Visiting the mountain

It was a really fun experience even if I often got tired. I saw a number of villages and forests there as well as encountering stray cats and dogs (including those that resemble mine). I actually think my theory’s proven right here in that stray dogs are now much likelier to be a rural phenomenon which’s also where you’re likelier to find a degree of commensalism and predation as well as more mongrels (same for cats). That makes sense as vets and pet stores aren’t readily accessible and affordable for many.

In fact, these two could’ve been nonexistent in prehistoric times so commensalism would’ve happened either way for cats and dogs. I also encountered a lot of cows and huts along the way. It’s kind of almost strange and dreamlike to see a lot of foliage and greenery. It wasn’t always that fun as I kept on fainting but I did manage to make it to the top. That and repeatedly stubbing my toe. But anyways we also managed to get back home, hang out at a restaurant and do groceries.

My knees have been hurting since but I do plan on going back one day.

Il Messagiere Tirolese, Volume 4; Volume 24 (Google Books)

NZIISCELLANEA.

TRENIUoro se Ave NToso NELL’ OceANIcA

Un tremuoto terribile si sentì il 22 di settembre scorso a Lasaya, nell’isola di Van Diemen , o fu preceduto da fenomeni, che meritano d’essere riferiti.

il 21 a sera forti scoppi si udirono nel verso di Omana, villaggio che giace nelle montagne a Po che 1o leghe da Lasaya. Parecchi abitanti, credendo che succedesse da quella parte una battaglia o naturali del paese e i coloni inglesi, si affrettarono di partire col loro carri a fin di recar soccorso o fosse mestieri; ma con loro grande stupore. trovo rono la valle deserta. Intanto gli scoppi continoooovano, ed accostandosi alle rocce, parve loro che

NZIISCELLANEA.

TRENIUoro if Ave NToso IN THE OCEANIQUE

A terrible quake was heard on the 22nd of last September in Lasaya, on the island of Van Diemen, or was preceded by phenomena, which deserve to be reported.

On the 21 st of the evening, strong bursts were heard in the direction of Omana, a village lying in the mountains at Po, the leagues from Lasaya. Several inhabitants, believing that on either side a battle or natural of the country and the English colonists, they hastened to leave with their carri to end to rescue or it was trades; but with their great amazement. I find the desert valley. Meanwhile the outbreaks continoooovano, and approaching the rocks, they seemed to them

quelli uscissero dalle grandi caverne che stanno nel centro delle montagne. Tornarono quindi a Lasaya più tranquilli che non ne fossero partiti; ma per tutto il tempo che durò il loro viaggio, osservarono all’orizzonte una stri, scia di luce, che a misura che la notte avanzava si colorò a poco a poco d un rosso sempre più carico, si dilatò, si stese sul firmamento, ed occupò in breve uno spazio di presso che dieci miglia. Verso le tre ore del mattino, il campanile della piccola chiesa di Lasaya crollò con terribile strepito. Nell’istante medesimo sei case che circondavano l’ edifizio furono atterrate, e la colonna di legno collocata sul terrazzo della casa del comandante supremo, colonna conficcata nel marmo, si ruppe a nezzo, e schiacciò cadendo un famiglio, il quale, spaventato dalle oscillazioni della casa, cercava di scalare il terrazzo per passare dall’altra parte della via. Nel quartiere di ponente, quindici case crollarono dalle fondamenta, e seppellirono sotto le rovine tutte le persone che rinchiudevano. Gli abitanti spaventati si affrettarono a uscire dalle lor case, ma la terra si moveva come le onde del mare, ed essi cadevano gli uni sugli altri senza potere rialzarsi. La densa tenebria della notte vie più accresceva l’orrore, la confusione: disperate grida si mandavano da tutte le parti, le madri chia: inavano i loro figliuoli; questi cercavano i lor genitori; i vecchi imploravano un aiuto; alcuni, carichi delle più preziose suppellettili, cadevano sotto il peso che aveano creduto di poter sostenere, altri si disperavano per non aver potuto salvare nessuna parte delle loro sostanze, ma la più parte non pensavano se non alla morte che gli aspettava, e supplicavano ad alta voce il cielo che abbreviasse il loro supplizio. Altri finalmente, ed erano il minor numero, serbavano ancora una speranza di salvezza, e invocavano a gran voci il giorno, che tardava a sorgere, rammaricandosi della sua lentezza. Di cinque in cinque minuti si udivano scoppi sotterranei simili al lontano fragor del cannone, e lo screpolio degli edifizj che si curvavano sulle loro fondamenta. La terra violentemente agitata, s’ab. bassava e si alzava; lampi giallastri solcavano rapida mente le nubi; un’aria grossa, pesante, umida, pa e va presagire una pioggia di rotta, mentre gli animali esterrefatti si stringevano gli uni agli altri senza distinzione di razza nè di simpatia. lu fatti intere truppe di sciaccalli, scacciati dalle montagne, andavano a frammischiarsi co montoni, e Ol cani e coi buoi, pareva che avessero perduto il loro istinto, ed è probabile che le tigri stesse, in quel momenso terribile, non avrebbero pensato a gettarsi sulle pecore che fossero andate incontro ad esse. Di tutti codesti animali, i cani erano quelli che mandavano le strida più sinistre; i loro guaiti lun. ghi e lamentosi si succedevano senza interruzione e agghiacciavano di terrore la gente. – Finalmente il giorno comparve, ma ei sorse ad illuminare un orrendo spettacolo. Il tremuoto era quasi del tutto cessato, e solo alcune rare scosse ricordavano il pericolo ch era passato. Se non che, le strade di Lasaya erano gremite di morti e di moribondi, di pietre, di tegole, di mobiglie rotte, di tronchi d’alberi abbattuti, i principali edifici non erano più che un mucchio di macerie, e i miseri abitanti, mezzo vestiti, pallidi, disfatti, coll’occhio stnarrito e barcollando si traevano come spettri fra le ruine, sforzandosi di riconoscere fra cadaveri scon. traffati che sofferivano al loro sguardo le sembianze d’un padre, di una madre, d’un fratello, d’una so. rella o d’un amico di cui deploravano la perdita. La picciola città di Maya, che giace nella parte sud ovest della Nuova Olanda venne distrutta dal orremoto, nel giorno stesso in cui Lasaya rimase on mucchio di rovine sulla costa di Van-Diemen. Maya è situata sopra una collina, sommamente “Pido dalla parte del mare, da cui è discosta una lega e mezza incirca. Essa conteneva dagli 800 ai 999 abitanti, la maggior parte inglesi.

