did anything go well with him; he went down, down, down, till at last he died a beggar in rags on the road-side.

Hec’uba. Second wife of Priam, and mother of nineteen children. When Troy was taken by the Greeks, she fell to the lot of Ulysses. She was afterwards metamorphosed into a dog, and threw horself into the sea. The place where she perished was afterwards called the Dog’s-grave (cynos-se’ma).—Homer, “Iliad,’ &o.

On to Hecuba. To the point or main incident. The story of Hecuba has furnished a host of Greek tragedies.

Hedge. To hedge In betting is to defend oneself from loss by cross-bets. As a hedge is a defence, so cross-betting is hedging.—E. Hunt, ” The Town,” U.

Hedge Lane (London) includes that whole line of streets (Dorset, Whitoomb, Prince’s, and Wardour) stretching from Pall Mall East to Oxford Street

Hedge-Priest. A poor or vagabond parson. The use of hedge for vagabond or very inferior is common: as hedgemustard, hedge-writer (a Grub-street author), hedge-marriage (a clandestine one), So. Shakespeare uses the phrase, “hedge-born swain ” as the very opposite of “gentle blood.”-“l Henry V/./iv. \. 808 HEELS.


Heels. Out at heels. In a sad plight. Id decayed circumstances, like a beggar whose stockings are worn out at the heels.

A good mnn’l fortune may grow ou*. at heela.

tituiktsiKart, “Kino Ltar,~ U. S.

Heel-tap. Bumperi all round, and no heel taps, i.e., the bumpers are to be drained to the bottom of the glass. A heel-tap is the peg in the heel of a shoe, which is taken out when the shoe is finished; metaphorically the wine left in a glass when the drinker sets it down as “empty ” or finished.

Heenan. In Heenan style. “By apostolic blows and knocks. Heenan, the Bernicia boy of North America, disputed for the champion’s belt against Bayers, the British champion. His build and muscle were the admiration of the ring.

Heep (Uriah). An abject toady, malignant as he is base; always boasting of his ‘umble birth, ‘umhle position, ‘umble abode, and ‘umble calling. — Dickens, “David Copperfield.”

Hegem’ony (4 syl.). The lugemony of nations. The leadership. (Greek, hegemon’ia, from ago, to lead.)

Hegi’ra. The epoch of the flight of Mahomet from Mecca, when he was expelled by the magistrates, July 16, 622. From this event the Mahometans begin their dates (Arabic, hajara, to remove). Properly, Hefdjrah (2 syl.)

He’il (2 syl.). An idol of the ancient Celts, worshipped in Devonshire.

HeimdaU (2 syl.). In Celtic mythology, son of the nine virgins, all sisters. He is called the god with the golden tooth, or with golden teeth. He is said to live at the further extremity of the bridge Bifrost (?.».), and keep the keys of heaven. He is watchman or sentinel of Asgard (q.v.), sleeps less than a bird, sees even in sleep, can hear the grass grow, and even the wool on a lamb’s back. Heimdall, at tho end of tho world, will wake the gods with his trumpet, when the sons of Muspell will go against them, with LokS, the wolf renris, and the great sorpent Jormungandar.

Heimdaller. The learned humbugs in the court of king Dinu’be’ of Hisisburg, —” Grimm’s Goblins.”

Heimskrin’gla. The universe.— Scandinavian.

Heims-Kringla (The). A prose legend of historic foundation found in the Snorra Edda.

Heir Apparent. Tho person who is heir if he survives. At tho death of his predecessor the heir-apparont becomes heir-at-laK.

Heir Presumptive. One who will bo heir, if no one is born having a prior claim. Thus the princess royal was heir-presumptive till the prince of Wales was born, and if the prince of Wales had been king before any family had been born to him, his brother prinoo Alfred would have been heir-presumptive.

Hel or Beta (in Scandinavian mythology) is goddess of the ninth earth or nether world. She dwelt beneath the roots of the sacred ash (yggdrasil), and was the daughter of Loki or LoktL The All-father sent her into Niflheim, where she was given dominion over nine worlds, and to one or other of these nine worlds she sends all who die of sickness or old age. Her dwelling is Elvid’nir (dark clouds), her dish Ilungr (hunger), her knife Sullt (starvation), her servants Gangla’ti (tardy-feet), her bed Kor (sickness), and her bed-curtains Blikian’dabol (splendid misery). Half her body was blue.

