Being Jewish and a Superhero

Jews, whether as fictional beings or as actual producers, are very well-represented in superhero media. In fact, much moreso than Christians in the sense of the former seeking empowerment and the latter having a chronic malaise and distrust of any degree to even accept superheroes as they are. (As in not using them to preach or whatever that means.)

Since I think most Christians do have a tendency towards cynicism where if they’re to use superheroes at all, it’s cynical in the sense of the second definition (as in overly concerned with oneself and disregarding others) when it comes to informing or preaching. Whereas with Jews, it’s a genuine act of self-expression and self-empowerment.

It comes in handy as Jews do get persecuted a lot where they really need to uplift themselves and fight back. (With Christians, what you’re getting is calculated/learnt helplessness as well as using something else to their own advantage.) I still suspect that Christians do tend to be more cynical than Jews are, which an attitude they got from some Greeks.

(Hence why Christianity practically owes a lot more to Greco-Roman sensibilities to the point where I’d go on arguing that Christianity’s a simplification of it.)

The fact that Jews are so well-represented in superhero media and comedy are some of the more important differences between them and their Christian counterparts. Admittedly I know little about Jewish theology but since Jews are well-represented in those two that the differences are going to exist anyways even if they seem to lessen.

Too dark for rockists

Whilst heavy metal and Goth make a better claim for being the ultimate rockists, the rockist’s rockist yet they’re generally not that well-received by music critics. If Nickelback’s any indication, it has to be the right sort of authenticity but one that’s really too lofty of an ideal to achieve for even most rock bands. Whether if they’re highly commercial (Nickelback) or way too dark (heavy metal), it has to be the right sort of authenticity even if most rock bands may sometimes fail to pass.

In this case, it’s also got to do with the right sort of emotional authenticity. You can write about what you feel but not to the point of glorifying darkness a lot since heavy metal and Goth music (from my experience as it may not be true for all) do honestly go deep in singing about dark subject matter. It seemed the ideal rock band’s supposed to be enlightening. Heavy metal (and Goth) tend to be more frank about darkness as much as they wallow in it.

That’s not to say the likes of Bathory and Sortilege aren’t well-received but that the real vice heavy metal and Goth have (when viewed from a rockist critic lens) is that they get too dark for their own good.

They’re like animals

Somebody did a phylogeny of the Pocket Monsters and I suspect whilst shocking to some, it also makes weird biological sense. Consider this. Terrestriality evolved twice, once with invertebrates and once with vertebrates. Bipedalism evolved thrice, once among marsupials, once among birds and once among primates. The cetids are monophyletic group within the artiodactyls. The birds are a monophyletic group within the dinosaurs.

It’s one thing to reimagine them as actual animals, it’s another to realise that they do evolve like actual animals. But in the biological sense of the word. It’s evidently that if the Grass types evolved from ungulates, it should be expected that the initial ones (Torterra, Venusaur, Sawsbuck) are quadrupedal animals with some plants attached to them. The subsequent ones are proper plant-animal hybrids.

(To be fair, there are real life plant-animal hybrids, plants sometimes accidentally attach themselves to frogs and algae do grow on turtle shells.)

Same for anything else to whatever degree really and since convergent evolution’s as much of a thing in real life (this should also extend to clothing as metalheads and Goths look similar but have different histories and sensibilities) as it is in the Pokemon world when viewed from this perspective.

(It’s parsimonious to assume that since most of the Fire Pokemon come from beings analogous to canids, since foxes developed traits similar to cats proper and hyenas to dogs the feline Incineroar’s an analogy to either one of them.)

Sort of makes sense really.

Fox demon (Google Books)

The Cult of the Fox: Power, Gender, and Popular Religion in Late …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0231133383

Xiaofei Kang – 2006 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The term “fox demon” (humei) appeared frequently in Tantric texts translated into Chinese by Indian monks. These texts accused fox demons, together with mountain spirits and ghosts, of being a major cause of disease. A Tang Tantric text …
The Religious Sysetm of China – Page 576
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=5swUAAAAIAAJ

Jan Jakob Maria De Groot – 1964 – ‎Preview
The monster thus plays a significant part in Chinese Chronomancy, and we shall therefore again have to give our attention to it when, in another Book, we treat of that important branch of the Taoist system. 4. Fox-demons. Already in ancient …
Chinese Jade Throughout Ages: A Review of its Characteristics, …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1462909663

Stanley Charles Nott – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
In fact it is in this manner that the Chinese refer to the fox both in thought and tradition. There are numerous tales in Chinese folklore, in all of which the fox is referred to as a Fox demon, and reverenced solely by a sense of fear. The heavenly …
Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=a5xJAAAAYAAJ

1874 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
On another occasion the fox transformed himself into a goddess, and led very many astray. … I have already mentioned the mystic charm prepared by the head of the Taoist sect, which drives away the fox-demon when he comes invisible to all …
Psychoanalysis in China
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0429917821

David E. Scharff – 2018 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
For many centuries, numerous Chinese novels have featured the element of a young man starting out on a journey with his … Sometimes this fox spirit feels compassion for the young man, reveals her true identity, and allows him to recover.
Devil Foxes (Simplified Chinese Reading Comprehension, Level 1, …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1980481822

Tingjia Liang, ‎Du Zhang – 2018 – ‎No preview
(This book is with free audio book, and also readable on iPad and tablets. )Pei’s son was ill.
Journal of Chinese Religions – Issues 34-36 – Page 116
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=va5MAQAAMAAJ

2006 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
In the stories of the Six Dynasties, a fox could transform into a handsome man or beautiful woman in order to pursue sexual relationships with humans of the opposite sex. The terms humei (oss of fox demon) and humei (soft vulpine …
Researches Into Chinese Superstitions: Second part: The Chinese pantheon
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=4ZlxAAAAMAAJ

Henri Doré – 1967 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
(2) The character ft), known already from Its use for the Fox-demons Js f| Indicates that an animal has ascended In the scale of being, has becoming an intelligent being — a kind of spirit or demon. (1) See Dragon “Article” In Chinese folk-lore, …
The Religious System of China: Bk. II. On the soul and ancestral worship
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=0ozXAAAAMAAJ

Jan Jakob Maria Groot – 1989 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
The monster thus plays a significant part in Chinese Chronomancy, and we shall therefore again have to give our attention to it when, in another Book, we treat of that important branch of the Taoist system. 4. Fox-demons. Already in ancient …
The Religious System of China: book II. On the soul and ancestral …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=QCpAAQAAIAAJ

Jan Jakob Maria Groot – 1969 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
The monster thus plays a significant part in Chinese Chronomancy, and we shall therefore again have to give our attention to it when, in another Book, we treat of that important branch of the Taoist system. 4. Fox-demons. Already in ancient …

The Chinese Recorder, Volume 24

BY DK. E. R. JELLISON.
[Methodist Episcopal Mission.]

Ajfjo know any people you must know what they think, feel and wih believe. The condition of the nations of the world ro-day is, and always has been, the outgrowth of the beliefs, or the superstitions of the mass of the people. Often it is, that some great man has so directed, influenced or controlled the people that they have changed the maps of continents and enlarged the sphere of human thought, but you can, by searching, find out that the man, though great himself, was but the exponent of the thought of many others, and that the result reached under his directing hand was in accord with the most advanced thought of the people of the time. It is also evident that there never has been any great change in the condition of any people except as it has followed a previous change in the education and thought of the people. We see how the power of Christian thought and faith has placed the Christian nations of the earth in the front rank of science, literature and art. We have but to look at the debasing beliefs of poor dark Africa to see the reason for the condition of savagery in which the natives are plunged. You who have studied the rise and fall of empires and can bring to your mind’s eye the cause and effect of the forces which have been potent in making and destroying kingdoms, know how great an influence the religion or absence of religion of the people has had in the various changes through which the nations of the world have passed. I think that the historian of the future will more than ever embody wiih his chronicle of events the reason why. And the foundation of the reasons why any people have allowed themselves to be ruled or influenced by others will be found in what the people believe, feel, think and know. Look at the United Slates with its millions of free. The ideas that all men are free and equal and that a government should be of the people, for the people, and by the people, have worked out the government of the United States. The idea that might is right has placed the monarch on the throne and made the free born man a thrall. The idea of the divine right of kings has made the ruler a despot aud the people his willing subjects.

Every superstructure has its foundation. No state will be a great influence which does not possess in its people individuals who will rise to great occasions and be a guiding power in the affairs that will make either for progress or retrogression. Ou looking at China to-day we cannot but acknowledge that her condition is due to her religion, superstition and belief in those incredible stories and mauy varieties of improbable and impossible things which so largely influence the mind of the people. What are some of the superstitions? I have selected some of the stones that are believed by the people, and in securing my information I have kept to the words of the Chinese who have related them to me. I will first relate some stories of the fox, than whom in all countries no more cunning animal is found. It is but natural that the Chinese, believing as they do in spirits and occult influences of so many kinds, fearing as they do the powers of darkness and the unseen, should ascribe to that cunning animal, the fox, such miraculous powers.

I. The Fox and the Office Seeker. Once in the halcyon days of the Ming dynasty a native of Nanking, possessed of considerable means, desired an office at the hands of the Emperor. Though repeatedly warned by his family and friends of the dangers of travel he resolutely set out for Peking to interview the officials in whose hands was the power to appoint him. Armed with plenty of credentials from influential people he hired a comfortable boat and set sail for the Capital. His journey took him by the way of the Grand Canal. When approaching Yangchow he was suddenly taken very ill. As the boatman would get into much trouble and expense if the traveller should die on his boat he endeavored in every possible way to get rid of him. When the sick man had eaten nothing for some days the poor boatman was driven nearly to the verge of despair, when luckily for both a small boat, in which sat a beautiful lady, came alongside of them. She, seeing the sick man, very kindly offered to take him on her boat and look after him. Overjoyed the boatman quickly transfered his passenger. After inquiring into the patient’s condition the lady produced two pills and induced him to take them. Having swallowed them he was instantly cured, and they proceeded on their journey in the happiest mood. Ou making inquiry to whom he was indebted for so great kindness his beuefactress said she was a resident of Yangchow, out for an excursion on the water. He told her where he was goiug, and as he would not risk the former boat after such shabby treatment, they concluded to go on to Peking together. Moreover, as they journeyed, the beautiful lady, who by the way was a fox, so fascinated the offico seeker that he desired to make her his wife. This being the aim and purpose of the fox she readily gave her consent. Arriving at ChinkiaDg-pu the office seeker decided to leave his wife there until his return from Peking. This was accordingly done, and alone in her little boat, wafted by favorable breezes, he rapidly accomplished the journey to Peking, and assisted by the secret iufluence of the fox he was appointed to a high position in Szchuan, to which place, by a circuitous route, he at. once repaired; bnt, however, not returning via Chinkiang-pu, where he had left his wife. His good fortune had soon led him to forget his benefactress, and as out of sight is out of raiud he no longer cared for her, and sought in this manner to rid himself of her. Getting well settled in his office, with a good income, he heard no more of the fox and had quite forgotten her, when one day the fox came into his Yameti and demanded to be installed in her proper place as his wife. Influenced as formerly by her beauty and magnetic presence he made no objections. He prospered and, no doubt, they would have lived long and happily together, but he took to himself other wives, which led to misunderstandings and unhappiuess. One day in the sixth month the fox, exhausted by the heat, fell asleep upon the floor of her room. As the soul left her body she resumed the shape of the fox. Her husband coming in saw a fox lyiug on the floor of his wife’s apartments, and as the thought came to him that the woman who had bewitched him was this fox he seized a sword and sprang forward to slay her. Hearing the noise the fox awake and at once resumed the form of the same beautiful woman. Angered at the ingratitude of the man whose life she had saved she demanded the return of the two pills she had given him at the time of his illness. He cast them into her hand and she disappeared. The official being deprived of the support of the magic medicine of the fox was at once seized with the former complaiut and taking to bed soon solved the great mystery.