Il giorno innanzi a quel deplorabile avvenimento, l’atmosfera sembrava pesante, ed umida, gli augelli radevano quasi la superficie della terra, e quelli che passavano lo stretto di Van Diemen pareva che nuotassero sulle onde del mare. Verso le ore 4 pomeridiane il cielo divenne sull’orizzonte di un color rosso infuocato, indi si rischiarò e si estese. Poco dopo il firmamento intero si coprì di un velo sanguigno, ciò che in alcuni luoghi venne attribuito all’incendio di grandi foreste. I medesimi fenomeni, e le medesime circostanze che si notarono a Lasaya, furono ben anco il preludio della rovina di Maya. Le bestie feroci riunite agli armenti cercavano un asilo verso le abitazioni, non si udivano che gemiti, ed urli spaventevoli, tutto annunziava qualche tremenda catastrofe. Frattanto delle immense nubi coprirono il sole e quindi delle foltissime tenebre anticiparono a quell’infelice paese una notte la più spaventevole. In quel momento il fragor del tuono diede il segnale della burrasca. Il mare violentemente agitato retrocedeva e sembrava che abbandonar volesse la terra al fuoco divoratore. Quando tutto ad un colpo, mosse le onde da una nuova convulsione, si precipitarono impetuosamente verso le roccie, che circondano la costa, ed in alcuni minuti secondi, oltrepassarono lo spazio, che separa Maya dal mare e cominciarono a battere furiosamente la collina. Gli infelici abitanti di quella città, alla vista del pericolo da cui erano minacciati, si gettarono nella disperazione; ed in effetto più non rimaneva ad essi speranza veruna di salute. Tenebre foltissime li circondavano da tutte le parti, da vicino udivano il fragor delle onde, e scorgevano coi loro occhi nel mezzo a quella terribile oscurità, le spume biancheggianti dei flutti. – Allora lo strepito lontano del cannone mescolavasi alle loro grida spaventevoli. Vari bastimenti, quantunque trattenuti dalle loro ancore, vennero portati dall’uragano sopra la terra già coperta dal mare, e due di que legni, furono spinti fin sotto le roccie che circondano Maya. Questa scena di desolazione , divenne ancor più terribile. Delle nuove convulsioni sotterranee aprirono all’ovest della città un abisso nel quale precipitarono le acque, e trascinarono nel loro vortice, con un impeto indescrivibile un vascello a due alberi, che ben tosto disparve in quell’abisso con tutti gl’individui che conteneva, le cui grida di disperazione furono persino udite dagli abitanti di Maya. Quando il sole comparve, il mare era rientrato ne suoi limiti, seco trasportando augelli, quadrupedi, alberi, ed altri oggetti. Il vento era cessato, ma non già la causa misteriosa che agitava la terra; un sordo mormorio, simile a quello di un lontanissimo tuono, sentivasi ad intervalli. La collina su cui stava la città di Maya sofferiva continue oscillazioni, ed il cielo tuttavia coperto di tetre nubi, presagiva nuove sventure. Tutto ad un tratto lo spavento raddoppiò; la terra cedendo ad un possente impulso si abbassò e si alzò; le roccie si smossero, si spaccarono e quindi crollarono; foltissime tenebre coprirono di nuovo il firmamento; dei lampi giallastri si succedevano rapidamente; e sostituivano ad una terribile oscurità, uno splendore ancor più spaventevole. Tutto scuotevasi, tutto tremava; donne, uomini, vecchi e fanciulli, si affrettavano ad abbandonare le loro abitazioni; gli infermi erano trasportati altrove dai loro parenti o dai loro amici, ed alcuni privi di appoggio rimasero sul letto del dolore ad attendere la morte che doveva terminare i loro tormenti. Tutta la popolazione di Maya rifugiatasi in una palude quasi diseccata dalle convulsioni della terra, non tardò ad essere spettatrice della distruzione totale de’ suoi focolari. Finalmente la collina smossa da scuotimenti violentissimi e replicati, si rovesciò sulla sua base con uno strepito terribile, trascinando nella sua caduta gli edifici che le stavano so vrapposti. In dieci minuti 350 case rimasero adeguate al suolo, ed 800 individui furono ridotti nella

più affliggente situazione in cotal modo spaventevole venne distrutta la città di Maya che era stata edifi. cata appena da dieci sette anni e mezzo,

Produzione ANNUALE nr reaRo in Europa.

Il Journal des travaux de l’Academie de l’industrie porta le seguenti notizie: Si calcola a 15 mi. lioni e mezzo di quintali il ricavato annuale di ferro in Europa, ripartito come segue: Nell’Inghilterra 7,088,000; in Francia 2,2oo,ooo; in Russia 1,500,000; nell’Austria 830,000; Svezia 850,ooo; Prussia 8oo,ooo; Assia ed altri Paesi a destra del Reno 6oo,ooo; Paesi. Bassi 600,000; Elba, Toscana ed altre coste d’Italia 280,000; Piemonte 200,000; Spagna 180,000; Norvegia 150,000; Danimarca 135,ooo; Baviera 15o,ooo; Sassonia 80,000; Polonia 7o,ooo; Svizzera 5o,ooo; Savoja 25,000. Queste indicazioni sono puramente approssimative, e valutando il quintale metrico in via media a 50 franchi, si scorge che l’ Europa ri. cava annualmente dalla produzione del ferro un va. lore di 775 milioni di franchi, il che forma il trif” del complessivo ricavato di tutti gli altri metalli, Da ciò si può anche arguire l’accrescimento progressivo da alcuni anni in Europa del consumo di ferro, il che si può attribuire principalmente al gran numero di macchine a vapore tanto per le manifatture, come per la navigazione.

those came out of the great caverns that stand in the middle of the mountains. So they returned to Lasaya more peacefully than they had left; but for as long as their journey lasted, they observed on the horizon a streak of light which, as the night advanced, gradually colored a red, more and more charged, spread out, stretched out over the firmament, and soon occupied a space of within ten miles. About three o’clock in the morning, the bell tower of the small church of Lasaya collapsed with a terrible noise. In the same instant, six houses that surrounded the building were landed, and the wooden pillar placed on the terrace of the house of the supreme commander, a column stuck in the marble, broke to nebbia, andcrushed falling a familiar, who, frightened by the fluctuations of the house, tried to climb the terrace to pass the other side of the street. In the west district, fifteen houses collapsed from the foundations, and all the people who locked up buried under the ruins. The frightened inhabitants hurried out of their houses, but the earth moved like the waves of the sea, and they fell on each other without being able to get up. The dense darkness of the night increased more the horror, the confusion: desperate cries were sent from all the parts, the mothers chia: inavano their children; these were looking for their parents; the old onesthey begged for help; some, loads of the most precious items, fell under the weight which they had believed to be supporting, others despaired for not being able to save any of their substances, but the most part no thought if not death that was waiting, and begged to the sky was loud enough to shorten their torment. Others finally, and they were the least one , still had a hope of salvation, and they invoked loudly the day, which was slow to rise, regretting its slowness. Of five in five minutes there were heard underground explosions similar to the distant roar of the cannon, and the screp of the edifice that bent over theirfoundations. The violently agitated earth, s’ab. he was low and he got up; yellowish flashes furrowed the clouds rapidly; a large, heavy, humid air, pa, and presage a rain of course, while the distraught nimals clung to each other without distinction of race or sympathy. All the troops of shakes, driven out of the mountains, went to frazzischiarsi with rams, and Ol dogs and with the oxen, it seemed that they had lost their instincts, and it is probable that the tigers themselves, in that terrible moment, would not have thought to throw themselves on the sheep that had gone to meetto them. Of all these animals, the dogs were the ones who sent the most sinister screams; their yelps Mon. ghee and whining followed one another without interruption and frightened people in terror. – Finally the day appeared, but it arose to illuminate a horrible spectacle. The tremulous was almost completely ceased, and only a few rare shocks recalled the danger that had passed. If not that, the streets of Lasaya were full of dead eof dying, of stones, of tiles, of broken furniture, of trunks of felled trees, the principal buildings were no more than a pile of rubble, and the poor inhabitants, half dressed, pale, unmade, glued and staggered they drew like ghosts among the ruins, trying to recognize among the dead bodies. trafficked who looked at their eyes like a father, a mother, a brother, a sister. rella or a friend whose deplored the loss. The small city of Maya, which lies in the southwestern part of New Holland, was destroyed by the orremoto on the very day when Lasaya remained on a pile of ruins on the coast of Van-Diemen. Maya is located on a hill, supremely “Pidofrom the sea, from which it differs a league and a half about. It contained between 800 and 999 inhabitants, most of them British.

