Since the director Hideaki Anno said that Japanese anime might decline between five to 20 years from now, should another anime professional say similar things they might as well be confirming what he said earlier. Whether if anime fans like it or not, Anno even said that Taiwan might replace Japan as the centre of Asian animation though I think it’s much likelier for China and India to overtake it.
Rao help if that anime professional also says that Southeast Asia might replace Japan in general when it comes to Eastern comics and animation. I think that’s already happening to some extent with Malaysia’s Upin and Ipin airing on the Disney Channel, The Philippines can claim Barangay 143 and Trese. I could go on saying similar things about Africa. South Africa’s got Supa Strikas, Nigeria has Bino and Fino, Uganda claims Katoto and Cote d’Ivoire has Aya de Yopougon.
As for post-anime, I still maintain the opinion that the real difference’s that post-anime looks up to Western comics and animation for inspiration, especially as a viable alternative now that Japanese anime and comics are gone. If Japan is the hub for anime, could China be the hub for Oriental post-anime? (One wonders if Nigeria and Kenya might be the new African hubs for animation.)
It seems if Anno and his ilk were to be believed, Japanese anime might not be around forever and sometimes anime’s best replacements are from Japan’s immediate neighbours.
I think if a mangaka were to say anime’s real decline’s partly due to sexualising youngsters a lot, there’s also somethings like children being highly impressionable and the love map where one’s paraphilia or preference begins. If believed to be true, let’s not also forget that almost any adaptation of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory’s partly responsible for causing somebody’s inflation paraphilia. Among other things for better or worse.
The problem with a lot of anime at this point’s that they’re increasingly not at all aimed at younger children. It’s not necessarily wrong to have younger characters but when youth’s so often sexualised it can be dubious. (Especially once we get to things like wanting to be powerful and legal laws.) Said mangaka might move elsewhere to the Philippines and influence another lad to do the same.
Perhaps alarmingly enough, since third world countries are already beginning to make their own animations en masse I have a feeling the next Naruto might be Ghanaian. This is a logical possibility as even some African countries are already putting effort in it. Cameroon can claim Aurion, Ghana and Kenya both have Leti Arts, South Africa’s got Supa Strikas, Nigeria has Bino and Fino, Cote d’Ivoire has Aya de Youpougon and Uganda’s got Katoto.
Even the Philippines has its own animations lately. If anime declines, its legacy will live on elsewhere.
I still think given my own understanding of dogs in some hunter-gatherer communities in relation to Cristina Franco’s study ‘Shameless’, some extant communities give a better idea of how dogs were regarded considering how they treated dogs and as well as observing those bad behaviours. At some point, dogs were even linked to treachery. If it sounds odd, there are studies on some hunter-gatherer communities where said dogs are either unresponsive to human calls or are unreliable in some hunts. (Which worsens if said dogs hunt at will to their owners’ chagrin.)
There’s even a study called ‘Dogs steal in the dark’ which has dogs stealing in the dark, especially whenever humans aren’t around. That dogs will continue to do what they want/will to do whenever humans don’t look around and shout orders can make one wonder if the link between dogs and treachery/duplicity may’ve been stronger before. Some individuals and communities like the Beng Ivorians still maintain that attitude though some Beng may’ve changed a lot since that study was taken.
There’s also another study stating that dogs manipulate people, which corroborates Russian studies on beggar dogs conning people in order to get food. This is in line with the seductive canine in her study. Maybe too in-line when you think about it. It’s not that Greeks hated dogs. Some loved dogs but it seems the overly obedient, loving dog wasn’t the expected stereotype in Ancient Greece. That’s if when dogs were either semi-feral or were owned but not trained extensively (or in the way we expect it to).
That dogs can be even unreliable in hunts at times can make one wonder if the link between dogs and treachery actually made sense at some point or another along with the straying part.
Keep in mind this isn’t always the case but it seems in the case with at least a few communities in the entire world (some Amazonian/South American communities as well as the Akan in general) the word for dog’s derived from either cat or some other felid. It’s like how some Amazons refer to dogs as house jaguars or among some Akans, the word for dog is okraman and the word for cat’s okra (also soul).
It’s not that dogs haven’t been around in Africa and South America for a long time but possibly shorter than what’s expected in Eurasia, which’s where they’re first domesticated there. If wolves aren’t native to Africa at all, then dogs might inevitably be introduced and count even be a proper invasive species there (dog predation on livestock and monkeys have been noted before).
They’re even considered as such in some Latin American circles. Again not always the case but if/when dogs are recently introduced in South America and to a lesser extent, Africa then sometimes the word for dog may be likened to cats as a point of reference/familiarity. The fact that cats and dogs are sometimes closely entwined in witchcraft beliefs (which makes more sense with goats being victims, that dogs do prey on them) makes it a good semantic and semiotic association.
It’s like this study on one Ivorian community where witches have familiars taking on guises of dogs, leopards and cats and prey on goats. Likewise in another study, though this might not be true for all Amazons, witches are said to appear as dogs, jaguars and aeroplanes. This is what I’m talking about. Whilst not always the case either, if witches are likened to predators like dogs and leopards then this shouldn’t be surprising.