II. The Fox and the Farmer. A poor farmer in Hu-poh lived alone in his little straw-thatched mud-walled hut. As bachelors are wont to do he did not keep his hut very tidy. As he must cook his own rice he was content with a hot supper and wh at few leavings he could pick up for breakfast. A fox took pity on him, and when he was out tilling his little gardeu spot, would come into the house, and, changing herself into a woman, sweep the floor, make the bed and prepare a good hot meal of rice, with such vegetables and meat as the farmer liked best. It was a great wonder to the farmer to come in from the field and find a clean house with a nice dinner all prepared for him. Day after day the same thing occurred, until at last he determined to secrete himself and find out in what manner these things came to pass. Hid behind a water jar he patiently waited. Soon he was rewarded by seeing a fox creep slowly through a hole in the

wall and turning a somersault landed on her feet a handsome womanAs she turned, the fox’s skin fell to the ground. The farmer quickly caught it up and hid it under the pig trough. The house having been swept, the bed made and the dinner cooked, she turned to the place where she dropped the skin, but it had disappeared. She had no recourse but to remain a woman and become the farmer’s wife. Ouo day he was carrying one of his children by the house, and in a joking way said, “Your mother is a fox.” The mother at once demanded the proof of the accusation. Ho produced the fox skin, and with a somersault the wife was into the skin and scampered off, leaving him with his children. Neither did she return to keep his house or cook his meals for him.

III. The Fox and the Girl. At the foot of Ling-chee-shan, in Hu-poh, there died a young girl. According to custom she was buried in the ancestral cemetery at the border of the hill.

A fox came and remained on the grave. This at once excited the people, who declared that the girl was deified and her spirit had entered the fox. Two temples were erected, a small one over the grave and a large one at the other side of the hill. An idol was made in the form of the girl and placed in the larger temple. At once the fox left the small temple and took up a position behind the idol. Thousauds came to burn incense and beseech the fox to work miracles. Many were healed, and the mother of the girl became rich by means of the number of presents and gifts of money brought to the temples. This kept up for three years. Then the Prefect came and put his seal on the image. The fox forsook the temple. So did the worshippers. Great cures had been wrought by the deified girl residing in the fox, and the fame thereof was spread abroad in the land.

IV. The Fox and the Peddler. In the northern part of the city of Nanking there dwelt in a small mean house old Mrs. Tsii and her only son.

They eked out a precarious subsistence on the profits of the sale of the biscuits which the son daily sold on the street. One day a young lady named Pao King came to the house, while the peddler was away, and told Mrs. Tsii she would like to be her daughter-inlaw. She was finely dressed and bedecked with many jewels, and withal had the appearance of a child of wealth. Mrs. Tsii would not take her as a danghter-in-law because she thought Pao King must have strayed away from home and that the officials would soon find her out, and poor Mrs. Tsii dreaded the YamSn. Pao King said she could work and would make herself useful iu many ways. Daily she came to help until a neighbor, Mrs. Liu, came and said she knew the girl and that she was au honest orphan, who would make a good wife for Mrs. Tail’s son. All were agreed, and the peddler returning from the street was much pleased when his mother presented him with a beautiful wife. He was surprized to see the plain home transformed into a lovely room filled with new furniture. Clothing and food were abnndaut and of the best quality. On approaching home he saw the same old building, but within all was new, clean and warm. Mr. Tsii’s business flourished as never before. His wife, who was a fox, managed so cleverly that they soon saved some money. The hut was replaced by a commodious residence, while money and friends were plenty. He was no more the itinerant peddler, but a rich and honored man. The household and business affairs were all in the hands of his wife, whose marvellous business ability and wisdom had made him rich. Seeing their good fortnue Mrs. Lin asked for a reward for arranging the match. The fox gave her a bamboo cane and told her to take it homo. On placing the cane on her table Mrs. Liu was astonished to behold a silver cane. Scarcely believing her eyes she took it to the banker, who paid her 30 taels for it. Time passed on until their son was 20 years of age. The fox had instructed him in accounts and all the business methods necessary to conduct the extensive affairs of the house. One day she persuaded Mr- Tsii to buy a coffin large enough for two. As he was getting old he consented. When the coffin came the fox told him they would both die the next day. The saying was fulfilled and together they slept the long sleep and were buried with all the pomp and ceremony wealth could procure.

V. The Talking Bird. There lived in Canton a man named “Wang, who possessed a beautiful talking bird. Not a mere mocking bird or parrot but one able to carry on intelligent conversation, and plan or suggest matters of great importance to his owner. Wang and his pet were inseparable. Together they went to the Capital of the Empire. Unexpectedly Mr. Wang’s money was exhausted and he knew not where to borrow or earn an honest cash. His melancholy attracted the attention of the bird, who told him to cheer up, as he had a plan to help him out of his trouble. “Take me,” he said, ” to the neighborhood of the palace aud offer me for sale. After I am sold wait for me 20 li outside the city.” A great crowd collected about them as they went talking through the streets. Approaching the palace a sou of the Emperor, hearing the bird talking in such an intelligent manner, asked Mr. Wang if he would sell him. “No,” said Wang, ” the bird has been with me so long; I cauuot part with him, ueither is he willing to leave me.” But the bird spoke up quickly saying, ” I am willing to bo sold,” whereupon the owner unbred to let him go for 10 oz. of gold. The prince gladly paid the price and took the bird. On being taken to his new home the bird demanded meat to eat. It was given him by his happy owner. “I want a bath,” said the bird. His feet, which were fastened by a cord to the frame on which he was carried, were loosed and he took his bath and flew to the eaves of the house to shake himself. Daring the drying he carried on a sprightly conversation with the young prince, after which he said, “I am going,” and in an instant flew away to be with his old friend Wang. The prince attempted to catch the bird and Mr. Wang, but both had disappeared. Some years later they were both seen in Houan by one of the attendants of the prince. This bird had cleverly rescued his owner from distress and was able to keep away evil influences from those whom he wished to care for. If these birds are sold against their will they refuse to eat and die of starvation.

In addition to the superstitions illustrated in the above stories it is true that the Chinese are much opposed to killing a fox. In Wuhu the father of one of our helpers killed a fox and hung his skiu up as a warning to other predatory foxes. The night following more than 20 foxes came and barked furiously around the house over which the skin was hanging. The neighbors were loud and positive in their assertion that calamity would speedily come to the rash destroyer of the fox. It is believed by many Chinese that many of the incendiary fires are lighted by foxes. If a fox barks at night incense must be burned and the proper worship conducted, or the result will be a fire or a death. Foxes are accredited with the power to secretly poison food in such a manner that a chronic form of indigestion, very common among the natives, is caused. The fox is feared and worshipped by the Chinese. As a last resort any one afflicted by the malign influence of a fox will indict him at the bar of some official, and this is said to completely neutralize his influence and drive him away. A few months ago a patient in our hospital was suffering from a complaint, the causation of which he ascribed to a fox. Many days’ treatment in the wards was of no avail, and the patient left with the intention of indicting the fox before the Prefect. I expect he has obtained relief, as we have seen no more of him. Among the Chinese the belief prevails that some winds contain an evil spirit. For this reason the Chinese keep the windows closed and hang curtains about their beds. I attended a man who was suffering from paralysis of the lower limbs. He stated that he was passing the Confucian Temple, when an evil wind struck him, knocking him to the ground. He did not recover. He was utterly without hope, as he could not fight against the evil wind. The wind at the Confucian Temple, which is dreaded, is the ordinary small whirlwiud, and any Chinaman seeing it coming will always turn and retreat to an unexposed place until it is passed. Not only men but chickens and dogs are said to be paralyzed by these winds. These short references to the common superstitions of the Chinese may serve as an index to show the condition of mind of the average Chinaman. Anyone who believes such things is in a condition of absolute darkness, spiritually and intellectually. The beginner in natural philosophy and the youngest student of the Holy Bible cannot believe them. We look earnestly for the speedy coming of the time, when the Light of the Word of God will dispel these dark superstitions and when we shall see this great nation in its right mind worshipping the Holy Spirit and uudisturbed by the barking of foxes.

The Work of our Association*

China Review International – Volume 13 – Page 39
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=bWeYdq91pdoC

2006 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… Han Chinese had a grudging respect for such people and a general belief in their potency, perhaps inspired by fear and … Abramson notes that the barbarian other was implicated in fox tales (hu, “fox,” is homophonous with the most popular …
The Taoist Experience: An Anthology
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Livia Kohn, ‎Associate Professor of Religion Livia Kohn, PhD – 1993 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Containing sixty translations from a large variety of texts, this is an accessible yet thorough introduction to the major concepts, doctrines, and practices of Taoism.
The Columbia History of Chinese Literature
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Victor H. Mair – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Stretching from earliest times to the present, the text features original contributions by leading specialists working in all genres and periods.
Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress
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Steven Pinker – 2018 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A NEW YORK TIMES NOTABLE BOOK OF 2018 ONE OF THE ECONOMIST’S BOOKS OF THE YEAR “My new favorite book of all time.
Preference, Belief, and Similarity: Selected Writings
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Amos Tversky, ‎Eldar Shafir – 2004 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Selected works by the influential cognitive and mathematical psychologist and decision theorist Amos Tversky.
The War on Alcohol: Prohibition and the Rise of the American State
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0393248798

Lisa McGirr – 2015 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Now at last Lisa McGirr dismantles this cherished myth to reveal a much more significant history. Prohibition was the seedbed for a pivotal expansion of the federal government, the genesis of our contemporary penal state.
Folklore studies – Volumes 17-18 – Page 2
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=LUwsAQAAIAAJ

1958 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
It would thus appear that at about that time, or somewhat before, such superstitions came over from China, where they … The belief in supernatural foxes seems to have considerably spread during the Heian-cho and following periods, until the …
Gobi: A Little Dog with a Big Heart (picture book)
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Dion Leonard – 2017 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Bring home the incredible true story of a friendship so strong that it crosses the globe! Families everywhere will be delighted by the tale of Gobi and Dion—a little lost dog and the ultramarathon runner who saved her.
Crisis of Responsibility: Our Cultural Addiction to Blame and How …
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David L. Bahnsen – 2018 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
If we fail as individual Americans to address this core crisis of responsibility, we have only ourselves to blame for what happens next.
Life After Life: A Novel
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Kate Atkinson – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
And if she can — will she? Darkly comic, startlingly poignant, and utterly original — this is Kate Atkinson at her absolute best.

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The Dragon, Image, and Demon Or The Three Religions of China, Confucianism …
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the fourth moon, fourteenth day, and so many go to his temple, that it is popularly called, “Crowd the Divine Immortal.” The Governor worships him.

The King of Medicine—There are four of these gods, or perhaps one with four titles. Desiring to cure

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the 10,000 different forms of disease, he tasted all kinds of herbs that he might know their virtue. In one day he ate seventy poisons; his body was transparent, so that the effects of the medicines could be seen.

Hien Yuen and Chepah.—To the first of these the Chinese not only ascribe the invention of clothing and architecture, but also of medicine. “He was the first to determine the relations of the five viscera to the five elements, and describe internal and external diseases.” Chepah was his assistant in medical investigations, “the author of prescriptions,” and “the reputed founder of the art of healing.”

Dr. Fox.—Foxes are found in the northern provinces,

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and light literature abounds in legends about this creature, who may become a man or a woman, and practise all kinds of deceit. Houses are frequently haunted by the fox, and both the gentry and peasantry believe that his ingress and exit may be with closed doors. In the Confucian archives in this city, the fox sees to airing the books. Near the Imperial Tailors’ Yamen, from which, twice a year, one thousand trunks of embroidered clothing are sent to Peking, is the temple of the fox immortal; if there is a spot of grease on a robe, his glance is equal to benzine for removing it, and the garments are folded and packed before his shrine.

The sick and their friends go to Dr. Fox with every disease, and his is the most celebrated temple in the city for genii prescriptions. The three sides of a large hall are filled with “votive tablets,” presented by the devotees on recovery. The “votive tablets” say, “With a pious heart I pray ;” “Piety is efficacious ;” “Prayer is sure to have its answer.”

Just as there are drug stores in every part of the city, convenient for local trade, so there are idol shrines situated in every ward, whose deities have considerable fame in the art of healing, and to whom the people Dr. Hwat’u. carry all their sicknesses.

Dr. Hwat’u.—This distinguished physician lived in the second century of our era, and “all that is known respecting his career is derived from tradition and romance, in which his wonderful skill and attainments are widely celebrated, and he is said to have been especially successful in surgical operations of a marvellous description.”