The day before that deplorable event, the atmosphere seemed heavy and humid, the augers almost radiated the surface of the earth, and those who passed the Strait of Van Diemen seemed to swim on the waves of the sea. At about 4 o’clock in the afternoon the sky became a fiery red on the horizon, then lit and extended. Shortly afterwards the whole firmament covered itself with a blood veil, which in some places was attributed to the burning of large forests. The same phenomena, ethe same circumstances that were noticed in Lasaya, were also the prelude of the Mayan ruin. The ferocious beasts gathered in the herds were seeking shelter in the houses, no moaning, and screaming shouts, all announced some terrible catastrophe. In the meantime the immense clouds covered the sun and then the thick darkness anticipated that unhappy country one night the most frightful. At that moment the thunderclap gave the signal of the bur rasca. The violently agitated sea retreated and seemed to abandon the land to firedevourer. When all of a sudden, the waves moved from a new convulsion, they rushed impetuously towards the rocks, which encircle the coast, and in a few minutes, they passed the space, which separates Maya from the sea and began to beat the hill furiously. The unhappy inhabitants of that city, at the sight of the danger from which they were threatened, threw themselves into despair; and, in effect, there was no hope left of them for health. Dark darkness surrounded them from all sides; close they heard the roar of the waves, and saw with their eyes in the midst of that terrible darkness, the white clouds of the waves. -Then the far cry of the cannon mingled with their screaming cries. Several ships, though held back by their anchors, were brought from the hurricane over the land already covered by the sea, and two of those woods were pushed up under the rocks that surround Maya. This scene of desolation became even more terrible. Of the new underground convulsions they opened to the west of the city ​​an abyss in which the waters precipitated, andthey dragged in their vortex, with an indescribable impetus, a two-masted vessel, which soon disappeared in that abyss with all the individuals it contained, whose cries of despair were even heard by the inhabitants of Maya. When the sun appeared, the sea had returned to its limits, carrying augers, quadrupeds, trees, and other objects. The wind had ceased, but not the mysterious cause that stirred the earth; a dull murmur, like that of a distant thunder, was heard at intervals. The hill on which the city of Maya stood was continually swerving, and the sky, however, covered with dark clouds, presaged new misfortunes. All of a sudden the fright doubled; the earth, yielding to a mighty impulse, lowered and rose; the rocks moved and brokeand then they collapsed; great darkness covered the firmament again ; yellowish lightning followed one another rapidly; and they replaced a terrible darkness, an even more frightening splendor . Everything shakes pots, everything trembled; women, men, old andchildren, they hastened to abandon their homes; the sick were transported elsewhere by their relatives or friends, and some without support remained on the bed of pain to await the death that was to end their torments. The entire Maya population took refuge in a swamp almost desiccated by the convulsions of the earth, and soon it was a spectator of the total destruction of its hearths. Finally the hill , moved by violent and replicated shaking , turned over on its base with a terrible noise, dragging in its fall the buildings that stood out against it. In ten minutes 350 houses remained adequate to the ground, and 800 individuals were reduced to

the most troubling situation in such a frightful way was the city of Maya that had been built. just seven and a half years ago ,

ANNUAL production in Europe.

The Journal des travaux de l’Academie de l’indu strie carries the following news: It is calculated at 15 mi. ions and a half of quintals the annual revenue of iron in Europe, broken down as follows: In England 7,088,000; in France 2,2oo, ooo; in Russia 1,500,000; in Austria 830,000; Sweden 850, ooo; Prussia 8oo, ooo; Hesse and other countries to the right of the Rhine 6oo, ooo; Countries. Low 600,000; Elba, Tuscany and other coasts of Italy 280,000; Piedmont 200,000; Spain 180,000; Norway 150,000; Denmark 135, ooo; Bavaria 15th, ooo; Saxony 80,000; Poland 7th, ooo; Switzerland 5th, ooo; Savoy 25,000. These indications are purely approximate, eevaluating the metric quintal by an average of 50 francs, one can see that Europe is re. quarry annually from the production of iron a go. lire of 775 million francs, which forms the trif “of the total proceeds of all the other metals, From this we can also infer the progressive growth of iron consumption in Europe for some years, which can be attributed mainly to the number of steam engines as much for manufactures as for navigation.

Recollections of Japan: Comprising a Particular Account of the Religion

By Vasiliĭ Mikhaĭlovich Golovnin (Google Books)

The number of unprejudiced Japanese is very small, in proportion to the whole nation. KThey are, in general, not only extremely bigotted, but superstitious. They believe in sorcery, and love to converse on miraculous stories.”) They ascribe to the fox all the properties and mischievous tricks, which the common people in Europe attribute to the devil or unclean spirit. Among us, the thunder

* Some of the popular superstitions detailed by Koempfer and other writers, are so curious as to deserve further notice. The people, in general, put great faith in amulets of all kinds. To keep off all distempers and misfortunes from their families, they place a monstrous picture over their doors of a human figure covered with hair, with a sword in each hand; also dragon’s and devil’s heads, with large mouths wide open, large teeth, and fiery eyes. In some cases the branch of a sacred tree is hung at the door; in others, the indulgence boxes which they receive on their pilgrimages; or else long slips of paper, with necromantic characters, supplied to them by the priests. Some of these latter are general commissions against all misfortunes: but when the devotee is afraid of any mishap in particular, he applies for an amulet for that express purpose. The most numerous of these are against poverty; which Koempfer seems to think endued with a second virtue, that of being a certain safeguard against thieves and housebreakers—people, if rich and prosperous, seldom feeling it necessary to apply for an amulet against the loss of what they possess.