Down the Yawning steep be rode
That led U> lielu’a drear abode.

e<«r,” Ituara of Ota.”

Hel Keplein. A mantle of invisibility belonging to the dwarf-king Laurin. (Gorman, hehlen, to conceal).—The “Htidentmch.

Heldenbuch (Book of Heroes). A German compilation of all the romances pertaining to Didorick and his champions, by Wolfram von Eschenbach.

Helen. The type of female beauty, more especially in those who have reached womanhood. She was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and the wife of Menela’os, king of Sparta.

She move* a goddess and she looks a queen.

Pops,”Iliair Ui.

The Helen of Spain. Cava or Florinda, daughter of oount Julian. (See Cava.)

St. Helen. Represented in royal robes, wearing an imperial crown, because she was empress. Sometimes she carries in her hand a model of the Holy Sepulchre, an edifice raised by her in the East; snmetimos she bears a large cross. HELENA.


typical of her alleged discovery of that upon which the Saviour was crucified; aomeiimes she also bears the three coils fv which he was affixed to the cross.

St. Helen’s fire (feu d’Helene); also called Feu St. Iterme (St. Helme’s or St. Elmo’s fire); ami by the Italians” the fires of St. Peter and St Nicholas.” Motcorio fires Been occasionally on the masts of Fliips, kc. If the Same is single, foul and tempestuous weather is said to be at hand; but if two or more flames appear, lie weather will improve. (See Castob.)

Hel’ena. The type of a lovely woman, patient and hopeful, strong in feeling, and sustained through trials by her enduring and heroio faith.—Sfiaieipeare,”AlCs Well that Endt Well.”

Hel’enos. The prophet, the only «on of Priam that survived the fall of Troy. He fell to the share of Pyrrhos when the captives were awarded; and because he saved the life of the young Grecian, was allowed to marry Androm«chs, his brother Hector’s widow. — Virgil, “AVneid.”

Hel icon. The Muses-‘ Monnt. It is part of the Parnassos, a mountain range In Greece.

Helicon’s harmonious stream is the stream which flowed from the mountains to the fountains of the Muses, called Aganippe and Hip’pocrene (3 syl.).

Heligh-Monat (Holy-month). The name given by the Anglo-Saxons to the month of December, in allusion to Christmas-day.

Helios. The Greek Sun-god, who rode to his palace in Colchis every night ■a a golden boat furnished with wings.

Heliotrope (4 syl.). Apollo loved Clyt’io, but forsook her for her sister Leucoth’oe. On discovering this, Clytia pined away, and Apollo changed her at death to a flower, which, always turning towards the sun, is called heliotropo (Greek, “turn-to-sun “).

Hell. In the Buddhist system there are 136 places of punishment after death, where tbe dead are sent according to their degree of demerit. (See EuriiKM


Descended into hell (Creed) means tbe place of the dead. Anglo-Saxon he/an, to cover or conoeal, Tike the Greek “Ha’des,” the abode of the dead, from

the verb a-eido, not to see. In both cases It means “the unseen world” or “the world concealed from sight.” The god of this nether world was called ” Hades ” by the Greeks, and “Hel” or “Hella” by the Scandinavians. In some counties of England to cover in with a roof is “to hell the building,” and thatchors or tilers are termed “helliers.”

Lead ape* in Ml. Die an old maid. As an old maid would not lead a husband in this world, she will be doomed to lead or marry an ape in the realms infernal. Beatrice says—

Ho that In more than youth la not for mo. and bo that Is less than man I nm not for him; therefore I will . . . even Inad hit open into hell.

Shaktirtart,” Much Ado About Notkina” li. 1.

But ‘tlo an old proverb, and you know It well.
That women, dying maiJo, lead apes in hell.