In his later years he was imprisoned by royal command, and as the jailer was very kind to the physician, the latter gave him his book of prescriptions. Unfortunately, when the possessor of this legacy attended the state prisoner to the execution grounds, his wife, not knowing the value of the roll, used it in kindling her fire, so it was lost to the world. He stands second in rank among the Heavenly doctors; the people now bow at his shrine, and pray for prescriptions. He is the greatest physician China ever possessed.

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The Divine Oculist—In this country, where ophthalmia prevails so extensively, he is worshipped by all who have diseased eyes.

God of Small-pox—In China from early ages inoculation was practised, or, as it is called, “planting” in the nose; generally when the child is two years old. As the fatality is very great, when the doctor comes to “plant the small-pox” the family go through with extensive religious ceremonies, the god being worshipped with a feast, incense, and fire-crackers.

Liver Complaint and Stomach-ache Genii.—These are beardless young men, who are worshipped by those who have the aforesaid maladies.

God of Measles.—He has a speckled face. Worshipped by those who break out with measles.

God of Luck—King Wan is the man; they do not call him ” god of luck,” but “King Wan’s luck.” Only worshipped in times of sickness. They light three sticks of incense when they go to consult the blind fortuneteller, and three sticks wheu they return.

God of the Primordial Cause.

—T’ai Yih. He lived in the time of the Divine Husbandman, who visited him to inquire about diseases and fortune. He was Hien Yuen’s medical preceptor, and Chepah gave him a treatise on physiology and a roll of charms. His medical knowledge was handed down to future Goddcss o£ Midwives. ages. He went with the immortals to the Peach Assembly of the gods to meet the Western Royal Mother. In times of sickness to chant seven days, “T’ai Yih, honourable god, save from pain,” is a certain panacea.

Goddess of the Womb.—Mang Kinee. She is a pigmy, only three inches in height. Before the birth of a child, if worshipped, everything will be favourable.

Goddess of Midwives.—She is worshipped by the female attendants, and Mrs. Kyien Sen’s shrine is in their homes. Both before and afterwards the happy

Come and Sleep: The Folklore of the Japanese Fox
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Christopher Kincaid – 2016 – ‎No preview
Ideal wife and sexual vampire.
Chinese Peasant Cults: Being a Study of Chinese Paper Gods – Page 45
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Clarence Burton Day – 1969 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
been known to have destroyed whole trays of worms; and entire broods perish in thunderstorms.14 The street-corner demons are to be avoided if possible. Likewise, the Ta Hsien Tsun Shen (Jz fill # #) the male fox demon, together with his …
The religious system of China: its ancient forms, evolution, history …
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Jan Jakob Maria Groot – 1967 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Dangerous demonish propensities were especially attributed after the Han dynasty to foxes under human disguise, contributing a class of were-beasts with which we have acquainted our readers on pp. 188 sqq., promising to dwell upon them …
The Devil’s Storybook
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An ALA Notable Book Chosen by School Library Journal as one of the Best of the Best Books
Animal Demons as Humans: Sex, Gender, and Boundary Crossings in Six …
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J. Colleen Berry – 2002 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Hucker, Charles O. A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985. Huntington, Rania. “Foxes and Ming-Qing Fiction.” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1996. “Foxes and Sex in Late Imperial Chinese …
Myths and Legends of China
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E. T. C. Werner – 2009 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The West’s first encounters with the folk tales and myths of the East proved to be a heady experience, as they were based on an entirely different value system and worldview than those that are reflected in the Greek myths and most …
Stranger Bodies: Women, Gender, and Missionary Medicine in China, …
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In classical Chinese literature, fox spirits often pursue a male innocent novice, whereas for many commoners fox spirits did … Chinese Christian convert, Xu Yangmei [Hu Yong Mi, 1837-1893], recalled an incident that involved the fox demon.
China’s Millions – Page 5
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MY WILSON-CARMICHAEL, in A her book, “ Things as They Are,” writing of demon possession, says :—“ Here in India, we … They say that this animal proved to be a fox-spirit, a demon which is supposed to inhabit the bodies of foxes, and is …
The Devil’s Bride: Exorcism: Past and Present – Page 37
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Martin Ebon – 1974 – ‎Snippet view
This brings us back to the most common traditional beliefs in China: “possession” and “exorcism.” Possession … The fox, tiger, and wolf represent the most malignant beings and are considered equivalent to evil demons. It was especially the …
The Complete Book of Devils and Demons – Page 102
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Leonard R. N. Ashley – 2011 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
SUTEKH, god of evil identified with the Egyptian Set. TAHSIENFUSHEN and TAHSIENFUJEN, male and female Great (Fox) Fairy evil spirits that must be propitiated. China. TANDO, chief (evil) deity of the Ashanti, demanding human sacrifice, …

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The Chinese Recorder, Volume 24

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to some extent, wronged by the Churches of the West, who have sent the water of life to him in such “earthen vessels” instead of in finished and decorated porcelain jars.

Now we have not one word of objection to raise against all the exhortation and admonition that may be volunteered in order to make a missionary qualify himself to the utmost. If an apostle could say, “Who is sufficient for these things,” much more may we say so who lack the apostle’s abilities and experiences. We ought to do our very utmost to remove every extraneous thing that can stand in the way of access to the ears and understandings of the people. It is not a light thing to stand up before the Chinese or the Japanese or the Hindus with this message of life and death. The man who goes at it with conceit and assurance, or is indifferent to the high qualification demanded of him, is not fit for the work. He should be sent to spend three years in Arabia or some other place, say back in the desert of Horeb, in order to fit himself or get a right Btate of mind. That much is fully conceded.

And yet we do believe these criticisms are overdone. That particular beast of burden is being overworked. He should be turned out to grass for a while and to allow some other reasons to come in for a turn of consideration.

It may be that scholarly people are some of them repelled a little by the lack of elegance in those who approach them at times, but the real ground of repulsion is in their own hearts. It is the subject matter in hand that causes the difficulty. If self-interest is at stake, or a bargain is on hand, or if some honor and preferment loom up, these same persons experience no such shock to their scholarly refinement. Consuls and Custom House officers and merchants are not likely to use any better Chinese than missionaries. They may use even “pidgin English” some of them, and it is all right enough. Whoever heard of merchants being upbraided and told they did not do more business because they did not use the flowery and stilted language of the scholar. If the literary graduate is ill and he condescend to send for a foreign doctor and his life hangs on the issue he does not stickle much at the quality of the doctor’s Chinese. So that he understands him is the essential thing. But when it comes to religion it is all the other way. The man who talks to him about eternal life must do it in select and rhythmical phrase, otherwise he will be found fault with for his broken utterances. Let such men act that way if they will, but it is no reason why we should echo their exaggerations and put all the blame on the poor missionary who is doing his faithful best and doing it not so poorly after all. The Corinthians who were burnished in Greek culture had a deal of this spirit and went so far as to deride Paul’s personal appearance and to declare that ” his speech” was “contemptible.” They did not mean that Paul did not know Greek. He was a scholar and knew their masters of style as well as they ; what they did mean most likely was that his sentences were not so ornate as those usually turned out by Athenian rhetoricians. But those sentences did their work irrespective of their non-conformity to the Attic higher Wen-li of those days.

These things ought to be said for the sake of some of the younger missionaries coming on. Older ones who have been in the thick of the struggle for twenty and twenty-five years do not mind it much one way or the other. But we have young men just buckling on the harness, who will make able and successful preachers—preachers of downright power if encouraged to keep on practising and if not discouraged by too much emphasis on the notion that such a standard of literary polish is required that nobody but a scholastic rarity can hope to meet the call.

With it all let us remind ourselves of some old-fashioned Scripture teachings along tin’s line. We do not find them piling up at the doors of the Apostles all the blame when people hardened their hearts and ” spake evil of that way.” They put the blame where it belonged, on “an evil heart of unbelief.” They would not come that they might have life. The sentiment is heard occasionally that if the children of this world could only be shown what is for their real and best welfare they would choose it outright and follow it without further trouble, and that if only furnished with a few perfect examples the consummation would be complete. The apostles were a very earnest, a very faithful and a very blameless class of men, but they did not succeed in convincing everybody. On the contrary the more godly they lived the more they were offensive to ” the world” that lieth in wickedness. If Church history tells the truth, only one of them died in his bed ; the rest were all hounded out of “society” and off the face of the earth. Jesus of Nazareth showed them what was best for them and lived a life of divine beauty and completeness before them. Yet neither were they satisfied with Him, but killed Him too. The plain truth is that the world is not in love with holy living. In too many of these calculations the Holy Spirit is the overlooked and neglected factor. Not until the Spirit is poured out from on high to convince men mightily of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment, will this wilderness of China be counted for a fruitful field. “Not by might nor by power but by my Spirit saith the Lord of Hosts.””

Superstitions of the Chinese.

BY DK. E. R. JELLISON.
[Methodist Episcopal Mission.]

Ajfjo know any people you must know what they think, feel and wih believe. The condition of the nations of the world ro-day is, and always has been, the outgrowth of the beliefs, or the superstitions of the mass of the people. Often it is, that some great man has so directed, influenced or controlled the people that they have changed the maps of continents and enlarged the sphere of human thought, but you can, by searching, find out that the man, though great himself, was but the exponent of the thought of many others, and that the result reached under his directing hand was in accord with the most advanced thought of the people of the time. It is also evident that there never has been any great change in the condition of any people except as it has followed a previous change in the education and thought of the people. We see how the power of Christian thought and faith has placed the Christian nations of the earth in the front rank of science, literature and art. We have but to look at the debasing beliefs of poor dark Africa to see the reason for the condition of savagery in which the natives are plunged. You who have studied the rise and fall of empires and can bring to your mind’s eye the cause and effect of the forces which have been potent in making and destroying kingdoms, know how great an influence the religion or absence of religion of the people has had in the various changes through which the nations of the world have passed. I think that the historian of the future will more than ever embody wiih his chronicle of events the reason why. And the foundation of the reasons why any people have allowed themselves to be ruled or influenced by others will be found in what the people believe, feel, think and know. Look at the United Slates with its millions of free. The ideas that all men are free and equal and that a government should be of the people, for the people, and by the people, have worked out the government of the United States. The idea that might is right has placed the monarch on the throne and made the free born man a thrall. The idea of the divine right of kings has made the ruler a despot aud the people his willing subjects.

Every superstructure has its foundation. No state will be a great influence which does not possess in its people individuals who will rise to great occasions and be a guiding power in the affairs that will make either for progress or retrogression. Ou looking at China to-day we cannot but acknowledge that her condition is due to her religion, superstition and belief in those incredible stories and mauy varieties of improbable and impossible things which so largely influence the mind of the people. What are some of the superstitions? I have selected some of the stones that are believed by the people, and in securing my information I have kept to the words of the Chinese who have related them to me. I will first relate some stories of the fox, than whom in all countries no more cunning animal is found. It is but natural that the Chinese, believing as they do in spirits and occult influences of so many kinds, fearing as they do the powers of darkness and the unseen, should ascribe to that cunning animal, the fox, such miraculous powers.