Amongst their superstitions is one respecting earthquakes, which are here very frequent, often producing great alarm, and sometimes overthrowing entire cities, burying the inhabitants in the ruins. These violent shocks are attributed to a monstrous

kills, with a stone arrow ; in Japan it is a cat which is hurled down by the lightning. In Russia, when you praise any one, you must spit three times , that he may not become sick; if you give any one salt at table, you must laugh, in order not to quarrel afterwards, &c. In Japan, nobody goes over a new bridge, for fear of dying, till the oldest man in the country, in which the bridge is situated,

–~~~~…~~ —

whale, which they suppose to lie under the land. In 1703, one of those earthquakes, accompanied by a volcanic eruption, nearly destroyed the City of Jeddo, with a loss of two hundred thousand of its inhabitants. In some districts these earthquakes are indeed unknown; a fact which the Japanese generally attribute to the powerful protection of their especial local deities; but the philosophers suppose it owing to these spots having a firm foundation, resting upon the centre of the earth. One of these favoured spots is the mountain Koiasan, which is covered with religious edifices—the effect, mistaken by them for the cause of its tranquillity. It is sufficient to say that volcanoes are very numerous; one of which is as high as the Peak of Teneriffe. Natural hot baths, of course, are to be found almost every where; some of which are supposed to have preternatural effects, just as similar baths and wells have been sainted in Europe; but it is whimsical to find a Jesuit recording “That the priests of the idols know how to draw a more real benefit and profit from these waters than the poor ignorant people do, since they have thought proper to attribute to them the power of washing away sin. Each, however, is considered as efficacious only against one particular crime ; these impostors taking care to point to individual sinners the fountain in which they must seek an appropriate bath.”—See Charlevoix 1, p. 13.

has been led over it. Among us, the ends of waxtapers, which are left at the morning mass, on Sunday, are a protection against lightning; among the Japanese, peas, roasted in a pan, which they eat at a great winter festival, and of which they

preserve a part for the summer, possess the same virtue. They affirmed that, if, during a thunder

t

Koempfer relates a remarkable Japanese story of Koosi, a most famous apostle amongst them in early times, who was once entreated, on account of his great sanctity, to deliver a particular district, through which he was travelling, from a wicked spirit that tormented the inhabitants. Expecting to see him undertake a number of ceremonies, they were surprised when the apostle merely took a band of dirty linen from around his neck, and tied it to a heap of stones supposed to be the habitation and retreat of the demon. Koosi perceived their surprise, and said, “My friends, you vainly expect that I shall exhibit numerous ceremonies; but these things do not drive away demons: it is by faith alone that I perform what you demand; it is by faith alone that I perform miracles.”

The time of Koosi’s existence is not expressly stated; but he seems evidently to have availed himself of the historical part of the New Testament.

Many of their superstitions interfere with the most frequent concerns of life; especially with their travelling: and there are certain days on which scarcely any Japanese will set out on a journey. Nay, one of their most famous astronomers, or rather astrologers, Abino Sei Mai, has actually drawn up a list of them, like Moore’s Almanac, which is printed at the end of their travelling directories. The very high opinion which they entertain of this personage may be drawn from their account of his

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– storm, some of these wonder-working peas are – thrown against the walls of a house, the lightning cannot enter, and consequently every thing in that \ house shall be perfectly safe. * o On their high roads, every mountain, every hill, every cliff, is consecrated to some divinity; at all these places, therefore, travellers have to repeat prayers, and frequently, several times over. But, as the fulfilment of this duty would detain pious travellers too long on the road, the Japanese have invented the following means to prevent this inconvenience. Upon these spots, consecrated to divinities, they set up posts, in case there are none already there, to mark the distances. In these posts a long vertical cut is made, about an arsheen and

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birth—supposing him to have sprung from one of their princes and a female fox, which he had saved from the hands of his hunters. This fox, a fairy in disguise, appeared to him shortly afterwards in the form of a lovely female, of whom the monarch became desperately enamoured, and Sei Mai made his appearance, spending his youth in all the labyrinths of astrological sciences. Some wiseacres, however, who prided themselves in differing from the faith of the multitude, and in disbelieving every thing, took it into their heads to effect a counter charm to his predictions, by forming certain verses containing cabalistic words; but either the verses were bad, or the words were use

less; nobody would trust the poets, and the unlucky days are still avoided.—ED.

a half, above the ground ; on which a flat round iron plate turns like a sheave in a block. Upon this plate the prayer is engraved, which is dedicated to the divinity of the place; to turn it round, is equivalent to repeating the prayer, and the

prayer is supposed to be repeated as many times’

as it turns round. In this manner the traveller is able, without stopping, and merely by turning the plate with his fingers, to send up even more prayers to the divinity than he is obliged to do.

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I am not able to say anything of the religious ceremonies of the Japanese, because they never could be induced to allow us to enter their temples, during divine service : nor did they even speak of it. All that I know of it is limited to what here follows. The prayers are repeated three times in the day; at day-break; two hours before noon; and before sun-set: as the matin, noon, and vesper mass, are performed with us. The people are informed of the hours of prayer by the ringing of a bell.” Their method of ringing is as follows:

* It has been stated as a positive fact, that notwithstanding the religious chaos which prevails in Japan, and existed at the first attempts at conversion, the traces of Christianity were then extremely numerous; that there was scarcely a mystery, a dogma, or pious practice of the Romish Church of which the Japanese did not appear to have some previous knowledge. In conse

after the first stroke of the bell, half a minute elapses; then comes the second stroke; the third succeeds rather quicker, the fourth quicker still: then come some strokes in quick succession; after a lapse of two minutes, all is repeated in the same order; in two minutes more, for the third time, and then it ends. Before the temples, there stand basins of water, made of stone or metal, in which the Japanese wash their hands before they enter. Before the images of the saint, lights are kept burning, made of train oil, and the bituminous juice of a tree, which grows in the southern and middle parts of Niphon.* The Japanese offer to the Gods natural, or artificial, flowers. They make the latter of coloured ribbands, or of paper, accordingly as the property, or the zeal of the supplicant is greater or less. These flowers are hung before the images of the saints, on the walls of the temples, or on the images themselves, as rings, &c. are with us. Those who are very zealous in their devotions offer also money, fruits, rice, and other provisions, which are very welcome to the servants of the temples. But the latter are not satisfied with these voluntary gifts. They wander about the towns and villages, and in the high ways, and demand offerings for their Gods. They therefore carry sacks upon their shoulders, to contain the gifts made them. They also sing hymns, make discourses, or ring a little bell, which every

quence of this, it has been supposed, may indeed attempted to be proved, that the Gospel, though in a corrupted state, must have found its way previously to Japan. An Armenian Bishop has expressly asserted, that some of his travelling mercantile countrymen actually carried it thither in very early times; most others account for it by supposing that the Japanese may have acquired a knowledge of it, in a corrupted state, from the Hindoos, the Tartars, and Chinese, all of whom, it is well ascertained, were taught by sectaries of the Syrian Nestorians. Many, however, of the forms and ceremonies found by the missionaries are supposed to have been of later introduction, and copied from the Portuguese who first went there in the sixteenth century.—See Note, page 45.-ED.

* * Where sects are so numerous and so various, there must be great diversity of ceremonies; it will be sufficient, however, to give a slight sketch of the public worship in one of the

ancient temples, to present a good idea of Japanese doxology. On entering, they proceed to a basin, or small pond, filled with water, in order to wash before they offer up their services. Next to that is a coffer, where they may deposit alms. In front of the central building is the next spot, where they prostrate themselves before the majesty of the God. Here, in front, sit the priests, clad in rich habits. On the door of this central building hangs a gong, on which every worshipper strikes at his first arrival, to inform the God that he is come to worship him: after which, the votary looks through a window where hangs a mirror, as a symbol that as he sees his own countenance, so does the God see hisheart and thoughts—and this seems to end the ceremony.—Ed. one has fastened to his girdle. In our walks about Matsmai, we often met with them. During divine service the Japanese sit, as usual, on their knees, but with their heads bowed down, and their hands folded. When they repeat their prayers, they press their hands together, raise them so to their forehead, bow themselves several times, and pray half aloud.*

The difference of religions and sects in Japan, does not cause the smallest embarrassment to the government, or in ordinary life. (Every citizen has a right to profess what faith he pleases, and to change it as often as he thinks fit. Nobody concerns himself whether he does so out of conviction, or regard to his interest. It frequently happens that the members of one family follow different

* As in other countries, prayers and ceremonies too often are made to suffice for true religion. Hypocrisy is very frequent; and a most whimsical instance of it is related by Koempfer, of a man at Nangascki, who, whenever he received a visit from any person whom he suspected to be impure, or rendered unclean by the neglect of any of the numerous ceremonies of the ritual, always washed his house, all over, with salt and water.