*• The London Prodigal,- il

Hell Gate. A dangerous pass between Great Barn Island and Long Island (North America). The Dutch settlers of New York gave it this name because its navigation was very dangerous.

Hell-gates, according to Milton, are nine-fold—throe of brass, three of iron, and three of adamant; the keepers are Sin and Death. This allegory is one of the most celebrated passages of “Paradise Lost.” (See Book ii., 643-676.)

Hell Hetties. Cavities three milos long at Oxen-le-field, in Durham.

Hell Shoe. In Icelandic mythology, indispensable for the journey to Valhalla as the obolus for crossing the Styx.

Hellanod’icee. Umpires of the public games in Greece. They might chastise with a stick any one who created a disturbance. Lichas, a Spartan nobleman, was so punished by them.

Helle’nes (3 syl.). “This word had in Palestine three several meanings: Sometimes it designated the pagans; sometimes the Jews, speaking Greek, and dwelling among the pagans; and sometimes men of pagan origin converted to Judaism” (John, vii. 35, xii. 20: Acts, xiv. 1, xvii. 4, xviii. 4, xxi. 28).—Renan, “Life of Jesus,” xiv.

N.B.—The present Greeks call themselves “Helle’nes,” and the king is termed “King of the Helle’nes.” The ancient Greeks called their country i *’ Hellas j” it was the Romans who misnamod it ” Grtecia.”



Helle’nio. The common dialect of the Greek writers after the age of Alexander. It was based on the Attic

Hellenis’tic. The dialect of the Greek language used by the Jews. It was full of Oriental idioms and metaphors.

Hell’enists. Those Jews who used the Greek or Helle’nio language. (All these four words are derived from Hellas, m Thessaly, the cradle of the race.)

Hellespont (3 syl.), now called the Dardanelles, means the “sea of Helle,” and was so called because Helle’, the sister of Phryxos, was drowned there while seeking to escape from Ino, her mother-in-law, who most cruelly oppressed her. Both Helle and Phryxos were transported through the air on a golden ram, but Helle, turning giddy, fell into the sea, whioh was accordingly called after her name.

Helmets. Those of Saragossa were most in repute in the days of chivalry.

Clou helmet. The complete head-piece, having in front two movable parts, which could be lifted up or let down at pleasure.

Vitor. One of the moral >lo parts; it wjs to look through.

Bevtr, or drinking-piece. One of the movable parts, which was lifted up when the wearer ate or drank. It comes from the Italian verb bevert (to drink).

Mdrion. A low iron cop, worn only by infantry.

Mahomet’s Helmet. Mahomet wore a double helmet; the exterior one was called al mawashaA (the wreathed garland).

The helmet of Perseut, which rendered the wearer invisible. This was the “Helmet of Ha’de’s,” which, with the winged sandals and magic wallet, he took from certain nymphs who held them in possession; but after he had (lain Medusa he restored them again, and presented the gorgon’s head to Athe’na [Minerva}, who placed it in the middle of her tegis.

Helon, in the satire of “Absalom and Achitophel,” by Dryden and Tate, is meant for the earl of Feversham.

Helter-skelter. Higgledy-piggledy; in hurry and confusion. “The Latin kilariterceleriter comes tolerably near the meaning of post hasto. as Shakos- I

peare uses the expression (2 Henry IV., v. 3):—

Blr John, I am thj Pistol and th j friend.
And helter-akelier have I lode to thee.
And tidings do I brine.

The archaic word Kelt, “poured out,” is doubtless the same as heller; and probably tielter is a variation of the same.

Helve. To threne the helve after the hatchet. To be reckless, to throw away what remains because your losses have been so great. The allusion is to the fable of the wood-cutter who lost the head of his axe in a river, and threw the handle in after it.

Helve’tia. Switzerland. So called from the Helve’tii, a powerful Celtic people who dwelt thereabouts.

See from the ashes of Helvetia’s pile

The whitened skull of old Serve’tu* i-nile.

Hemp. To have tome hemp in your pocket. To have luck on your side in the most adverse circumstances. The phrase is French (Avoir de la corde-de-pendu dans sa poche), referring to the popular notion that hemp brings good luck.