I. The Fox and the Office Seeker. Once in the halcyon days of the Ming dynasty a native of Nanking, possessed of considerable means, desired an office at the hands of the Emperor. Though repeatedly warned by his family and friends of the dangers of travel he resolutely set out for Peking to interview the officials in whose hands was the power to appoint him. Armed with plenty of credentials from influential people he hired a comfortable boat and set sail for the Capital. His journey took him by the way of the Grand Canal. When approaching Yangchow he was suddenly taken very ill. As the boatman would get into much trouble and expense if the traveller should die on his boat he endeavored in every possible way to get rid of him. When the sick man had eaten nothing for some days the poor boatman was driven nearly to the verge of despair, when luckily for both a small boat, in which sat a beautiful lady, came alongside of them. She, seeing the sick man, very kindly offered to take him on her boat and look after him. Overjoyed the boatman quickly transfered his passenger. After inquiring into the patient’s condition the lady produced two pills and induced him to take them. Having swallowed them he was instantly cured, and they proceeded on their journey in the happiest mood. Ou making inquiry to whom he was indebted for so great kindness his beuefactress said she was a resident of Yangchow, out for an excursion on the water. He told her where he was goiug, and as he would not risk the former boat after such shabby treatment, they concluded to go on to Peking together. Moreover, as they journeyed, the beautiful lady, who by the way was a fox, so fascinated the offico seeker that he desired to make her his wife. This being the aim and purpose of the fox she readily gave her consent. Arriving at ChinkiaDg-pu the office seeker decided to leave his wife there until his return from Peking. This was accordingly done, and alone in her little boat, wafted by favorable breezes, he rapidly accomplished the journey to Peking, and assisted by the secret iufluence of the fox he was appointed to a high position in Szchuan, to which place, by a circuitous route, he at. once repaired; bnt, however, not returning via Chinkiang-pu, where he had left his wife. His good fortune had soon led him to forget his benefactress, and as out of sight is out of raiud he no longer cared for her, and sought in this manner to rid himself of her. Getting well settled in his office, with a good income, he heard no more of the fox and had quite forgotten her, when one day the fox came into his Yameti and demanded to be installed in her proper place as his wife. Influenced as formerly by her beauty and magnetic presence he made no objections. He prospered and, no doubt, they would have lived long and happily together, but he took to himself other wives, which led to misunderstandings and unhappiuess. One day in the sixth month the fox, exhausted by the heat, fell asleep upon the floor of her room. As the soul left her body she resumed the shape of the fox. Her husband coming in saw a fox lyiug on the floor of his wife’s apartments, and as the thought came to him that the woman who had bewitched him was this fox he seized a sword and sprang forward to slay her. Hearing the noise the fox awake and at once resumed the form of the same beautiful woman. Angered at the ingratitude of the man whose life she had saved she demanded the return of the two pills she had given him at the time of his illness. He cast them into her hand and she disappeared. The official being deprived of the support of the magic medicine of the fox was at once seized with the former complaiut and taking to bed soon solved the great mystery.

II. The Fox and the Farmer. A poor farmer in Hu-poh lived alone in his little straw-thatched mud-walled hut. As bachelors are wont to do he did not keep his hut very tidy. As he must cook his own rice he was content with a hot supper and wh at few leavings he could pick up for breakfast. A fox took pity on him, and when he was out tilling his little gardeu spot, would come into the house, and, changing herself into a woman, sweep the floor, make the bed and prepare a good hot meal of rice, with such vegetables and meat as the farmer liked best. It was a great wonder to the farmer to come in from the field and find a clean house with a nice dinner all prepared for him. Day after day the same thing occurred, until at last he determined to secrete himself and find out in what manner these things came to pass. Hid behind a water jar he patiently waited. Soon he was rewarded by seeing a fox creep slowly through a hole in the

wall and turning a somersault landed on her feet a handsome womanAs she turned, the fox’s skin fell to the ground. The farmer quickly caught it up and hid it under the pig trough. The house having been swept, the bed made and the dinner cooked, she turned to the place where she dropped the skin, but it had disappeared. She had no recourse but to remain a woman and become the farmer’s wife. Ouo day he was carrying one of his children by the house, and in a joking way said, “Your mother is a fox.” The mother at once demanded the proof of the accusation. Ho produced the fox skin, and with a somersault the wife was into the skin and scampered off, leaving him with his children. Neither did she return to keep his house or cook his meals for him.

III. The Fox and the Girl. At the foot of Ling-chee-shan, in Hu-poh, there died a young girl. According to custom she was buried in the ancestral cemetery at the border of the hill.

A fox came and remained on the grave. This at once excited the people, who declared that the girl was deified and her spirit had entered the fox. Two temples were erected, a small one over the grave and a large one at the other side of the hill. An idol was made in the form of the girl and placed in the larger temple. At once the fox left the small temple and took up a position behind the idol. Thousauds came to burn incense and beseech the fox to work miracles. Many were healed, and the mother of the girl became rich by means of the number of presents and gifts of money brought to the temples. This kept up for three years. Then the Prefect came and put his seal on the image. The fox forsook the temple. So did the worshippers. Great cures had been wrought by the deified girl residing in the fox, and the fame thereof was spread abroad in the land.

IV. The Fox and the Peddler. In the northern part of the city of Nanking there dwelt in a small mean house old Mrs. Tsii and her only son.

They eked out a precarious subsistence on the profits of the sale of the biscuits which the son daily sold on the street. One day a young lady named Pao King came to the house, while the peddler was away, and told Mrs. Tsii she would like to be her daughter-inlaw. She was finely dressed and bedecked with many jewels, and withal had the appearance of a child of wealth. Mrs. Tsii would not take her as a danghter-in-law because she thought Pao King must have strayed away from home and that the officials would soon find her out, and poor Mrs. Tsii dreaded the YamSn. Pao King said she could work and would make herself useful iu many ways. Daily she came to help until a neighbor, Mrs. Liu, came and said she knew the girl and that she was au honest orphan, who would make a good wife for Mrs. Tail’s son. All were agreed, and the peddler returning from the street was much pleased when his mother presented him with a beautiful wife. He was surprized to see the plain home transformed into a lovely room filled with new furniture. Clothing and food were abnndaut and of the best quality. On approaching home he saw the same old building, but within all was new, clean and warm. Mr. Tsii’s business flourished as never before. His wife, who was a fox, managed so cleverly that they soon saved some money. The hut was replaced by a commodious residence, while money and friends were plenty. He was no more the itinerant peddler, but a rich and honored man. The household and business affairs were all in the hands of his wife, whose marvellous business ability and wisdom had made him rich. Seeing their good fortnue Mrs. Lin asked for a reward for arranging the match. The fox gave her a bamboo cane and told her to take it homo. On placing the cane on her table Mrs. Liu was astonished to behold a silver cane. Scarcely believing her eyes she took it to the banker, who paid her 30 taels for it. Time passed on until their son was 20 years of age. The fox had instructed him in accounts and all the business methods necessary to conduct the extensive affairs of the house. One day she persuaded Mr- Tsii to buy a coffin large enough for two. As he was getting old he consented. When the coffin came the fox told him they would both die the next day. The saying was fulfilled and together they slept the long sleep and were buried with all the pomp and ceremony wealth could procure.

V. The Talking Bird. There lived in Canton a man named “Wang, who possessed a beautiful talking bird. Not a mere mocking bird or parrot but one able to carry on intelligent conversation, and plan or suggest matters of great importance to his owner. Wang and his pet were inseparable. Together they went to the Capital of the Empire. Unexpectedly Mr. Wang’s money was exhausted and he knew not where to borrow or earn an honest cash. His melancholy attracted the attention of the bird, who told him to cheer up, as he had a plan to help him out of his trouble. “Take me,” he said, ” to the neighborhood of the palace aud offer me for sale. After I am sold wait for me 20 li outside the city.” A great crowd collected about them as they went talking through the streets. Approaching the palace a sou of the Emperor, hearing the bird talking in such an intelligent manner, asked Mr. Wang if he would sell him. “No,” said Wang, ” the bird has been with me so long; I cauuot part with him, ueither is he willing to leave me.” But the bird spoke up quickly saying, ” I am willing to bo sold,” whereupon the owner unbred to let him go for 10 oz. of gold. The prince gladly paid the price and took the bird. On being taken to his new home the bird demanded meat to eat. It was given him by his happy owner. “I want a bath,” said the bird. His feet, which were fastened by a cord to the frame on which he was carried, were loosed and he took his bath and flew to the eaves of the house to shake himself. Daring the drying he carried on a sprightly conversation with the young prince, after which he said, “I am going,” and in an instant flew away to be with his old friend Wang. The prince attempted to catch the bird and Mr. Wang, but both had disappeared. Some years later they were both seen in Houan by one of the attendants of the prince. This bird had cleverly rescued his owner from distress and was able to keep away evil influences from those whom he wished to care for. If these birds are sold against their will they refuse to eat and die of starvation.

In addition to the superstitions illustrated in the above stories it is true that the Chinese are much opposed to killing a fox. In Wuhu the father of one of our helpers killed a fox and hung his skiu up as a warning to other predatory foxes. The night following more than 20 foxes came and barked furiously around the house over which the skin was hanging. The neighbors were loud and positive in their assertion that calamity would speedily come to the rash destroyer of the fox. It is believed by many Chinese that many of the incendiary fires are lighted by foxes. If a fox barks at night incense must be burned and the proper worship conducted, or the result will be a fire or a death. Foxes are accredited with the power to secretly poison food in such a manner that a chronic form of indigestion, very common among the natives, is caused. The fox is feared and worshipped by the Chinese. As a last resort any one afflicted by the malign influence of a fox will indict him at the bar of some official, and this is said to completely neutralize his influence and drive him away. A few months ago a patient in our hospital was suffering from a complaint, the causation of which he ascribed to a fox. Many days’ treatment in the wards was of no avail, and the patient left with the intention of indicting the fox before the Prefect. I expect he has obtained relief, as we have seen no more of him. Among the Chinese the belief prevails that some winds contain an evil spirit. For this reason the Chinese keep the windows closed and hang curtains about their beds. I attended a man who was suffering from paralysis of the lower limbs. He stated that he was passing the Confucian Temple, when an evil wind struck him, knocking him to the ground. He did not recover. He was utterly without hope, as he could not fight against the evil wind. The wind at the Confucian Temple, which is dreaded, is the ordinary small whirlwiud, and any Chinaman seeing it coming will always turn and retreat to an unexposed place until it is passed. Not only men but chickens and dogs are said to be paralyzed by these winds. These short references to the common superstitions of the Chinese may serve as an index to show the condition of mind of the average Chinaman. Anyone who believes such things is in a condition of absolute darkness, spiritually and intellectually. The beginner in natural philosophy and the youngest student of the Holy Bible cannot believe them. We look earnestly for the speedy coming of the time, when the Light of the Word of God will dispel these dark superstitions and when we shall see this great nation in its right mind worshipping the Holy Spirit and uudisturbed by the barking of foxes.

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The Folk-lore of China: And Its Affinities with that of the Aryan and …
By Nicholas Belfield Dennys

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Well, in China we find the same idea in a slightly different form. The fox takes the place of the wolf, and “fairy foxes” play an important part in every native collection of supernatural tales. The belief in their existence dates from remote antiquity, though more prevalent in Northern than in Southern China, the inhabitants of the latter taking the doings of genii more especially as the basis of their fairy lore. There is however this difference between the wcre-wolf and the fairy fox:—that whereas the former is invariably malicious, the latter may be either beneficent or malignant. In many of the tales the fox is only transformed (as in the well-known nursery story of “Beauty and the Beast”) into human shape after making acquaintance with its host. “At the age of 50 the fox can take the form of a woman, and at that of 100 can assume the appearance of a young and beautiful girl. When 1000 years old he is admitted to the heavens and becomes the celestial fox.”*

In and about Peking the belief in foxes having power to assume a human shape flourishes perhaps more thoroughly than in any other part of the empire, though similar stories are told throughout the eighteen provinces. The Liao-chai-chih-yi ^ ^), a collection of tales published in 176o, abounds with narrations of this nature, many of the most curious, unfortunately, being unsuitable for publication in an English dress. But the whole subject has been so fully dealt with in accessible publications that the extended notice which the subject would permit is unnecessary. Dr. Birch, of the British Museum, wrote an interesting paper on the subject of Fairy Foxesf in No. III., of the Chinese and Japanese Repository (1863), which was followed by a notice from the pen of the well-known sinologue Mr. W. F. Mayers, in No. III., of Vol. I., of Notes and Queries on China and Japan (1867). The most complete essay on the subject, however, which has yet appeared was written by Mr. T. Watters, and read before the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in March 1873. That accurate and painstaking scholar thus opens his remarks on the subject:—

“Chinese philosophers seem to be agreed in attributing to Reynard a long life, some making the number of his years 800 and others extending it even to a thousand. This power of prolonging life they suppose to result from the animal’s living in caves and holes sphere it is shut out from the sun. The vital powers can thus operate free from disturbance and the wearing effect of the sun’s heat and light. The fox, badger, mole and some other cave-dwelling

* Chinese Readers’ Manual, p. 61. and crowds came to worship at this temple.

t A specimen of tke still pervading su- At last the Saibansho officials of the Ken perstition respecting the Pox, comes from heard of what was going on, and sent for Minatpmura, in Ibaraki Ken, Japan. A the man and his wife. The interview man found a fox’s hole in his garden. At must have been somewhat disappointing the same time his wife dreamt that she to them, for the judges told them such had seen a fox whom she was satisfied superstitions now became criminal; and was none other than Iuari-sama. Full of the punishment due for such follies was 40 dread, the man put this and that together, days’ imprisonment. As, however, in this and came to the conclusion that the hole instance, it was clearly the result of exmust be the abode of Inari-sama, and he treme ignorance on the part of the infortbwith bad a small temple put up over teresting pair, they were let off with a fine it. He then called for the Shinto priest; of 3 yen. and after much ado, the matter got abroad,

animals are all grouped together as enjoying long life. The Chinese are not alone in thus regarding the exclusion of light and air as tending to prolong existence. Not to refer to others, our own Bacon says:—’ A life in caves and holes, where the rays of the sun do not enter, may perhaps tend to longevity; for the air of itself unexcited by heat has not much power to prey upon the body. Certainly on looking back, it appears from many remains and monuments that the size and stature of men were anciently much greater than they had been since, as in Sicily and some other places; and such men generally lived in caves. Now there is some affinity between length of age and largeness of limbs. The cave of Epimenides likewise passes current among the fables.'”