The causes of impurity are very numerous; neglect of ceremonies always produces it, for a greater or less time; and with those who are very strict, it may be received by the eyes, ears, and mouth.-E.D. *

sects; yet, this difference of belief never occasions

ill-will or disputes. Only the making of proselytes

is prohibited by the laws.” }

The spiritual Emperor or Kin-Rey, is the head of the ancient Japanese religion ; but all the other sects have a pious adoration for him. He not only confers the highest ecclesiastical dignities, but also bestows, on the superior officers of state,the dignity,

**********—-

* The universal toleration and freedom of religious opinions, christianity excepted, are described by the Jesuit writers as proceeding from a greatness of mind, and natural rectitude of heart, and a loftiness of sentiment which prompt them to dare every thing, in order to procure a happiness more durable than that of this present life: in order to which they wish to know all religions of which they hear any intelligence; so that, indeed, up to the moment that the missionaries were driven away, every person was permitted to chuse the religion which was most agreeable to him.

The extreme readiness to be converted to Christianity is very minutely told by St. Francis Xavier, in one of his Epistles; and also by Cosmus Turrensis, in a Letter from Firando in 1551. Xavier declares, (in perfect unison with Captain Golownin’s statement in the voyage) that they have an insatiable curiosity, and ask a thousand questions, especially about religion. During the five months of Xavier’s residence, a day never passed without the priests, and numbers of the laity, being with him from morning until night, for the purpose of interrogating. They asked him : “What is God —How is he dressed ?–Why cannot he be seen 2–How is it that the soul should have a beginning, and yet shall not have an end after death “-Ed.

** ****

or spiritual title of Kami, which the greatest men in the empire think it the highest honor to obtain. I have already had occasion to mention this dignity. The Kin-Rey is invisible to all classes of the people, except his own household, and the officers of the temporal emperor, who are often sent to him. Once a year only, upon a great festival, he walks in a gallery, which is open below, so that every body can approach and see his feet. He always wears silk clothes, which, from the very first preparation of the silk, are manufactured by the hands of pure virgins. His meals are brought to him each time, in new vessels, which are then broken. This, say the Japanese, is done, because nobody is worthy to eat out of the same vessel after him : if any one ventured it, or did it by mistake, he would immediately die. , ‘i

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The Japanese priesthood is divided into several classes; and they have high priests.” One of these lived in Matsmai; he had a large house and bu ildings, with a garden which was surrounded by a rampart of earth, so that it had the appearance of a little fortress: this proves that the dignity is held in high J. :- * . . . . . . . . . – ..o. of , or : i. ( : . . . . – . . . . . … “. . . . .

* It is said, that all the guardians of the temples of th

ancient religion are laymen, many of whom marry, and live with their families round those holy edifices, wearing their sacerdotal habits only when engaged in their ceremonies.

BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE FRENCH EXPEDITION OF 1866 INTO INDO-CHINA.* (Google Books)

By S. A. VIGUIER.

IN 1865, Mr. De Chasseloup-Laubat, President de la Sociéte de Geographie de Paris et Ministre de la Marine, ordered the

Governor of Cochin-china to send a scientific party to explore the interior of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, as it was of the greatest importance for the future welfare of the colony that France was founding at the mouth of the Cambodje, to ascertain accurately to what countries that great stream gives access, and what populations and productions could be found in the valleys irrigated by the Meikong.

Commmander Doudart de Lagree was appointed Chief of the exploring party, but succumbed to the fatigues and hardships of the voyage, which was continued under the direction of Lieutenant Gamier, his second in command. On his return to France, Mr. Garnier who had filled an important post in the administration of the colony, and had been one of the principal promoters of the exploration, was directed by the Government to draw up the official report of the voyage he had accomplished.

Interrupted by the war the work of Mr. Garnier is now published in two volumes, the Atlas and Album, which I have the honor to present to the Society in his name.

Allow me to analyse in a few words the most remarkable parts of a work describing for the first time the immense country situated between the shores of Cochin-china and the southern frontiers of China.

The valley of the “Meikong,” under which name the “Cambodia River” is generally designated in old maps, was, until the French exploration, one of the most unknown regions of Asia. It was known that it included a large kingdom called Laos, to which the King of Holland sent an embassy in the 17th century, but Gerard van Wustoff, Chief of that mission, has left us no maps

* Read before the Society on the 2nd June, 18*3.

of, or geographical documents concerning the country. The relation of his travels, published in Flemish, contains however certain details giving the highest idea of the riches and productions of its capital Vien-chan, the ruins of which were visited by the French expedition.

In this century a French traveller Mouhot, having started from Bangkok, reached the Laotian city of Luang-Prabang, situated on the Meikong, where he suecumbed to the influence of malarious fever. Gutzlafl’ in an article published in the journal of the Royal Geographical Society having examined and made a résume of all that was known of Laos, could only arrive at very uncertain and contradictory conclusions.

In 1837 Lieutenant, now General, McLeod of the British Army, having started from Moulmein reached Xieng-Hong, a point on the Meikong, situated in 22° N. Latitude.

This was all that was known of the interior of Indo-China when on the 5th June 1866, the French travellers started to ascend the Meikong or Cambodia river.

The expedition was composed of:—

Commander Doudart de Lagree, Chief of the mission.

Lieut. Francis Garnier.

Lieut. Louis Delaporte.

Boctor Joubert, geologist.

Doctor Thorel, botanist.

And Mr. De Carne, diplomatic attach^.

Two interpreters for Siamese and Cambodian dialects. Four European soldiers, two European sailors, two Manilamen, and seven native soldiers from Saigon formed the escort.

Their first visit was to those magnificent ruins of Cambodje, already described by the German traveller Bastian. The publication under your notice contains the first complete work on the monuments of Angcor, a number of plans and drawings reproducing the most important edifices, and the most characteristic details of their architecture, and some of the bas-reliefs and inscriptions.

It can only be with a sentiment of admiration and astonishment, that any one contemplates these monuments, their wonderful proportions and the finish of their ornamentation, surpassing in purity and richness the most prized pieces of our antiquity.

The imaginary restoration of one of the city gates and of the singular edifice called the “Baion,” found in the Album, will give you an idea of this powerful and curious architecture.

These remains of an unknown civilisation are found very far in the interior of Laos and testify that all the southern part of IndoChina was formerly under the imperial domination of the ancient Cambodians.

