Africa, arguably until recently and outside of Africans themselves, was often perceived as something of a blank slate to colonial empires especially with interchangeable communities even though Africa has greater genetic diversity.
That and Africans being easily generalised by demeaning cliches. If I’m not mistaken, according to one global study most Africans (especially Nigerians) aren’t that well-endowed and likely in another study, similar for Kenyans too.
(Let’s not forget that there are African men who’re capable of controlling themselves and be faithful husbands.)
Not that there aren’t any indigenous darker skinned populations in Northern Africa as Egypt also used to cover much of Sudan and there’s a community there known as the Nubians. The Berbers, which also live in Northern Africa and to some extent Niger (the Tuaregs*), often practise monogamy. They also heavily use Arabic but there’s growing recognition for Berber languages.
Afro-Asiatic languages prevail in parts of Nigeria, Kenya and Tanzania (if I’m not mistaken) and are the norm in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Egypt. Unsurprisingly, since Arabic’s something of the lingua franca in Muslim countries (though the usage varies as it’s mostly clerical in places like Indonesia and Turkey) it’s almost parsimonious that Arabic influence’s considerably stronger in Northern and Western Africa.
It should however be noted that they’re still a considerable community in Eastern Africa. Islamic populations vary from being around 25-30% in Cameroon, 50% in Nigeria, 14% in Uganda, 20% in Ghana, 11.1% in Kenya, 38.6% in Cote d’Ivoire, 35% in Tanzania and the norm in Guinea, Chad, Morocco, Egypt, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Libya, Tunisia, Sierra Leone and Sudan
Let’s not forget that the Ugandan kanzu is practically the Islamic thobe because it’s adapted from it. Though admittedly, thobes/kanzu robes are also worn outside of it such as Cameroon and historically Europe (robes are also still worn by clergy regardless of the denomination). And many Sub-Saharan Africans went modest due to Islamic and Christian missionary influence.
If Arabic’s the lingua franca of Islam and that of Middle East and Northern Africa (and to some extent, extant Islamic communities) like how Latin’s the lingua franca of Catholic Europe for years, then Swahili’s the lingua franca of East Africa. At least around Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and to some extent, Democratic Republic of Congo.
There’s a colourful saying surrounding its usage: born in Zanzibar, grew up in Tanzania, fell sick in Kenya, died in Uganda and was buried in Congo (as taken from The New Times Rwanda). But the other lingua franca throughout Africa trace back to European colonialism.
Francophone Africa predictably consists of Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Gabon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Guinea, Mali, Benin, Togo and Senegal as well as Rwanda (at some point). Keep in mind that Burundi, Rwanda and DRC used to be Belgian colonies.
The rest are usually either former British or French colonies. Since Cameroon also got colonised by the British, it’s parsimonious to suggest that Rwanda and Cameroon have both Anglophone and Francophone tendencies to varying degrees.
This leads to the next one: Anglophone Africa. As one guesses, it consists of Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana, Namibia, Ghana, Rwanda (recently so) and to a lesser degree Cameroon. Keep in mind that some of them (Cameroon, Nigeria, Chad, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, Togo and Namibia) were former German colonies.
But then again German influence’s very brief since now most of them speak English with Cameroon and Togo becoming predominantly Francophone. Eritrea, Ethiopia (especially Addis Ababa) and Libya all used to be Italian colonies. (Due to Ottoman influence, Ethiopia could also count as a former Turkish colony.)
Though Spain also imported many of its slaves from Africa, there aren’t that many African countries still using Spanish (the only one being Equatorial Guinea, which shouldn’t be confused for French Guinea) and that Libya still uses Italian, the only other major Romance language in Africa is Portuguese.
It’s widely spoken in Cabo Verde, Angola and Mozambique. Like Brazi and Macau, they are all former Portuguese colonies and Angola was used as a sort of gateway for slave traders. Quite logically, though German used to be spoken in Cameroon and the other former German colonies yet English and Afrikaans (Dutch) remained the most persistently used Germanic languages there.
(South Africa, Namibia and Botswana were former Dutch colonies.)
*Music cultures of the Pacific, the Near East, and Asia – Page 40
William P. Malm – 1967 – Snippet view – More editions
Unlike most Berbers, the Tuaregs adopted the Moslem social system while sharing Berber monogamy. Their form of matriarchy is unique (only the men wear veils), as is their writing system (only the women are literate). Their music shows …