Hempe (1 tyl.). When Hempe it tpun England it done. Lord Bacon says he heard the prophecy when he was a child, and he interpreted it thus; Hempe is composed of the initial letters of Henry, A’dward, 3/ary, /’liilip, and Elizabeth. At the close of the last reign ” England was done,” for the sovereign no longer styled himself “King of EnglaDd,” but “King of Great Britain and Ireland.” {See NOTABICA.)

Hempen Caudle. A hangman’s rope.

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HERBS. 399

Hen and Chickens (in Christina irt), emblematical of God’s providence. (Ste “St Matthew,” xxiii. 37.)

A whittling maul and crowing hen u wither /I for God nor men. A whistling maid means a witch, who whistles like the Lapland witches to call up the winds; they were supposed to be in league with the devil. The crowing of a hen was supposed to forbode a death. The usual interpretation is that masculine qualities in females are undesirable, but admitting the truth of the dictum, it would be the grossest exaggeration to say that masculine women are unfit for heaven.

Hen-pecked. A man who submits to be snubbed by his wife. It is a fact that cocks, though nry brave at large, are frequently under hen-government in

Henchman. Hencliboy. The Saxon

hoc is a servant or page.

I do but beg a little changeling boy
To be my henchman.

“MitUumwer Ntffht’M Dream.* u. 1.

Hengist and Horsa. German Kennsl (a stallion), and Horsa is connected with our Anglo-Saxon word hort (horse). If ‘he names of two brothers, probably they were given them from the devices borne on their arms.

According to tradition, tbey landed in Pegwell Bay, Kent

Henna. The Persian ladies tingo the tips of their fingers with henna, to make them a reddish-yellow.

Hennil. Idol of the Vandals. It was represented as a stick surmounted with a hand holding an iron ring.

Hen’ricans or HcnricXans. A religious sect. So called from Henri’cus, its founder, an Italian monk, who, in the twelfth century, undertook to reform the rices of the clergy. He rejected infant baptism, festivals, and ceremonies. He was imprisoned by pope Euge’nius III. in 1148.

Henrietta (3 syl.), in the French language, means “a perfect woman.” The character U from Moliere’s “Fcinmea S&Tantee.”

Henry Grace de Dieu. The largest •hip built by Henry VIII.; it carried 72 guns, 700 men, and was 1,000 tons bur(baa. 14m Quit Uahut.)

Hephsss’tOB. The Greek Vulcan.

Heptarchy (Greek for seven govern menti). The Saxon Heptarchy is the division of England into seven parts, each of which had a separate ruler: as Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Essex, East Anglia, Meroia, and Northumbria.

He’ra. The Greok Juno, and wife of Zous. (The word means 11 chosen one,” huireo.~)

Heraclei’dsa (4 syl.). The descendants of Heracles (Latin, Hercules).


The coat o/armi represent* the knight himself from whom the bearer is descended.

The ikietd represents his body, and the helmet his head.

The flourish is his mantle.

The motto is the ground or moral pretension on which he stands.

The supporters are the pages, designated by the emblems of bears, lions, and so on.

Herald’s College consists of three kings-at-arms, six heralds, and four pursuivants.

The three kings-at-arms are Garter (blue), Clarencieux and Norroy (purple).

The six heralds are styled Somerset, Richmond, Lancaster, Windsor, Chester, and York.

The Jour pursuivants are Rouge Dragon, Blue Mamie, Portcullis, aud Rouge Croix.

Garter Kino-at-arms is so called because of bis special duty to attend at the solemnities of election, investiture, and installation of the Knights of the Garter.

Clarencieux Kino-at-arms. So called from the duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV. His duty is to marshal and dispose the funerals of knights on the south side of the Trent.

Norroy Kino-at-arms has similar jurisdiction to Clarencieux, only on the north side of the Trent.

•J In Scotland the heraldio^ollege consists of the Lyon Kino-at-arms, six heralds, and five pursuivants.