Mr. Garnier has devoted a chapter of his book to a historical essay on the old kingdom of Cambodje. By a careful examination of the native traditions and a comparison with the Sanscrit and Chinese documents which very often allude, the former to a kingdom Cambodja, the latter to a kingdom of Chin-la or Kan-pu-chi, he has arrived at this conclusion, that to the second or third century of our era must be ascribed the original foundation of the IndoChinese empire. Mr. Garnier identifies it with the kingdom of Funan of the ancient Chinese historians, the same which Mr. Wade surmised to be the present kingdom of Siam, and finally ascribes to the fifth and sixth century the most glorious time of this architecture whose beautiful productions are now concealed under the tropical vegetation of the Cambodian forests.

Instead of attributing to Buddhism, as Mr. Bastian does, this wonderful work of a by-gone age, Mr. Garnier, in accordance with the opinion already expressed on the subject by Mr. Fergusson, of the Royal Society, attempts to prove that Brahminism, and perhaps Serpent or Dragon worship preceded the introduction of Buddhism into Cambodje.

Unfortunately all the historical questions concerning this ancient empire cannot be accurately resolved until the epigraphic language of the Cambodian monuments becomes less obscure to the Indianist, for although all Cambodian inscriptions are easily made out, the latest only can be clearly understood, the old ones being written in an ancient language, which the present Cambodians themselves cannot understand; and it is to be hoped that by a profound study of the comparative philology of the present dialects, the savants will arrive at a translation of these important inscriptions.

From Cambodje the expedition marched towards the north, ascending in native canoes, the great river, the whole course of which they intended to explore.

A large zone of rapids and of thick and impenetrable forests separates the Cambodje from this mysterious Laos, which at first appeared to justify the terrible reputation of insalubrity reported by missionaries, who never succeeded in penetrating it, a reputation which had been confirmed by the death of Mouhot.

Many members of the expedition fell sick with “jungle fever,” and for ten or twelve days Mr. Garnier remained in his canoe in a despaired-of condition, but the rainy season was fortunately at an end, and with the northerly winds fine weather and good health returned.

The expedition was compelled to winter at Bassac, the chief town of the Laotian kingdom of that name, a tributary of Siam, where they arrived on the 16th of September. During their stay at Bassac they had a good opportunity of studying the customs, habits and religion of the Laotian people which you will find minutely described in Mr. Garnier’s book, and very artistically illustrated by Mr. Delaporte’s drawings.

Bassac was the place where the Governor of Saigon had promised to forward to them a fresh supply of provisions and instruments, and above all the Chinese passports which the Legation at Pekin could not forward to Saigon before their departure.

But, as weeks passed away without bringing the expected reliefs, Mr. Garnier went back alone to meet them, and descending the river as far as Stung-Treng, on the frontiers of Cambodje, was there informed that a formidable insurrection had broken out in that kingdom and that all communication with the colony was interrupted.

The banks of the river being occupied by rebels, the boatmen refused to go any further, but as the success of the expedition was hopeless without the Chinese passports, Mr. Garnier having rejoined the expedition at Bassac on the 23rd of .November proceeded with them to Oubon where they arrived on the 7th of January, 1867. Mr. Garnier devoted himself again to making a long tour overland through a perfectly unknown country, comprising the Laotian provinces of Si-Saket, Coucan, Sourtin and Tchoucan reached that part of the Great Cambodian lake belonging to the Siamese, and by boats arrived at Pnom-Peuh, the central station of the French forces in Cambodje, having, with great danger, passed through positions occupied by the Cambodian rebels.

Having found the wished-for passports at Pnom-Peuh, Mr. Garnier started to join the expedition, and going on foot by a more eastern route through the province of Sonkea, and the immense forest of Prey-sa&, reached his companions at Houten on the 10th of March.

During the stay of the expedition at Bassac, Commander de Lagree had made a long journey to the eastward of the river, as far as the frontiers of Anam, and surveyed the Se-kong and Se-don both tributaries of the Meikong river.

Proceeding further north, the expedition traversed a most admirable country covered with beautiful and rich vegetation, but hardly productive, on account of the exactions the Laotians have had to bear, since the Siamese conquered the kingdom of Laos in 1828.

On the 2nd of April, the travellers arrived at the ruins ofVienChan, situated on the left bank of the Meikong in 18° N. Lat., which had been visited by Wustoffin 1641, and on the 1st of May they reached Luang-Prabang where their countryman Mouhot had died six years before, and with the assistance of the local authorities erected over his grave a monument to his memory.

Chapter XX is devoted by Mr. Garnier to the history of Laos, compiled principally from Chinese documents, and he arrives at the conclusion that the Laotians came originally from the province of Fohkien, the population of which shows, even now, a remarkable anthropologic difference from that of the other provinces of China.

On account of the enormous difficulties of navigation in the middle of the terrific rapids formed at each of the numerous turns and windings of the river, the travellers had to abandon all hopes. of reaching the frontiers of China by ascending the Meikong, and on reaching Tang-ho on the 18th of June, at the limit of the Siamese possessions, they were compelled to leave their canoes and proceed on foot.

The expedition had then arrived in a part of Laos, tributary to the Burmese empire, and as they could not before their departure from Saigon procure passports from the Court of Ava, they had to encounter all the difficulties and obstacles that the local authorities, and principally the Burman representative could raise to prevent them from proceeding any further.

The travellers had now the greatest difficulty to find bearers for their instruments and luggage, and the rainy season having set in, rendered their march very laborious and painful. They were obliged to leave behind all the botanical and geological specimens they had collected with so much trouble and care, and each one had to abandon the greater part of his clothing and carry his arms and instruments.

The journey, which until then had been comparatively easy and pleasant, became very arduous and fatiguing in the midst of all kinds of dangers.

The travellers had to cross very dense forests full of wild animals; to sleep on the damp soil; and very often to walk for days through an inundated country with water up to their waists.

The poor travellers’ hare feet, torn by roots, and eaten up by leeches, could hardly support them. They all suffered from fever, and very often abandoned all hope, not only of successfully performing their mission but even of ever seeing their country again.

However, the energy of their Chief kept up their spirits; the firm attitude of Commander de Lagree baffled the opposition of the Burman Officers, and after four months of direst miseries and struggles they at last reached, on the 29th of September, the important city of Xieng-Hong, situated in northern Laos, on the banks of the Meikong in 22° N. Latitude.

In order to remove the difficulties put in the way of the expedition by the local Burman representative, Commander de Lagree left his companions at Muong-Yong on the 14th of August, and made a long journey overland to the westward of the Meikong valley, to Xieng-Tong, the residence of the King of that province whose father had been visited by Lieutenant McLeod in 1837, and having obtained permission to continue his march to the north, rejoined his companions at Mong-You or Xieng-Keng, on the 13th of September, having traversed the regions occupied by the independent Does tribes.

Xieng-Hong being tributary to both Burmah and China, the passports delivered to the expedition by Prince Kung appeared at first to remove all difficulties raised by the local authorities to prevent its entrance into China, but the western part of the Yunan province, at which frontier they had arrived, having been for years in rebellion against the Imperial Government of Peking, the expedition in order to avoid the rebel territories, was compelled to turn to the eastward and to rejoin the Ho-ti-kiang or Tong-King river, which springs from the Yunan mountains near Yuen-Kiang (cheou), having therefore a good opportunity of visiting the important frontier markets of Se-mao, Pou-eul and Ta-lan, and of studying the mineral riches of that part of Yunan.

Mr. Garnier descended the Ho-ti.kiang about 30 miles to ascertain whether it was not a tributary of the “Meikong” but really entered the kingdom of Anam, and returned to China by Li-nganfu, named by Commander de Lagree as a place of rendezvous.