The use of the several parts of the fox’s body in the Chinese pharmacopeia is followed by an account of the Chinese opinion of his cunning, in which we read as follows:—

“Like most Western nations the Chinese ascribe to the fox a cunning, crafty disposition by which he can disarm suspicion on the part of the very animals which constitute his prey. . . . The notion about the fox’s caution is put to practical use in the North of China, for it has been observed that when he is crossing a frozen river or lake he advances very slowly and deliberately, putting his head down close to the ice and listening for the sound of water beneath. Accordingly when in the early spring the traveller fears the stability of the ice, if he observes on its surface traces of the fox’s footsteps he may proceed any without apprehension. One can easily see what an opportunity is presented 1 here again to the Chinese mind for the exercise of myth-making ingenuity. Below the ice is the region of the Yin or female element—the dark world of death and obscurity—while above it is the region of the Yang or male element —the bright world of life and activity. Accordingly it has come to pass that the fox is represented as living on the debatable land which is neither the earth of life nor the Hades of death. His dwelling place on the earth is among the tombs, or actually, rather, within the tomb, and the spirits of the deceased often occupy the body. Thus he enables ghosts of the dead to return to life or himself performs their terrible behest—visiting upon living men and women the iniquities they have committed against those now dead, and by this means bringing peace and rest to the souls of the latter which would else be travelling and troubling for ever.”

From the numerous stories given by Mr. Watters in illustration of the popular belief in the fox’s powers of transformation, I take only the following:— “It is as a pretty girl that the fox appears most frequently and does most mischief. Disguised as a woman it is always young and handsome, generally wicked, but on rare occasions very good. At times it puts on the gar\ and appearance of some one well known, but who is either dead or at a great distance. An accomplished scholar who resides in a village about twenty miles from Foochow told me not long ago a story which affords an illustration of this personation of particular individuals. A friend of his had ill-treated and, as was supposed, secretly killed a pretty young wife and married another. Soon after this latter event the house was reported to be haunted and no servant would remain in the family. The first wife’s apartments were the worst of all, and this part of the premises had to be abandoned. Now one day my friend was reading with the master of the house in the works of Chuhsi, and they came to the passage which treats of ghosts and spirits. They then ceased reading and entered into a conversation on the subject, and the story of the haunted chambers was related. My friend laughed at and reproached the weakness which made a scholar believe in ghosts, and finally the two agreed to remove to that portion of the dreadful rooms. Before they had been seated here a long time, strange sounds became audible and soon the pit-pat of a woman’s steps was heard. The door opened without any noise, and in walked the murdered woman clothed as of old. The blood forsook the two men’s faces, speech fled their lips, and had it not been for the law of gravity their pigtails would have stood on end. There they sat paralyzed with mute awe and gazing on the spectre, which went pit-pat over the boards looking neither to right nor left until it reached the corner in which was a small wash-hand-stand with a basin of water. She took the basin in her hand and walked steadily with it over to the man who had been her husband, presenting it to him, when he instantly uttered a terrible scream and fell backwards. Then the spectral woman walked away and her patter was heard along the boards until she reached the outer door. My friend summoned up courage to go out and make investigation, but no human creature had been stirring, and only the fox which came almost daily had been seen on the premises. The house has been abandoned, the owner has gone elsewhere, but my friend believes that the ghost of the murderer’s wife will torment him by means of a fox daily until it brings him to the grave.”

It would be easy to multiply stories of this nature, but their narration would unduly swell the limits of the chapter, while those who are curious on the subject can easily refer to Mr Watters’s paper. I prefer therefore to turn to the analogies with Chinese belief presented elsewhere. Neither amongst the Semitic nor Aryan races can I find, in the authorities at my command, that any demoniacal power has ever been attributed to the fox. No reference to the animal appears in Brand, and in Continental Europe the wolf alone figures in fairy tales as the dangerous and crafty enemy of man. But we learn on the authority of Dr. Macgowan that “when the Pilgrim Fathers landed in Massachussets, they found the Indians, especially those of Naragannset, deeply imbued with fox superstitions, many of them similar to those mentioned above.” Notices of these are found at considerable length in the works of the Rev. Mr. Elliot, known as the “Apostle of the Indians.” In Japan, again, we find fox-myths a mighty power in the State. Dr. Macgowan describes a primer—the first book put into the hands of Japanese children ; it was, profusely illustrated with wood-outs, in which was depicted in full detail the progress of the Fox’s courtship. Thus, even in the education of childhood, the fox-myth weaves itself into the texture of Japanese thought. The fox was understood to be most mischievously inclined, and was especially mischievous in its domestio relations. It was believed, in Japan, to be no uncommon incident for a fox to transform itself into a charming young woman, who got married to some loving Japanese swain and had a family. By-and-bye something went awry in the domestic experiences, on which the mischievous fox-elf resumed her foxhood, and all her progeny did the same, and scampered off to their homes in dead men’s tombs, leaving the late happy husband and father desolate and wretched. A recent newspaper paragraph, by the way, describes a murder committed at Chikuzen in which the murderer was discovered to be insane. Different members of his family, for three generations back, had gone mad, it was said, in consequence of one of their ancestors having injured a fox!—So much for the fox, thus summarily dismissed inasmuch as other writers have dealt so fully with his alleged powers.

Leaving the animal, for the mineral, world we note that even stones possess the reputation of being inhabited by spirits. A well-known Taoist legend relates that Chang Liang, a counsellor of the founder of the Han dynasty, derived his knowledge from a sage who was eventually metamorphosed into a yellow stone. Another legend tells how one of the immortals kept a flock of sheep who were changed to stone, but reassumed their proper shape at a word from their shepherd. Mr. VV. F. Mayers, in his article on Canton in the Treaty Ports of China and Japan, thus describes the Legend from which Canton derives it soubriquet of the “City of Hams” :—” In the temple of the ‘Five Genii’ were until lately the stone images of five (supernatural) rams, but these latter were destroyed in a conflagration which consumed the rear building in which they stood some three years since. The legend with reference to the foundation of this temple is that, some twenty centuries ago, five shepherds were seen on the site where the building now stands, who suddenly became transformed into an equal number of rams, while these again instantly changed into stone, a voice being heard at the same time proclaiming that, so long as these supernatural objects should be worshipped on this spot, the prosperity of the adjoining city should endure. From that day forward (runs the story) these images have remained on the identical spot, and it is certain that from time immemorial they have been looked upon with superstitious reverence, nor is it the less remarkable that the destruction of their shrine should coincide so closely with the actual decline in the prosperity of the city. The stones were almost shapeless blocks of granite, about eighteen inches high and the same in length, with some rude attempt at sculpture in the form of a ram’s head. From them and their attendant legend Canton derived its soubriquet of the City of Rams Jjjj(), DU* ^he leSen<i itself is

traced by Chinese philosophers to an accidental resemblance between the word signifying ‘ram’ or ‘sheep’ and the ancient designation of the province of Kwangtung. This is a striking corroboration of Frofessor Muller’s dictum that all myths are merely amplifications of some forgotten sound.”

A popular superstition recounts that in L’ien-chow, in the province of Kwang-si, when any person walking, happens to hit his foot against a stone, and afterwards falls sick, his family immediately prepares an offering of fruit, wine, rice and incense; and proceeding to the spot, bow down and worship, after which the person gets well. They imagine that the stone is possessed by a demon. Gamblers frequently pray to stones thus possessed for “luck.”

IX.—ELVES, FAIRIES, AND BROWNIES.

An accurate definition of the Chinese idea of elves and fairies is somewhat difficult. In many cases the word shin jjj jjf, spirit, or, as some will have it, God—can only be translated by “elf” or “brownie,” while on other occasions one is puzzled under what category to place creatures who play too important a part in Chinese belief to be omitted [from these pages^ while strictly answering to nothing known in the “West. China, at all events, boasts an infinity of beings who are alleged to possess the general characteristics of our local sprites. As with us they are sometimes malicious and sometimes merely playful. But I fancy that, in the main, a more stern air of purpose runs through Chinese than through European fairy legend. The wildest native inventions have never endowed the fairy community with, “houses made all with mother-o’-pearl, an ivory tennis-court, a nutmeg parlour, a sapphire dairy-room, chambers of agate, &c., &e.”* Still less do we find anything resembling Shakespeare’s Queen Mab:—

“Her waggon spokes made of long spinner’s legs,
The cover of the wings of grasshoppers,
The traces of the smallest spider’s web
The collars of the moonshine’s watery beams,
Her whip of cricket’s bone, the lash of fihn.”t

We hear little amongst the Chinese of fairy sprites whose highest aim is mere amusement, their action being usually, as with a certain class of brownies in our own fairy pantheon, malignant. \ It is, by the way, interesting to note that while the words alp and alf (Swedish and English elf J equally signify a mountain, or demon of the mountains, X the Chinese most frequently assign a mountainous locality to the homes of their fairy folk. The celebrated mountain Kw’en Lun (g^ Jjj^) (usually identified with the Hindoo Kush) is said to be peopled with fairies who cultivate upon its terraces the “fields of sesamum and gardens of coriander seeds” which are eaten as ordinary food by those who possess the gift of Longevity. Here too is the “Lake of Gems” on whose borders dwells the fairy mother Si wang mu (yQ -fjjr) and beside whose waters flourishes the k’iung shu or tree of life, described as 10,000 cubits in height, 1800 feet in circumference and supposed to bear fruit only once in 3,000 years. This fruit is bestowed by the fairies on their favourites, who thus become immortal. Other receipts for the “Elixir of Life” are peach-tree gum mixed with the powdered ash of the mulberry, and tan ^J- the elixir of gold, or lan ska ^J- $,p the common name for cinnabar.

There are some curious resemblances between Chinese and Western superstitions on the subject of storm-fiends or fairies. Thus the storm-raiser in China is not unlike his prototype in Scotland. Sir James Melville in his Memoirs

* Brand’s Antiquities, Vol. II., p. 499, + Mercutio’s speech, Romeo and Juliet. quoted from Bandolph’s Amyntas. X Brand’s Antiquities, Vol. II., p. 476.

Fox Sorcerer (Google Books)

Trübner’s American and Oriental Literary Record, Volumes 1-4

CHINESE-MANCH0U-M0NG0L LITERATURE.

(Imported by Trubner f Co., 60, Paternoster Row, London.)

Cheo Gouroun I Tzichung-Gi Noman Chow. Book of Diagrams, in Manchu and Chinese. Four vols, in one bookcase. £1 lis. Gd.

English and Chinese Dictionary, with the Punti

and Mandarin Pronunciation. By the Rev. W. Lobscheid,

Parts 1 and 2, folio, pp. 38 and 1 to 980. (A to Hysterotomy.) Hongkong, 1866-1867.

Euclid in Chinese. A translation of the last nine books of Euclid into Chinese, under the superintendence of A. Wylie, Esq. In eight parts.

Grammaire Frangaise, copiee presque entierement aur celie de Noel et Chapsal, avec la Traduction Chinoise, par un Missionaire Lazariste de Peking. Premiere partie— Grammaire. Pekin: imprimerio des Lazaristes- ovo. pp. 220, 1864. 18*.

Impression of Rubbings of an Inscription on a

stone arohway in the Nankow Pass, China. It consists of six languages, Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese, Mongol, Onigour, and Ncu-chih. The rubbings are of the four last named languages only, not of Sanskrit und Tibetan. This is the only inscription known in the Neu-chich, a lost language and character, i.e. that of the Kin Dynasty of China. (A notice of this remarkable inscription may be read in tne Shanghae Society’s Transactions, part 5.) Mounted on rollers. £3 35.