1 In Ireland it consists of the Ulster Kino-at-arms, two heralds, and two pursuivants.

Herbs. Many herbs are used for curative purposes simply because of their

Chiefly the Orient : an undigested journal (

Saturday, February 25

ANOTHER good day at shooting. The grouse
were plentiful, but we had only a few glimpses of
buck. There were several villages near where we were.
The houses are all of mud and seemingly without
windows. The streets are narrow and tortuous, and
the whole gives one the impression of a ruined fort.
Pariah dogs, goats, and cattle move about indiscrimi-
nately with the people. We arrived at Delhi about
six. I was anxious to press on to Jaipur as we have a
letter there to the Maharajah, but the others wanted
another day’s shooting at Dadri. At last I have
heard from Caleb by wire; we will probably meet in

The London Journal: And Weekly Record of Literature, Science, and Art, Volume 55 (Google Books)


LALLY returned to Canterbury in the cab that had brought her out to Sandy Lands, Mrs. Blight‘s pert little villa in the suburbs, and entered upon the task of procuring a neat, although necessarily scanty wardrobc. She bought acbeap box, which she had sent to her lodgings. A draper’a in the town yielded her a change of under garments, another print dress, a. gown of black alpaca, and a supply of collars and cufl’s; her entire purchases amounting to three pounds ton shillings. She carried her efi’ects to her attic lodging, the rent of which had been paid in advance, packed her box, and set out again in the cab for Sandy Lands. .

It was noon when the vehicle stopped again before the little Villa- The cabman rang the garden bell as before, andvwhen the housemaid appeared be dumped down Lally’s box upon the gravclled walk, received his pay, and departed. The smart honsemaid was as contemptuous as before of Lally’s humble garments, but spoke to her familiarly, as if the two were upon a. social level, and conducted her towards the rear porch, saying—

“ Missus said you was to be shown up to your room,

miss, to make your twilet before seeing the children..

If you please,” added the ‘girl, with increasing familiarity, “ you and I are to see a good deal of each other, and so I want to know what to call you.”

Whatever the social rank of Lally’s parents, Lally herself was a lady by instinct and education. The housemaid’s easy patronage was offensive to her. She answered, quietly— .

” You may call me Miss Bird.”

. “011,” said the housemaid, with a said‘ and a toss of her head. “ That’s the talk, is it? Well, then, Miss Bird, follow me up to your room. This way, Miss Brid. Up these stairs, Miss Bird.”

Lally followed her guide up the stairs to the third and topmost story, and to a rear room.

“This is the room of the nussery governess,” said the offended housemaid, her nose in the air. ” The room on your right is the, school-room, Miss Bird. That on the left is the nussery. You are to have your room to yourself, Miss Bird, which I hopes will suit

on. There’s no petting of goveruesses in this here stablishment. You rises at seven, Miss Bird, and eats with the children. You begins lessons at nine o’clock, Miss Bird, and keeps ’em up till luncheon, and then comes music, langwidges, and them sort. Dinner in the school’room, Miss Bird, at five o’clock. Your evenings you has to yourself.”

” I shall receive my list of duties from Mrs. Blight.” said Lally, pleasantly, “ but I am obliged to you all the same.”

The houscmaid’s face softened under Lally‘s gentleness and sweetness.

“I wouldn’t wonder if she was a. born lady, after all,” the girl thought. “ She won’t stand putting down, and her face is that sorrowful I pity her.”

But she did not give expression to these thoughts. What she did say was this—

“My name’s Loizy, and if I can do anything for you just let me know. There’s my ball, and I must go. When you get ready, come down stairs to missus’s boodoor.” V

She vanished just as the page-boy, or Buttons, as he was familiarly called, appeared with Lslly’s box. He set this down near the door, and also departed. Left alone, Lally examined her new home with a. faint thrill of interest.

The floor was bare, with the exception of a. strip of loose and threadbare carpet before vthe low brass bedstead. There was a chintz-covored couch, a chintzcovcred easy-chair, a chest of drawers. and a greenshuttered blind at the single window. The room had a dreary aspect, but to Lally it was a haven of refuge.

She locked her door, and knelt down and prayed, thanking heaven that it had been so good to her as to

give her a safe shelter and a home. Then, rising, sho dressed herself as quickly as possible, putting on her black alpaca dress, a spotless linen collar and cuffs, a black sash, and a black ribbon in her hair. Thus attired, she descended the stairs, finding the way to the boudoir, at the door of which she knocked.