In that city Mr. Garnier very nearly fell a victim to popular curiosity, and only avoided lapidation by the use of his revolver, its rapid and successive detonations in the air, without any apparent loading, terrifying the population so much that they left him alone in the pagoda where he had taken up his abode and where they had besieged him.

Having been rejoined by his companions, they continued their journey through the region of lakes situated in the centre of the Yunan province.

All that country showed frightful signs of the most horrid civil war, roads leading through ruins were covered with the bodies of the dead and dying; whole cities had not a roof standing to shelter their miserable inhabitants, and an epidemic of cholera having spread over the country after the massacres, unburied coffins covered miles and miles of abandoned fields.

The French expedition arrived at Yunan-fu on Christmas Eve, 1867, and was received with very kind attention by the Chinese authorities.

Their mission might have then been considered at an end; they had but to join the navigable part of the Yangtze to proceed to Shanghai, but the travellers entertaining hopes of rejoining the Meikong ( Lan-tsang-hiang ) closer to its source and of being then able to trace its whole course, resolved to push on as far as the Thibetan frontier.

As they had to cross the country occupied by the Mahometan rebels, which was a very dangerous enterprise, and it being desirable to march as rapidly as possible, it was decided that a portion only of the expedition should attempt it.

At Tong-chuen where they arrived on the 16th January, 1868, the fatigues of the march, the privations of all sorts and the intense application of mind to which Commander de Lagree had given himself during the last eighteen months overcame his energy, and he fell very seriously ill. Mr. Garnier, directed by him to accomplish the last part of their programme, left his Chief under the care of Dr. Joubert, and taking Mr. Delaporte, Mr. De Carne, Dr. Thorel and five men with him, proceeded to Mong-kou, situated in 26° -4′ N. Lat. on the right bank of the Yangtze, called there the Kin-cha-hiang.

The Kin-cha-kiang making a long bend of nearly 150 miles to the south between Mong-kou and Hong-pou-so, situated about 60 miles to the eastward, the expedition crossed over to the left bank at Mong-kou and travelled through very arid and steep mountains, visiting Houey-li (cheau) and the coal and copper mines of that part of Szechuen.

They arrived at Hong-pou-so on the 8th of February, and on the 10th visited the junction of the Kin-cha-kiang with the Yalong-kiang coming from the north between two high walls cut in the mountain.

At Hong-pou-so the natives call the Ya-long-kiang which is the affluent, the Kin-cha-hiang, and the principal river or Yangtze, the Pei-chouy-hiang, although it is certain that the Pei-chauy-Mang is really the continuation of the Yangtze called the Kin-cha-hiang at Mong-kou.

The river runs in a gorge and is so interrupted by rapids that it is almost unnavigable. After following the left bank of the river in order to visit the Ma-chang coal mines, the expedition re-crossing the Kin-cha-kiang travelled westward through the mountains, following a direction parallel to that of the river whose course they surveyed for 300 miles further up than Ping-chan, visited by Captain Blakiston in 1861.

On the 26th of February they arrived at Tou-toui-tsi, a small village in the mountains, about 50 miles from Ta-ly, where they found a missionary, Mr. Leguilcher, who had lived in the country for twenty years.

From that place Mr. Garnier sent an express to Tu-wan-hsiu the Mahometan Chief or Sultan, informing him of his intention to visit him, and without waiting for a reply, the expedition started two hours after their courier, accompanied by Mr. Leguilcher whose knowledge of the dialects, and of Mahometan customs would be of great assistance.

The city of Ta-ly is built in a beautiful plain, situated between the western bank of the Eul-hay lake and a range of inaccessible mountains, covered with snow, which encircle the lake from north to south, leaving only at each end a narrow pass very easy to defend, which renders the place impregnable and only assailable from the lake.

This lake, situated more than 6,000 feet above the level of the sea, measures 22 miles from N. to S., and 6 or 7 miles from E. to W., the water is very deep, in some places exceeding 50 fathoms. The lake overflows at its south end through a small river which joins the Meikong on the frontier of Yunan.

The plain of Ta-ly contained formerly more than 150 villages, these, ruined by the war, are now occupied by the Mahometans.

The eastern shore of the lake is inhabited by the Minhias and the Pentis.

The Pentis are descended from the first Chinese families that were sent to colonize Yunan by the Mongols, after the conquests of the western province by Khoublai Kan’s generals; the ilinhias are said to have come from Nankin. Mr. Garnier’s book gives a very minute description of the different human types, such as Chinese, Laotians, Thibetans, Lolos, Mautze, and other independent tribes that are found in that part of Yunan.

On the 2nd of March the expedition having received a favorable answer from the Sultan, entered the plain of Ta-ly by the Hiangkouan pass, to the north of the lake, reached the city in the afternoon, and being quartered in a yamen near the south gate had occasion to visit the city from one end to the other.

The next day was appointed for the audience, but, instead of receiving them, the Sultan ordered them to leave the country immediately.

“Tell them,” he said to Mr. Leguilcher, “that they can conquer the eighteen provinces of China but never the country I rule, that I give them life because they are foreigners, but although they have sounded my lake and measured the height of my mountains, they will never take them.”

The Sultan’s refusal to receive them being known to all, the soldiers and people showed signs of bad feeling towards the travellers, and it was only the European prestige—the fear of their arms, which were considered marvellous—and the energetic attitude of all, that saved their lives. The expedition left Ta-ly the next day early in the morning, going outside the city walls, and soon arrived at the fortress that defends the Hiang-kouan pass where the Commander told them that he had received instructions from the Sultan to offer them hospitality for the night, but Mr. Garnier very proudly answered, that as the Sultan would not receive him in his palace he could not now accept his hospitality in the fort, and before any thing could be done to prevent it, they marched through the pass and found themselves again with great satisfaction in the open country. After a few days rest at Tou-toui-tsi, finding it impossible, owing to the state of the country, to proceed further, they started back for Tong-chouen, where they arrived on the 4th of April, and had the affliction to learn that their Chief, Commander Doudart de Lagree, had died on the 12th of March.

Unwilling to leave behind the body of an Officer, who had so nobly served his country and died on the battle-field of science and civilization, Mr. Garnier, with the assistance of the Chinese authorities and surmounting the difficulties of a long voyage through the mountains, transported him to Sui-tcheou-fu where the Yangtze begins to he open to navigation.

On the 19th of May the exploring expedition, now reduced to fourteen persons, proceeded down the Yangtze; they passed in the way Mr. T. T. Cooper who was then proceeding through the province of Szechuen to join Mgr. Chauveau the Vicar Apostolic of Thibet, who failed in his attempt to reach that country and visit Ta-ly. At the same time Captain, now Major Sladen, who had started from Bamo on the Irawady was detained at Momein ( Tengyue) on the frontier of Yunan without being allowed to proceed further.

The French expedition arrived at Shanghai on the 12th of June, 1868, having been two years on the voyage.

From Cratieh, the most distant point above Saigon surveyed by the naval hydrographers, the expedition travelled 6,225 miles, 4,200 miles of which were geographically determined for the first time.