Le-Ke. One of the five classics. Chinese and

Manchu. Twelve parts in two bookcases. £5 5s. Liao Chai Chih Yi. The Record of Marvels ; or, Tales of the Genii. With translations in Manchu. Twentyfour parts in four bookcases. £6 6„s.

No work in Chinese modern literature can boast of greater or more rapid diffusion and popularity than the Liao Chai Chih Yi, the meaning of which fanciful title is conveyed in the above heading. Of few works of the kind, also, have we such full particulars respecting its history and that of its author. As a common rule, writers of fiction in China have not appended their names to their productions, and the period at which some of the most celebrated romances appeared can only be surmised from internal evidence. Not so with the work now under notice. Its author, P’u Sung-ling, wasanative of the Province of Shantung, where he flourished during the reigns of Shun-Chih and K’ang-Hi {circa A.d. 1640-1720). Although an indefatigable Btudent and deeply imbued with the learning and style of the ancient writers, he failed to obtain a degree beyond the lowest at the literary examinations, and as a solace to his mortified spirit he occupied himself, it is traditionally reported, in collecting from legendary sources the tales of fairy-foxes, elves, and spirits which abound among the Chinese of all classes. These he contemplated publishing under the title of Kwei Mu Chwan (Ghost and Fairy Stories), but at the instance of friends who thought this title and the scope of his work unworthy of his genius, he added to the collection a certain number of sketches of actual occurrences, and at length put forth his work in sixteen volumes under its present title as the Record of Marvels. The words Liao Chai consist in one of those recondite allusions of which Chinese literati are Bo fond. Having exclaimed one day, in his grief at his failures to obtain advancement at the official examinations, that he would ‘* grow old without wherewithal to depend upon” (tao ten iiao lai) he gave his library the name of Liao Chai, signifying thereby that study must be thenceforward his sole support or eolace.

The collection as eventually published consists in some 300 tales, the majority of which are connected with the elfin exploits of the supernatural beings whioh, according to universal belief in China, are ordinarily confined within the bodies of foxes, but which have the power of transforming themselves at certain periods into human shape. A very interesting paper on the subject of the Fairy Foxes, by Dr. Birch of the British Museum, exists in No. III. of the Chinese and Japanese Repository (1863). The Liao Chai Chih Yi will be found to represent in its varied stories almost every phase of the Chinese traditions on this subject; but a European reader will probably have difficulty in appreciating the boundless popularity which the work has obtained throughout China. Judged by Western standards, the tales of which it consists are for the most part legends not only destitute of nil probability {which by itself, in a case of this kind, is not a formidable objection), but also bald and prosaic in the extreme, the tameness of the narrative (notwithstanding its supernatural character) being only broken in some of the stories by dull and matter-of-fact indecency,’ in lieu of the grand and genial imaginings which embellish the corresponding Arabian Nights. It is only Just to the Chinese literary world to remark that the author’s reputation rests less upon the matter of his work than on the manner of his writing. To a style singularly concise and pure, recalling that of the ancient historians, he added a wealth of erudition and of casual illustration drawn from the most recondite sources such as infallibly claim the admiration of such lovers of antiquity as his countrymen. Fairy-tales told in the style of the “Amtomy of Melancholy” would scarcely be a popular book in Great Britain; but in China the porter at his gate, the boatman at his mid-day rest, the chair-coolie at bis stand, no less than the man of letters among his books, may be seen poring with delight over the elegantly-narrated marvels of the Liao Chai. The work, originally circulated in manuscript, was printed in 1740 by a grandson of the author, and since then has passed through numerous editions. Of these the most valuable and complete appeared in 1342 at the expense of Tan Ming-lun, an otficial of high

reputation, then occupying the post of Salt Comptroller of the l*iaxur Hwai division, who employed a large staff of literary men during several years in searching out explanations of the obscure phrases and allusions with which the narratives abound, and constructing a glossary for caoh story. In his appreciation of the work, Tan Ming-lun was only second to the Emperor Kia K’ing, of whom it is related that every moment of leisure was devoted to the perusal of the Liao Chai, and that at the period of his death in 1320 he was contemplating the admission of its author into the list of worthies commemorated in the Confucian temples. Still more notable among the Ana of this work is the story concerning Wang YQ-yang, a Cabinet Minister in the reign of K’ang Hi, who is said to have paid the author a very large sum for the permission to add the few observations which appear under his name at the end of some of the tales, as the surest method of handing down his name to remote posterity.

The superstition with respect to “fairy-foxes” is deeply rooted in the Chinese mind, and has endured, as Dr. Birch has noted, from remote antiquity. It is most prevalent, however, in the Northern Provinces, whilst the belief in supernatural beings endowed with the faculty of mixing with the human race which prevails among the natives of Southern China takes the Wu Tung (Genie, lit. Five Perceptions) as its object. The fairy-foxes are of all descriptions in respect to character—malignant, beneficent, studious, amatory, and wine-bibbing. To enter upon an enquiry regarding the nature of the superstition at large would extend this article beyond reasonable limits; and a single example is therefore simply appended in conclusion, which—selected as one of the shortest and most presentable among the three hundred tales—may serve as a specimen of the quality of the work under notice. It consists in the following story :— The Boon Companion.—A certain man named Ch’e, although of limited means, was deeply addicted to drinking. Unless he drained three brimming bowls during each night he was unable to obtain repose. For this reason, the bottle at his bedside was never empty. One night, waking from his sleep, and turning on his aide, it appeared to him as though some person were lying beside him; but he supposed that it was only the coverings which bad fallen in a heap. On laying his hand upon them, however, he felt that some yielding object was covered underneath, in shape like, but larger than a cat. He cast a light upon it, and behold! it was a Fox, lying asleep (as if) drunk. He looked at the bottle, and it was empty! Amused at this, he exclaimed: ‘* Here is a boon companion for roe 1″ and could not bring himself to startle his bed-fellow, but covered it with the clothes and threw his arm around it, and betook himself to rest beside it, keeping his candle alight to watch its transformation. In the middle of the night the fox stretched itself, and our hero laughed, saying: ** Well done! You have had a nap!” and throwing off the covering beheld a handsome man in scholar’s garb, who rose and made an obeisance before his pillow, in gratitude for the mercy shewn in not putting him to death while sleeping. Our hero replied: “My inveterate passion for the juice of the grain makes the world look upon me as a madman; but you,’good Sir! shall be to me as Pao Shu (was to Kwan Chung, i.e. ae- Damon was to Pythias). If there is no hesitation on your part, you shall be my trusty friend of the wine-press.” Saying this, he quietly returned to the bed and proceeded to share his repose with the stranger, adding: “Let us often meet, good Sir, and let there be no suspicions between us!” The Fox assented to this. When our hero awoke, the Fox had disappeared, but he prepared! bowl of wine in anticipation of its return, and, in truth, at nightfall it arrived. The two friends, pressing close to each other in friendly contact, indulged themselves in drink; and the Fox, reflecting on tbe good-nature of his entertainer, regretted bitterly having obtained Lis

friendship so late The tale concludes wif h manifestations of

gratitude on the part of the Fairy Fox, who on repeated occasions found means of requitting substantially the kindness of his booncompanion. Not so innocent as these, however, arc the exploits (ai is hinted above) of many of the Fairy Foxes.

The only additional point of interest in connection with the Li a* Chai Chih Yi which occurs to the writer is the reference to the work by Morrison in his Radical Dictionary, under the character Yao, where it is mentioned as “the Faery Queene” of China. This strange and most inapposite comparison can only be explained on the supposition that Dr. Morrison’s reminiscences of Spencer’s great poem were somewhat dimmed by time, and that he had never looked at even a page of the Liao Chai.

Canton. W. F. Marias.

— In Notes and Queries from China and Japan.

In Lands Afar: A Second Series of Mission Stories of Many Lands : a Book for …
By Elpathan E. Strong

About this book

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209 – 213

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Under the Shadow of China’s Great Wall.

209

calls together from fifty to one hundred Christians for prayer and worship. The drawing on the last page shows the bell and tower and side of the chapel. There are also built upon this ground three missionary residences and two school buildings.

Out from this Bethel sounds the gospel of salvation in many ways. First in importance is the teaching of Bible truth to the young. We have had a boys’ day-school for more than twenty years. Several from this school have become useful Christians. One is now a preacher and several others are studying for the ministry. And now we have started a boarding school that we may have the

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promising boys under our more immediaie influence and instruction. We shall fit some of them for the college department of our central school at Tung-cho, and such as prove efficient and seem to be called of God to the work will continue through the Theological Seminary. One of the boys in the boarding school at Kalgan is supported by a Christian Endeavor Society in the State of New York. There are more bright, Christian boys waiting to be adopted by other societies. It costs but 125 a year to do this. Who would like to aid in this work?

Outside of these schools we have applications from young men to teach them the Bible in the winter time, inasmuch as in the summer they are too busy on their farms even to listen to preaching. We usually have a class of twenty or thirty of these. Some are Christians and want to work for God, but do not know how. Others are inquirers after truth, and here as elsewhere those who honestly seek for the truth find it. It requires about #5 to help one of these country youths to a winter’s study of the Bible.

And then, for the little bound-footed girls, we have the best school of all. It is a boarding school in a good building on our compound, and Miss Diament gives to them her almost undivided attention. Some of the girls are children of church members, while others are children of heathen parents. All are being loosened from a bondage of error and superstition worse than foot-binding. Many of these come from dark and filthy houses of ignorance and misery and

cruelty. In this bright, cheerful school home they learn godliness and cleanliness and good housekeeping. And then they go back prepared, with God’s help, to renovate, enlighten, and transform these houses of sorrow into happy Christian homes.

To support one of these girls in this school requires about $30 a year. There are now about sixteen of them. Who wants to help more girls out of the darkness into the blessed sunshine of the gospel? For each of these schools and the missionary work they represent, we bespeak your sympathy and your prayers.

Are there not some sons and daughters of the King, who read this account, who will, for Christ’s sake, come to these ends of the earth to help save some of these for whom Christ came from heaven? Are there not others who would like to send a substitute to tell these perishing ones the wonderful words of God’s love? In the schools above spoken of see an opportunity of training and sending forth your missionary to rescue many of China’s millions. And will not each of you hereafter, as you think of China’s Great Wall, also think of, pity, and pray for the great multitudes who live under its shadow?

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BELL AND TOWER OF CHAPEL.

THE WORSHIP OF THE FAIRY FOX.

BY REV. HENRY KINGMAN, OF TUNG-CHO, NORTH CHINA.

I Think we have all of us, whether we are so old as to have forgotten it, or so young as to remember it very well, passed through a time when we believed in fairies. But as we get older, fairy stories lose their interest for us, and when

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A TOWER IN THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.

we learn that our bread and butter and all the other pleasant things of life come only by working for them, and not by the kindness of fairies, — or such delightful little creatures as Palmer Cox’s brownies, — then we lose faith in them altogether, and become quite too sober and matter-of-fact. And this is where you and I are very different from a Chinaman; because, no matter how hard a Chinaman has to rake and hoe and grub for his daily bread, his faith in the fairies never leaves him. If you see an old Chinese gentleman with large spectacles, and a face so grave that it makes you quite chilly even to look at him, you would never think that he would kneel down and pray to a fairy that any small boy at home could tell him was all moonshine. And yet he will! and do more than this too, if he is one of the common people.

I really wish that the Chinese fairies were more like these same brownies that you all know so well — always wearing a smile or a grin and brimming over with goodhumor and helpfulness. But if you were to guess from now till nighttime what sort of fairies they are that nearly all the common people of Tientsin believe in and worship, I am sure you would not guess rightly; they are the “Fairy family “: the fox, snake, hedgehog, weasel, and rat. Not the kind with gossamer wings, you see, or in the shape of little men and women — but very ugly creatures that most of us do not even care to look at. And the people’s belief in them is not at all a make-believe kind of faith, but a worship in downright earnest. You will find shrines for them in many houses.