Mrs. Blight’s languid voice bade her enter.

She obeyed, finding her employer still reclining in an arm-chair, looking as if she had not moved since Lally’s previous visit. She had a book in one hand, a paper-cutter in the other. She recognized Lally with a sort of pleased surprise.

“ Ah, back again, and punctual !” she exclaimed, glancing at a toy clock in white and blue enamel on the low mantelpiece. “ 1 had a great many misgivings after you went away, Miss Bird. Five pounds is a. good deal of money to one in your position in life, and the world is so full of swindlers. I have already written to the ladies to whom you referred me. I sup— pose I should have waited for their answer before engaging you, but I am such an impulsive creature, I always do just as I feel at the spur of the moment. My husband calls me ‘a child of impulse,’ and the words describe me exactly. I’m glad to see you back. I don’t know, I’m sure, what I should have said to Mr. Blight if you had decamped, for he does not appreciate my ability to read faces. The time I got taken in with my last cook—the one we found lying with her head in a brass kettle, and the kitchen fire gone out at the very hour when I had a large company assembled to dine with—Charles said, ‘Fudge! don’t let us hear any more about physiognomy.’ You see, I engaged the woman because her face was all that could be desired, and since that time Charles won’t hear a word about physicgnomy.”

Lally sat down, obeying a wave of Mrs. Bright’s hand. That “child of impulse,” silly, garrulous, and pull‘ed up with self-importance and vulgarity, pursued her theme until she had exhausted it.

“You are looking very well, Miss Bird,” she said, changing the subject, “but all in black. \Vhy, you are quite a black-bird, I declare,” and she laughed at her own wit. “Are you in mourning? Have you lately lost a friend?”

“Yes, madam,” said Lally, sorrowfully, “I have lately lost the only friend I had in the whole world.”

“Oh, indeed! That is sad; but I do hope you won’t wear a long face, and go moping about the house frightening thc children,” said Mrs. Blight, with a. candour that was less charming than oppressive to her newly-engaged governess. “You must do as the poet so romantically says—let your face he

‘“—warmcd by a bright, sunny smile, Though the cold heart to ruin runs darkly the while.’ If he doesn’t say just that, it’s some such thing, and a very pretty sentiment too. And now let us discuss your new duties.”

She proceeded to sketch Lally’s duties, much as tho housemaid had done. Then she gave a. history of each one of the five children who were to be under Lally‘s supervision. Three of the children were boys, and their fond mother described them as paragons. Her girls also were extraordinary in their mental and physical attractions, “ having once been taken, at the Zoological gardens, during a visit to London, by a strange gentleman, for the children of s nobleman !”

“I will accompany you to the nursery, Miss Bird,” said the lady, arising. “ I desire to introduce you to my darlings. I have great faith in the instincts of children, and I want to see what. my children think of


Accordingly Mrs. Blight conducted Lally again to the upper floor and to the nursery, which was at the moment of their entrance in a state of the wildest coufusion and disorder.

The nurse, a stout old woman, and the nursemaid, I. red-faced young girl, were in a. state of despair, and frantically holding their hands to their ears, while five robust, boisterous, rough-headed children rode about the room upon chairs, played “ tag,” and otherwise disported themselves.

The entrance of Mrs. Blight and Lally caused a cescation of the noise. The mother called her children to her, but they retreated with their fingers in their mouths,~lookiug askance at their new governess. The three “ noble’boys” presently set up a loud bellowing, and the two girls who had been “ mistaken by a strange gentleman for the children of a nobleman,” hid behind their nurses. ‘

It required all the pcrsuasious, coupled with threats, of Mrs. Blight, to induce her shy children to show themselves to Lally. It. appeared that they had a horror of governesses, regarding them as tyrants and ogresscs created especially to destroy the happiness of children ; but Lally’s smiles, added to the fact that she looked but little more than a child, finally induced them to be sociable, and to approach her.