In this long journey the geographical positions of 66 places were astronomically determined, 57 of them for the first time, accurate soundings were taken and minute surveys made of the Meikong and other rivers visited by the expedition, the different altitudes of mountains were observed and registered, together with a minute description of the country, its trade, its mineral and vegetable productions and its political organisation.

Besides these geographical results, Mr. Garnier’s book contains a historical part to which I have already alluded, and a very interesting illustrated description of Buddhism as practised in the kingdom of Laos, together with geological, botanical and anthropological observations by Doctors Thorel and Joubert, and a very minute account of the working of the Yunan mines compiled from Chinese documents.

The Atlas contains twelve charts of the journey, and ten plans of Khmers monuments visited in Cambodje, and the Album a very fine collection of lithographs and chromolithographs representing the types and dresses of the natives, and views of the different places visited by the expedition. They have been executed by the best Parisian artists from the sketches and drawings made by Lieutenant Delaporte during the voyage.

This exploring expedition, by which Europeans have been able for the first time to enter China by an Indian route, has received the sanction of the most competent Societies.

In 1869, the Sociéte de Geographie de Paris divided its gold medal between the two Chiefs of the expedition, Commander Doudart de Lagr§e and Lieutenant Garnier; the International Geographical Congress of Anvers voted two special medals, one for Dr. Livingston and the other for Mr. Garnier, who was also presented in 1870 with what all travellers consider the most honorable recompense, the Patron’s Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London.

Feeling Teutonic

I did have some interest in Germany before, not just the language and geography but also folk clothing and folklore at various points. I’ve yet to go to Germany and Europe in general but I suspect that there’s a lot to Germany that at this point can only be done by bypassing the language barrier. (Google Translate helps as is Google Chrome’s translator.)

I guess learning a lot about Germany through German language websites helps in understanding the sensibility and mentality that I feel Anglophone sources, no matter how well-researched, fail to comprehend (at times). Same goes for any other country, especially if there’s going to be a language barrier around.

(I think from hanging out at Arabic websites, cats are also noted for loyalty and in Russian sources, for also detecting harmful spirits and being jealous.)

A lot of research’s needed for minimising potential culture shock and now with the Internet, it’s even easier to do it and get it translated instantly.

Differences between each African region (Part One)

Africa, arguably until recently and outside of Africans themselves, was often perceived as something of a blank slate to colonial empires especially with interchangeable communities even though Africa has greater genetic diversity.

That and Africans being easily generalised by demeaning cliches. If I’m not mistaken, according to one global study most Africans (especially Nigerians) aren’t that well-endowed and likely in another study, similar for Kenyans too.

(Let’s not forget that there are African men who’re capable of controlling themselves and be faithful husbands.)

Not that there aren’t any indigenous darker skinned populations in Northern Africa as Egypt also used to cover much of Sudan and there’s a community there known as the Nubians. The Berbers, which also live in Northern Africa and to some extent Niger (the Tuaregs*), often practise monogamy. They also heavily use Arabic but there’s growing recognition for Berber languages.

Afro-Asiatic languages prevail in parts of Nigeria, Kenya and Tanzania (if I’m not mistaken) and are the norm in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Egypt. Unsurprisingly, since Arabic’s something of the lingua franca in Muslim countries (though the usage varies as it’s mostly clerical in places like Indonesia and Turkey) it’s almost parsimonious that Arabic influence’s considerably stronger in Northern and Western Africa.

It should however be noted that they’re still a considerable community in Eastern Africa. Islamic populations vary from being around 25-30% in Cameroon, 50% in Nigeria, 14% in Uganda, 20% in Ghana, 11.1% in Kenya, 38.6% in Cote d’Ivoire, 35% in Tanzania and the norm in Guinea, Chad, Morocco, Egypt, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Libya, Tunisia, Sierra Leone and Sudan

Let’s not forget that the Ugandan kanzu is practically the Islamic thobe because it’s adapted from it. Though admittedly, thobes/kanzu robes are also worn outside of it such as Cameroon and historically Europe (robes are also still worn by clergy regardless of the denomination). And many Sub-Saharan Africans went modest due to Islamic and Christian missionary influence.

If Arabic’s the lingua franca of Islam and that of Middle East and Northern Africa (and to some extent, extant Islamic communities) like how Latin’s the lingua franca of Catholic Europe for years, then Swahili’s the lingua franca of East Africa. At least around Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and to some extent, Democratic Republic of Congo.

There’s a colourful saying surrounding its usage: born in Zanzibar, grew up in Tanzania, fell sick in Kenya, died in Uganda and was buried in Congo (as taken from The New Times Rwanda). But the other lingua franca throughout Africa trace back to European colonialism.

Francophone Africa predictably consists of Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Gabon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Guinea, Mali, Benin, Togo and Senegal as well as Rwanda (at some point). Keep in mind that Burundi, Rwanda and DRC used to be Belgian colonies.

The rest are usually either former British or French colonies. Since Cameroon also got colonised by the British, it’s parsimonious to suggest that Rwanda and Cameroon have both Anglophone and Francophone tendencies to varying degrees.

This leads to the next one: Anglophone Africa. As one guesses, it consists of Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana, Namibia, Ghana, Rwanda (recently so) and to a lesser degree Cameroon. Keep in mind that some of them (Cameroon, Nigeria, Chad, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, Togo and Namibia) were former German colonies.

But then again German influence’s very brief since now most of them speak English with Cameroon and Togo becoming predominantly Francophone. Eritrea, Ethiopia (especially Addis Ababa) and Libya all used to be Italian colonies. (Due to Ottoman influence, Ethiopia could also count as a former Turkish colony.)

Though Spain also imported many of its slaves from Africa, there aren’t that many African countries still using Spanish (the only one being Equatorial Guinea, which shouldn’t be confused for French Guinea) and that Libya still uses Italian, the only other major Romance language in Africa is Portuguese.

It’s widely spoken in Cabo Verde, Angola and Mozambique. Like Brazi and Macau, they are all former Portuguese colonies and Angola was used as a sort of gateway for slave traders. Quite logically, though German used to be spoken in Cameroon and the other former German colonies yet English and Afrikaans (Dutch) remained the most persistently used Germanic languages there.

(South Africa, Namibia and Botswana were former Dutch colonies.)

*Music cultures of the Pacific, the Near East, and Asia – Page 40

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=bCsuAAAAMAAJ
William P. Malm – 1967 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Unlike most Berbers, the Tuaregs adopted the Moslem social system while sharing Berber monogamy. Their form of matriarchy is unique (only the men wear veils), as is their writing system (only the women are literate). Their music shows …

Indian Style Filipiana

Like I said, the Philippines was influenced by India so it’s time to acknowledge it again. That is by making Indian style clothing using Philippine fabrics. That could even be possible only if you know where to find native Philippine style fabrics at all. If you’re going to get abel iloko, unless if you learn to make one yourself, you’re going to have to get it from Ilocos and specifically Vigan.

Ad infinitum. If you’re going to make Indian, Russian, Bamileke and Arabic style clothing and fabrics you’ll be needing lots of references to give an idea of what they’re actually like. Making such outfits out of Philippine fabrics is going to be fascinating, though arguably sacrilegious to some. But it’s also worth it, especially when it comes to taking advantage of such fabrics and designs.

Especially if you’re going to adapt Philippine fabrics to Russian and Indian style clothing.