When I was in Mongolia last summer, I was looking at one of these large towers of the Great Wall, like the one in the foregoing picture, only higher, and trying to find out how we could climb up to the top. On one side of it, in the stonework that you see around its base, there was a small hole, just large enough for a man to crawl into on his hands and knees; this ran right into the tower, into pitch darkness. We crawled in. There was a little tunnel inside, with a square hole at one end of it leading up to the top of the tower; but the tunnel itself was very dark and dirty, and just the place for a beast’s den — for it was far from any houses, and there are foxes and wolves in Mongolia which would be glad of such a hiding-place. As we crawled out we noticed pieces of paper pasted on the stone, with characters written on them. What do you think they said? That wretched little hole had been dedicated as a home of the fairy fox, and these pieces of paper, with sentences of prayer or praise on them, had been brought by worshipers and pasted about the door of this curious temple. Some one had probably seen a fox take refuge there, and jumped to the conclusion that it was the real fairy fox and that he must be worshiped.

Now can you tell a fairy fox from a common everyday fox? The trouble is just there; it is hard to tell, except when you see him in the very act of changing into a beautiful woman or an old man, or perhaps vanishing entirely; then you know that it was a fairy fox. But although every Chinaman knows and is taught that the fox can make these changes easily, yet very few have really seen him just at the moment when the change was taking place. Ancient philosophers say that the fox at the age of fifty can take the form of a woman; at one hundred can become a young girl or a wizard, if he chooses; that at one thousand he is admitted to the heavens, and becomes the “celestial fox.” The common people, though, say that he only has to practise certain occult arts for 600 fairy years — which are only eighty of our years — and then he is immortal and can change his shape as he pleases.

A year or two ago, in the city of Tung-cho, a man saw, or pretended to see, a fairy fox take refuge in a hole in the city wall. The news spread quickly, and people began to come from all quarters to offer worship at the hole in the brickwork and pray for what they wanted most. As offerings flowed in, a little temple The Worship of the Fairy Fox.

213

was built against the side of the wall, as you see it in this picture below; and here hundreds burned their incense and besought the fairy fox to be merciful to them and help them. Some thought that the powerful fairy heard their prayers and sent an answer. These brought strips of cloth, with short sentences of praise or of thanksgiving written on them, and hung them on the wall above the shrine, as you see them there. One of these, which you often see on idol shrines, has the words ” Ask and it shall he given “; another calls the fox ” Preserver of all life “; and some refer to him as enlightening or saving all men. Indeed he is

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constantly working miracles of healing or help, so the people believe, and the worship of many a gorgeous idol in the temple is neglected for that of the god-fox. If you were to go into his temple, here in Tientsin, you would not see any image of the fox himself, but only one of a solemn Chinese mandarin, with his wife, — Mrs. Fox, — sitting by his side, and a number of small boys and girls about them — the little foxes. It is not considered respectful to make a picture or an image of him as an animal, so he appears always as a grave old gentleman, very unlike the sly, skulking creature that you and I have always thought a fox to be. You could never tell, if you were to go into a Chinese temple, what the idols were meant to represent, whether animals or men or fire or thunder or

money or long life, or what else. Below is one, for example, of the thunderspirit — the very unamiable-looking old patriarch in the middle is he, with mallet and chisel in his hand and a chubby attendant on either side.

There is only room here to say two things more. First, Do you live in New England, pretty near where the Missionary Herald is published? If you do, then I think the fairy fox used to be worshiped, much as the Chinese worship him, by the very people who once lived there before you — that is, the Indians. The Pilgrim fathers could have told you about it very well, and John Eliot, who was the great missionary to our own Massachusetts Indians, saw so much of this curious belief that he has written about itjin his books. And there, if you look,

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you will find what they believed. But the second thing is the more important one. When you next pray to our Father who is in heaven, and especially when you have any trouble or need to bring to him for help or comfort, remember those who at such a time have no better than a fox to tell their troubles to. There are thousands here about me who, when they are in great sorrow, go in all earnestness to beg these five poor animals to help them, not knowing where else to go. Let us remember then, when we pray, to thank our heavenly Father that we know him. Perhaps some day and in some way we may even help those who are now worshiping the fairy fox to thank him with us.

Fox Witch (Google Books)

The Cloak of Dreams: Chinese Fairy Tales
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1400836034

Béla Balázs – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Strange and fantastical, these fairy tales of Béla Balázs (1884-1949), Hungarian writer, film critic, and famous librettist of Bluebeard’s Castle, reflect his profound interest in friendship, alienation, and Taoist philosophy.
Come and Sleep: The Folklore of the Japanese Fox
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1532847351

Christopher Kincaid – 2016 – ‎No preview
Ideal wife and sexual vampire.
The Hedgehog and the Fox: An Essay on Tolstoy’s View of History – …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1400846633

Isaiah Berlin, ‎Henry Hardy – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
This new edition features a revised text that supplants all previous versions, English translations of the many passages in foreign languages, a new foreword in which Berlin biographer Michael Ignatieff explains the enduring appeal of …
Norwegian folk tales
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=8281691859

Peter Christen Asbjørnsen – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The book contains 20 of the most wellknown folk tales, such as: White-Bear-King-Valemon, Little Freddie and his Fiddle, The Seventh Father of the House, The Princess who Always had to have the Last Word.
Chinese folk-lore tales – Page 181
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=WkZLAAAAYAAJ

John Macgowan – 1910 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Unconsciously to himself he had on several occasions rescued not simply a poor terrified fox but a fairy in disguise. That he did not dream of this at the time was not because he did not believe in the popular superstition that the fox could at …
The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay
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1912 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
In Indian folk-tales, the jackal is always depicted as a past-master in cunning and wiliness. … cunning, as the rabbit among the American negroes, the fox or the Reynard in European folk-tales, the badger in the folk-beliefs of the Japanese, and the jackal and the monkey in Indian folk-lore. … Similarly, the fairy-fox plays an important rôle in Chinese folk-tales, often assuming the guise of a woman— like the …
Journal – Volume 8, Issue 1 – Volume 9, Issue 8 – Page 329
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=kyRRAQAAMAAJ

1907 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
In Indian folk-tales, the jackal is always depicted as a past-master in cunning and wiliness. … cunning, as the rabbit among the American negroes, the fox or the Reynard in European folk-tales, the badger in the folk-beliefs of the Japanese, and the jackal and the monkey in Indian folk-lore. … Similarly, the fairy-fox plays an important rôle in Chinese folk-tales, often assuming the guise of a woman— like the …
Journal – Volume 9 – Page 329
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Anthropological Society of Bombay – 1910 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
In Indian folk-tales, the jackal is always depicted as a past-master in cunning and wiliness. … the rabbit among the American negroes, the fox or the Reynard in, European folk-tales, the badger in. the folk-beliefs of the Japanese, and the jackal and the monkey in Indian folk-lore. … Similarly, the fairy-fox plays an important role in Chinese folk-tales, often assuming the guise of a woman — like the charming …
Chinese Fairy Tales
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0486110443

Frederick H. Martens – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
A captivating collection of authentic Chinese fairy tales, based on legends, ghost stories, and myths. Stories include “The Flower-Elves,” “The Dragon-Princess,” “The Bird with Nine Heads,” many others. 25 illustrations.
The China Review: Or Notes & Queries on the Far East
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Nicholas Belfield Dennys, ‎Ernest John Eitel, ‎William C. Barlow – 1875 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions

The Phoenix a Monthly Magazine for China, Japan & Eastern Asia

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THE CASKET OF GEMS. TRANSLATED FROM THE CHINESE.

BY SAMUEL BIRCH, Esq., L.L.D. Copies may be obtained at the Office of the Phaenic, 3, George Yard, Lombard Street, E.C. Price 18.

A GRAMMAR OF THE JAPANESE WRITTEN LANGUAGE,

WITH A SHORT CHRISTOMATHY, By W. G. A S T ON, M.A., INTERPRETER To H.B.M.’s. LEGATION AT YEDO. London: Printed at the Office of the Phoenic, 3, George Yard, Lombard Street, E.C. 1872.

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A WOCABULARY OF PROPER NAMES, IN CHINESE AND ENGLISH, Of Places, Persons, Tribes and Sects in China, Japan, Corea, and adjoining Countries. By

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“I find your two works very useful, and think that everyone seriously undertaking the

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Translated, with introductory remarks, and an appendix, comprising the tables necessary for reducing Chinese time to European reckoning; and a Chinese celestial atlas. By Jon N WILLIAMs, F.S.A., Etc. London: To be had of the author at the Royal Astronomical Society, Somerset House. Price 15s.

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THE PHOENIX.

JOHN BELLOWS’ RAPID WAGES CYLINDER.

3for Japment of Jap-tuork on the sline jours’ Scale, or Japment by the jour, Apply to JOHN BELLOWS, GLOUCESTER. Price 70/

HIS instrument consists of a horizontal drum containing from 40 to 50 columns of figures representing as many rates of wages per week, per day, per hour, as the case may be. In front of it, and nearly in the position of the rest of a lathe for wood-turning, is a fixed bar or straight-edge, on which are marked, in bold figures, the rates themselves; each rate, of course, standing opposite the column on the cylinder which contains the calculations for that rate, say, for a “weekly” pay, from 1 hour up to 80. The hours themselves are shown in a bold column in the centre, and by a touch of the hand upon a mahogany wheel at the end, any given hour is brought in an instant to the straight-edge, when a glance along the latter to any rate column shows the exact sum to be paid. If the rate is below 20/- per week it stands at the left of the hours; if 20/- or upwards, at the right of it.

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Suppose, for example the time to be 31 hours, and the rate 2 1/- per week, a touch of the wheel throws the 31 of the central column to the point just above the reading-bar, and at the same time presents, all along that bar, the amount. , Very little reflection will show that this process can be repeated over a long list of figures, with far greater speed than is possible with a book where leaves have to be turned to and fro, and the line found, as well as a particular part of the line, for each amount. Still further to facilitate the rapid reading of the figures, the vertical columns are grouped in bands of different colors, such as the first 3 of the “20” series in yellow; the first 3 of the “30” series in blue, and so on ; while horizontally they are grouped into fives and tens by alternate lines of dark blue and of red. A little examination of the cylinder itself will show the practical use of this. Without any effort at learning the positions of the several divisions and sub-divisions of the table thus dissected, the eye quickly becomes accustomed to the special colors as indicating these divisions; and the user of the instrument is enabled to hit upon any one of the thousands of ready-worked sums besore him, with a speed which only mechanical arrangement can ensure. -1 This cylinder, in fact, occupies a place that may be described as midway between an ordinary ready-reckoner and a calculating machine. The chief objection to the former is the waste of time involved in turning over the leaves and tracing vertically or horizontally, or both, with the finger; as well as in some instances, the further hindrance and source of error involved by separate additions required for the fractions. On the other hand the calculating machine, properly so called, while it is exceedingly rapid in its action, and infallible if properly handled, is not only exceedingly costly, but liable from its complication to get out of order; and, what is worse, its operation is one which must be taken for granted. There is no immediate means of testing its work: nothing present at the same time that its figures are shown, which may assure the operator that he has given the proper number of turns to such and such a handle, or that he has touched the right stops or levers. For this reason, admirable as some of these machines are, they are not regarded with much favour by astronomers and others who have to make the most laborious calculations, and who ought consequently to be the most benefited by their use. It is a less evil to work out a heavy calculation in figures that can be examined and checked at every point, than to pay, as the price of obtaining an almost instantaneous answer, the penalty of absolute uncertainty as to whether that answer is correct or false. If the quarter-hours had been printed in unbroken perpendicular column, in line with the hours themselves, more time, and far greater nicety would have been needed in the setting of the cylinder, to avoid reading into the wrong line; whereas by spreading them out horizontally it becomes all but an impossibility to take the quarter-hour for the half, or the half for the three-quarters, or vice versa. The relative position, which is the same, of course, throughout the entire table prevents this. Here we come to another new point in the table. Whilst in every case the nearest penny is printed, no fractions (such as }{ }4 34) being employed, the nearest half-penny is also shown by simply placing a dot at the top of the figure, or at the foot of it, where a half-penny more or a half-penny less, respectively, would be nearer the exact fraction due for the time indicated. The reason for discarding the usual marks 4 J4 34 is two-fold. First, they are difficult to read in any small size of type ; and second, the farthing and three farthings never being used in actual pay, it is but wasting the clerk’s time to make him read them and then translate into another figure. For instance, as everyone would pay 9d. where 834 d. is printed, why not print the actual 9d. at once instead of the fictitious 834 d. 2 Even where the fractions are given for the purpose of adding the quarter-hours to the hours, they are frequently misleading. For instance—the 2. may stand, and does stand, for either four tenths, five tenths, or six tenths of a penny; yet it presents no distinction to the eye, while a penny ‘. difference ought to be made in the {{ in the latter case, Suppose a sum stands in the printed, table 5/9} it is impossible to tell from this whether we ought to Aay 5/9 or 5/10; if the real fraction is 6 we ought to pay 5/10: if it is 5 even, or sess than 5, we ought to pay 5/9. The same remark applies to casting two farthings together in adding the quarter hours to (i. even hours. In a common printed table /23 and 16.6°3 would stand as 2}d, and Io/6}, so that added they only shew 1984—the gets struck off, and the workman receives 108 while he ought to receive io9–and so on. My plan avoids this difficulty, by shewing in all cases which side of the half-penny the balance inclines. R. t is not so much the value of an isolated penny or two which is worth this trouble, but the certainty of being correct. ates:— No. 1 Series, 2/63/- 3/64/- 4/65/- 5/66/- 6/6 7/- 7/68/- 8/69/- Ios- 1 1/- 12/- and so on rising by one shilling up to 40/-, but omitting 29/- and 39/- with 3 hour columns—one at each end and one in the centre. No. 2 Series the same, but including 29/- and 39/-. In this cylinder there is only one hour column, in the centre, as the space taken up by the outer ones is used for the 29/- and 39/-.