The fact that dogs can take on solitary behaviours, cats with some degree of social behaviour and some households have both cats and dogs made to hunt pests should make it a very unsurprising association.
There’s a recent study stating that certain Mexican dog breeds have substantial European ancestry. Though when it comes to dogs being confirmed as an invasive species and the fact that they’re sometimes suspected by others (especially in Latin America if one Nicaraguan study‘s any indication) to be introduced (that some Amazonian tribes didn’t have a native word for dog, let alone autonomous of either Spanish influences or comparisons to jaguars).
This could be due to admixture but the fact that some researchers (especially in Nicaragua as well as in Brazil) have suspected dogs to be introduced does make you wonder if either dogs aren’t native to South America to begin with or that canine predation is more seriously (or at least reported/documented more often). It could easily be the taken from experience and perhaps bias. Actually if I’m not mistaken, if dogs were first domesticated in Asia this would mean they’re introduced to Africa.
Especially via the Afro-Asiatics (let’s not forget that Egypt’s a great meeting point between Africa and Asia) and if I’m not mistaken, this is stated as such. Not to mention dog predation’s also noted whether if it’s onto Barbary macaques in Morocco, vervet monkeys in Uganda or livestock in Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Cameroon and Kenya (including guinea pigs). I have a feeling that African dogs might align more closely with Middle Eastern dogs.
Which again proves the point that Canis Lupus isn’t native to Africa at all and possibly South America to a lesser extent. This makes even more sense that if dogs came from Asia and if their territories overlap with wolves, chances are wolves wouldn’t be found at all in South America and Africa. If it sounds shocking, I’m just saying.
Like I said, I think the book Shameless: The Canine and Feminine in Ancient Greece has given me the impression of dogs being the original jerk animals. In the sense if/when cats weren’t around at the time, that dogs were the earliest domesticated species and also if dog rearing was very different before as were the attitudes then dogs would be the original jerk animals. Makes sense had they not been always regarded highly in some communities and religions, depending on the circumstance or individual.
If I’m not mistaken, at least in a study by Karen Lupo on Aka Pygmies and their dogs is that sometimes whenever those dogs got trained at all, it’s through deliberate malnutrition as well as socialisation to other dogs and even drugging (also in another study but I’m misremembering) to get them into doing something. Some Ugandans treated their dogs like this, some Cameroonians do the same to both cats and dogs. (In hindsight, that’s if/when resources get scarce it’s impractical to spoil dogs and if hunter-gatherers’ dogs also can’t process starch.)
It’s not that they’re always regarded negatively (same with cats). But since dogs in that study (and in another one on whether if they improve hunting or not) weren’t always reliable (they’re even considered treacherous among Ivorian Bengs) as well as being more associated with women and witchcraft’s enough to give an idea of what Biblical, Greek and Roman attitudes to them originated and evolved from.
Maybe not always exact but it does deconstruct how the dog-loving goddesses Artemis and Hecate came to be when you think about it. (That and somebody comparing dogs to women in the sense of being passed around different people at some point or another.)
A bit strange at first but I think that’s what some Biblical, Ancient Greek and academic scholars as well as some anthropologists believe. It’s like how somebody said that dogs are considered ambivalent in Beng communities where they’re associated with treachery but also clairvoyance (good trait) and witchcraft (bad trait) whilst goats and sheeps are solely linked to the later. Logically among Aka Pygmies, although dogs are reliable animals they’re not always treated well (sometimes they’re just not that spoilt due to things like resource scarcity) and even linked to witchcraft.
I mean somebody else used one of these as references for their book on sharing something in New Mexico. (Not to mention it does state that some Native Americans mistreat dogs but I don’t think the others treat animals that badly even if they don’t like them much.) I mean whilst there are Native Americans that do revere dogs well, there are those who do treat them well but not necessarily pedestalise them and there are others who don’t like/trust them to whatever degree.
Something like among some Native American communities (Navajo, Oneida, Mexican) dogs and wolves are linked to witchcraft. But keep in mind not all Navajo, Mexican and Oneida folks think that way too. Logically in Germany, whilst there are people who do cherish their dogs a lot there are those who can’t stand them for whatever reason like predation (some German hunters feel that way even if others own dogs themselves), defecation (no seriously, it’s a big deal there) and the like.
Not to mention dog poisoning’s a big deal in Germany. So much so that Giftkoeder Radar coexists with cynophobic media like Kot und Koeter (Poo and Pooches) and Gegenhund (Antidog). Now somebody already wrote an entire book about the ambivalent nature of dogs in Ancient Greece. To sum it up, it’s not that Ancient Greeks didn’t cherish their dogs before but that dogs seemed to flit between ally and traitor (or parsimoniously pet and pest) as they still do today.
Same thing with Biblical scholarship but I also think certain communities (Aka Pygmy and Beng) give a better idea of how these attitudes emerged. I mean it’s actually possible for women to take their children to hunts since it does happen in Sierra Leone and parts of Republic of Congo. This is probably how the character of Artemis came to be. That and some Pygmies stated to be monogamist and monotheist gives insight into how Judaism came about too.