“ In a day or two you won’t be able to do anything with them, miss,” said the head nurse. “ Tbey’ll ride roughshod over you.”

“ They are so spirited,” murmured Mrs. Blight. “ Study their characters closely, Miss Bird, and be very tender with them. I have one child more than the Queen, and my children are named from the Royal Family. These three boys are Leopold, Albert Victor, and George. The girls are named Victoria and Alberta. My elder children are at school. Children, this is Miss Bird, your new governess. Now come with her into the schoolroorn. Lessons commence immediately.”

The little floclr, with Lally at their head, was conducted to the schoolroom—a large, bare apartment, furnished with two benches. a teacher’s chair and desk, and a blackboard. Here Mrs Blight left them, con-I viuced that she had fulfilled her. duties as parent and employer, and returned to her book.

Lally proceeded to examine into the acquirements of her pupils, finding them lamentably ignorant. Lessons were given out. but there was no disposition on the part of her pupils to study. They throw paper balls at each other. whispered and giggled, and altogether proved at the very outset a sore trial to their young teacher. Their shyness lasted for bats brief period, and then. having no longer fear of the sad-faced gover— ness, began to romp about the room, to shout, and to engage in a general game of frolics.

Lolly had a vein of decision in her character. and will! the exercise of a gentle firmness, she induced her pupils to return to their seats. She explained their lessons to them with an unfailing patience; but the hours of that September afternoon seemed almost endless to her. The children were forward, disobedient, and idle. They had been spoiled by their mother, and were full of mischievous tricks, so that Lalla‘s soul Wearicd within her.

Dinner, a very plain and frugal one, was served to the governess and the children in the schoolroorn at five o’clock. After dinner, Lally’s time belonged to herself, and she put on her hat and wentout fora walk, having a longing for the fresh air.

The first day at Sandy Lands was a fair type of the days that followed. The children, under Lally‘s firm but gentle rule, became more quiet and studious, and concvived an affection for their young governess. Mrs. Blight was delighted with their improvement. She had received a reply from Lally’s former employers, giving the young girl very high praise, and was consequently well pleased with herself for securing such valuable services as Lully’s at a salary less than half she had ever before paid to a governess.

ltlr. Blight was a lawyer in good practice at Canterbury, and spent his days at his ofilce, returning to Sandy. Lands to dine, and leaving home immediately after breakfast. He was a small, ferret-eyed man, always in a hurry, a more money-making machine, with a great ambition to make or acquire a fortune.

At present he lived fully up to his income, a fact whinh gave both him and Mrs. Blight much secret anxiety. With ten children to educate and provide for, several servants to pay, a carriage and pair for Mrs. Blight, and the lawyer’s wines, cigars, frequent elaborate dinners to his friends, and other items by no means small to settle, Mr. Blight was continually harassed by debt, and yet had not sutllcient strength of will to reduce his expenses and live within his income.

Ono cause, perhaps, of their indiscrect self-indulgenes was that they had “ expectations.” ‘

There was an old lady connected with the family, the widow of a wealthy London banker who had been Mr. Blight’s uncle. This old lady was supposed to have no’relstivos of her own to enrich at her death, and the Blighta hnd lively hopes of inheriting her fifty thousand pounds, which as descended to her absolutely at her husband’s death, and of which she was free to dispose as she might choose.

This lady lived in London, at the West-end. was very eccentric, vsryirasclbls, and went little into society, being quite aged and infirm; She was in the habit of coming down to Sandy Lands annually in September, ostensibly to spends month with her late husband‘s relatives; but. due always returned home within a week, alleging that she could not bear the noise of the Blight children, and that a month under the same roof with them would deprive her of life or reason.

It was now about the time of this lady’s annual visit,

and one morning, when Lally had been about two‘

weeks at Sandy Lands, Mrs. Blight came up to the school-room, an open letter in her band. and dismissing the children to the nursery, said, confidentially—

“Miss Bird, 1 have just received a letter from the widow of my husband’s uncle, a remarkable old lady, with fifty thousand pounds at. her own absolute disposal. My husband is naturally tho old lady’s heir, being her late- husband’s nephew, nnd we expect to inherit her property. Her name in Mrs. Wroat.’

” An odd name!” murmured Lally.

“And she‘s as odd as her name,” declared Mrs. Blight. “ She comes here at this time every year, and always brings a parrot, a lap-dog, a bandbox in a green muslin case, a blue umbrella, and a snufi‘y old maid, who eyes us all as if we had desi no on her mistrcss’s life. The absurd old creatur’ is devoted to her mistress, who is a mere bundle of whims and rcocntriciiies. The old lady calls for soup of cafiy’co at midnight, and she hates our door children, and she thrashed Leopold with her cans last year, because he put bottles in her bed and flour on “her best cap, the poor dear innccaut child! And I never

dared to interfere to save Leopold, though his screams rang through the house, and I stood outside her door listening and peeping, for you know we must have her fifty thousand pounds, even if lhB takes the lives of all my darlings!” and Mrs. Blight’s tone was pathetic. “She’s a nasty old beast—there! Of course I say it in cunfidenc”, Miss Bird. It would be all up with us. if Aunt Wroat were tn hear that I said that. She’s very tenacious of respect, and all that bother, and insisted I should punish Albert Victor because he called her ‘ n’old curmudgeon.”‘

“ When 0 you expect this lady P” asked Lally.

“To-marrow, with her maid, lapdog, parrot, umbrella, and bandbox. She writes that she will stay a month, and that she must have no annoyance from the children, and that she won’t have them in her room-— tho old nuisance! If it wasn’t for her money, l’d telegraph her to go. to Guinea, but as we are situated 1 ‘can’t. I must put up with her ways. And what I want of you, Miss Bird, is to see that the children do not stir off this floor while she is here. Let them die for want of exercise, the poor darlings, rather than we ofi’snd this horrid old woman. If we sacrifice ourselves, she can’t leave her property to some fusty old charity, that’s one comfort.”

“ I will do my best tp keep the children out of Mrs. Wroat’s sight,” laid Lall y, gravely.

“You must succeed in doing so, for the old lad says this will probably be her last visit to us, as she s growing more and more infirm, and she hints that it is time to make her will. Everything depends upon her reception on the occasion of this .visit. Let her get mitl’ed at us, and it’s all up. I declare I wish 1 had a place where I could hive the children during her stay. She must not see or hear them, Miss Bird.”

” Is there anything more that I can do, Mrs. Blight?”

“ Yes. She always has the governess play upon the piano and sing to her in the evening. She is fond of music—desperately so. \Ve always hire a cottage piano, and put it in her sitting-room while she stays, and the governess plays to her there of cvsnin s. She’s very liberal with a governess who can play w . She gave Miss Oddly last year a five~pcund-note. And always, when she leaves us after a. visit, she hands me twenty pounds, and says she never wants to be indebted to anybody, and that’s to defray her expenses while hero. I have to take it; I wouldn’t dare to refuse it.”

“I shall be glad to amuse her in any way, Mrs. Blight,” declared the young governess; “I shall not mind her eocentricitiea, and shall remember that she is aged and infirm.”

“‘ And that she has fifty thousand pounds which we must have,” said Mrs. Blight. ” Don‘t fail to remember that!”

Much relieved at having guarded her against a meeting between her expoctbd guest and her children, Mrs. Blight departed to seek an interview with her cook.

Extensive preparations were made that day for the reception of Mrs. Wroat. ‘l‘wo rooms were prepared for her use, one of them having two beds–one bed being for the use of the maid. A cottage piano was hired and put into one of the rooms. The choicest articles of furniture in the house were arranged for her use.

The hint that Mrs. Wroat was thinking of making her will was suflicient to render her time-serving, money-hunting relatives gentle, pliable, and apparently full of tender anxiety for her happiness and comfort.

Mr. ‘Blight was informed ’01” the good news when he came home to dinner, und he sought a personal interview with his cbildren’a governess, entrusting her to keep the youngsters out. of night during the visit of Mrs. Wroat, as she valued her situation.

Everything being thus arranged, it only remained for the guest to arrive.

(It: be continued in our MIL—Commenced n’a 4V0. 1407.)