No. 6 for use by Builders, gives rates per Hou R instead of per week, beginning at Id. and running up to Iod, by farthings. [see over

– other foreign moneys by special arrangement.

AMONG THE FIRMS WHO HAVE AL)OPTED THESE INSTRUMENTS ARE THE FOLLOWING:

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Josia H STONE & Co., Engineers and Brassfounders, Deptford
Gwyn NE & Co., Essex St. Works, Strand, London

MAUDSLAY, SONs, & FIELD, Engineers and Iron Shipbuilders, London.
Powis, JAMES, WESTERN, & Co., Engineers, London

Follows & BATE, Engineers, Manchester EARLE’s SHIPBUILDING CoMPANY, Hull.

JAMES TAYLOR & Co., Engineers, Birkenhead
Oswald & CoMPANY, Shipbuilders, Sunderland |
A. B. FLEMING & Co., Chemical Works, Leith
(Two)

|

THE LANDORE SIEMENS STEEL COMPANY.
THE
THE
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BRISTOL WAGON COMPANY
GLOUCESTER WAGON COMPANY
BIRMINGHAM WAGON COMPANY
LONDON DISTRICT RAILwAY COMPANY
MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY, &c., &c.

HIBERNIA IMPLEMENT WoRks, Dublin–Booth BROTHERS, Dublin

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(Five)

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Trafalgar Colliery, Coleford, Glo’stershire, “We find it a very valuable assistant. Our clerks are highly delighted with it. The IWork is done with A’ailway speed and with more accuracy than it was before.” T. B. & B. BRAIN. Cyclops Works, Sheffield,—“Your Wages Cylinder has given us every satisfaction, and we shall be very happy to recommend it to our friends; in fact, we have done so on several occasions. We shall shortly be requiring one or two more.” CHARLES CAMMELL & Co. Carlisle. Works, Sheffield,—“We are very much pleased with your Wages Cylinder.” WILSON, HAWKSWORTH, ELLISON & Co. Cornwall Works, Birmingham,_”Five per cent on seventy shillings (which the Cylinder Table costs) is three shillings and sixpence per year. It does its work with such speed that at our Soho Works we save more than this every week.” TANGYE BROTHERS. Castle St., Bristol, “Of great value both as to accuracy and saving

of time.” LEWELLINS & JAMES. ”The best we have yet seen. It can scarcely sail to come extensively info use.” Fngineering.

” Must be productive of an enormous saving of time and trouble in calculating workmen’s wages.” A rad/or a Daily Telegraph.

“It effects a great saving of clerks’ labour. Its rapidity and accuracy

will establish great popularity for this invention.”. Mechanic’s Magazine.
“Its advantages must, we think, be patent to all who see it.” on’s fish-
Mechanic. – .
“So simple in its arrangement as to ensure the utmost rapidity, and *
so accurate in its minutest detail as to challenge the closest scrutiny.”
Birmingham Daily Gazette.
“Something really worth seeing. By the use of this invention the labour
of wages calculation is amazingly reduced.” Birmingham /)aisy Post.
“One of the most wonderful tables for calculating wages that has ever
been brought before the public . . . . So arranged that to commit an error
in calculating is impossible, except in case of culpable carelessness. What
you want to know can be ascertained by a single glance of the eye.”
Preston Chronicle.
“Surprisingly simple yet securing unerring accuracy.” Preston Herald.
“At once very ingenious and exceedingly simple, it is an instrument
admirably adapted É. the purpose for which it is intended. It may be
fairly said, that it surpasses everything in the nature of a wages table that
Aas ever been Aroduced.” Birmingham Morning Mertos.

“Error is impossible.” Morning Post. “Excellent.” Standard.

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No. 26. AUGUST, 1872.

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rise of the Three Kingdoms. All these historical

araphrases were, in fact, most probably inspired

y the success attending the famous chronicle of the San-Kwo; and certainly in the case of the one now under notice the style, arrangement, incidents, descriptive lan e, and occasional versification, are most servilely imitated from those of the abovenamed work. As compared with its model, however, the T’ang chronicle enjoys an advantage (in the estimation of a European reader, at least) consisting in the fact that it is incomparably less tedious. Three duodecimo volumes contain the whole of the Tsan T’ang Chwan, against twenty which barely suffice to hold the interminable record of the wars, intrigues, and murders of the heroes of the San Kwo. This is a high recommendation to students who perforce read slowly and gropingly, and who in most cases recoil in despair #. a task so apparently endless as that of thoroughly perusing twenty volumes of tedious Chinese. As tending to inspire an interest in the study of Chinese history, however, these chronicles are worthy of recommendation to students in quest of subjects for erusal. Although lavishly embellished with abun

nce of puerile matter in the shape of supernatural occurrences and fabulous feats of arms, the chronicle of T’ang for instance is in the main a tolerable paraphrase of the leading historical features of the period, the events of which it describes under the guise of a succession of marvellous military exploits.

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in the stead of the boy-heir to the After-Chow of last of the Five Dynasties (A.D., 960). The story of the investiture of Chao with the Imperial yellow and the consequent re-establishment of undivided rule under the Sung dynasty, of which he became the founder, fitly terminates the Chronicle of the Fall of the T’ang. The opening chapters describe the gradual sapping of the fortunes of this house, and the raising of rebellion by Hwang Ch’ao, a re#. candidate (like Hung Siu-ts’iian) at the iterary examinations. To cope with the armies of the disaffected gathered by this leader (who, a historical personage in himself, is made in the chronicle to perform wonderful feats by the aid of his supernatural sword, and is introduced at the outset in obvious imitation of the rebel Chang Kio whose proceedings initiate the story of the San Kwo), c * of the house of T’ang are summoned together, and notably Li K’é-yung, a banished noble of the Court, who has become a puissant chieftain of the Northern or T’uküeh nomads, and who with his son (the eventual founder of the afterT’ang, the second of the Five o is summoned across the frontier with his forces by a faithful messenger. The war once begun, challenges, treacheries, intrigues, and mutual slaughter constitute, as in the Sán Kwo, the subject of the narrative. Interspersed with the text, verses constantly occur, according to the rule of Chinese compositions of this kind; some in doggrel quatrains or couplets, others in a species of dithyrambic burst, one of which, from j. fifth chapter—a description of the

Sack of Hi Tsung’s palace by the army of Hwang

Ch’ao—I have attempted to render as follows:—

Blackness wide-spreading ! the shadow of conquest looms o’er the Halls of the Phoenix | Darkness and woe the slaughter-breath rises, encircling the Dragon’s high Tower Shouting in tumult the sudden invader startles the harem’s fair inmates | Booming, the battle-drum frights to their bowers the hand-maiden’s fluttering band’ The brink of the lake is bestrewed with the battered array of the fallen, And bows that no more shall be strung for the battle lie thrown by the hill! The roses of fair ones now redden the damask of silken pavilions, And the blood of the valiant flows bubbling in waves by the White Wall of Gems

The ostensible author of this work is one Lo Kwan-chung, the reputed author of the San Kwo, but there is little reason to believe that there is any connection between the two romances; and of Lo Kwan-chung himself nothing is definitely known.

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2. The Record of Marvels; or Tales of the Genii. No work in Chinese modern literature can boast of greater or more rapid diffusion and o than the Liao Chai Chih Yi jj; ; # £, the meaning of which fanciful title is conveyed in the above heading. Of few works of the kind, also, have we such full particulars respecting its history and that of its author. As a common rule, writers of fiction in China have not appended their names to their productions, and the period at which some of the most celebrated romances appeared can only be surmised from internal evidence. Not so with the work now under notice. Its author, P’u Sung-ling j 3A was a native of the province of Shantung, where he flourished during the reigns of Shun-Chih and K’ang-Hi (circa A.D., 1640-1720). Although an indefatigable student and deeply imbued with the learning and style of the ancient writers, he failed to obtain a degree beyond the lowest at the literary examinations, and as a solace to his mortified spirit, he occupied himself, it is traditionally reported, in collecting from legendary sources the tales of fairy-foxes, elves, and spirits which abound among the Chinese of all classes. These he contemplated so under the title of Kwei Hu Chwan | host and Fairy ão but at the instance of friends who thought this title and the scope of his work unworthy of his genius, he added to the collection a certain number of sketches of actual occurrences, and at length put forth his work in sixteen volumes under its present title as the Record of Marvels. The words Liao Chai consist in one of those recondite allusions of which Chinese literati are so fond. Having exclaimed one day, in his grief at his failures to obtain advancement at the official examinations, that he would “grow old without wherewithal to depend upon” (lao ww liao lai) he gave his library the name of Liao Chai, signifying thereby that o must be thenceforward his sole support or solace. The collection as eventually published consists in some 300 tales, the majority of which are connected with the elfin exploits of the supernatural beings which, according to universal belief in China, are ordinarily confined within the bodies of foxes, but which have the power of transforming themselves at certain periods into human shape. A very interesting o on the subject of the Fairy Foxes, by Dr. Birch of the British Museum, exists in No. #1 of the Chinese and Japanese Repository (1863). The Luao Chai Chih Yi will be found to represent in its varied stories almost every phase of the Chinese traditions on this subject; but a European reader will probably have difficulty in appreciating the boundless popularity which the work has obtained throughout China. , Judged by Western standards, the tales of which it consists are for the most part legends not only destitute of all probability (which by itself, in a case of this kind, is not a formidable

* This character should have H. affixed instead of

7’s The correct form has been mislaid.

objection), but also bald and prosaic in the extreme, the tameness of the narrative (notwithstanding its supernatural character) being only broken in some of the stories by dull and matter-of-fact indecency, in lieu of the grand and genial imaginings which embellish the corresponding Arabian Tales. It is only just to the Chinese literary world to remark that the author’s reputation rests less upon the matter of his work than on the manner of his writing. To a style singularly concise and pure, recalling that of the ancient historians, he added a wealth of erudition and of casual illustration drawn from the most recondite sources, such as infallibly claims the admiration of such lovers of antiquity as his countrymen. Fairy-tales told in the style of the “Anatomy of Melancholy” would scarcely be a popular book in Great Britain; but in China the porter at his gate, the boatman at his mid-day rest, the chair-coolie at his stand, no less than the man of letters among his books, may be seen poring with delight over the elegantly-narrated marvels of the Liao Chai. The work, originally circulated in manuscript, was printed in 1740 by a grandson of the author, and since then has passed through numerous editions. Of these the most valuable and complete appeared in 1842, at the expense of Tan Ming-lun, an official of high reputation, then occuying the post of Salt Comptroller & the Liang Iwai division, who employed a large staff of literary men during several years in searching out explanations of the obscure phrases and allusions with which the narratives abound, and constructing a glossary for each story. In his appreciation of the work, Tan Ming-lun was only second to the Emperor Kia King, of whom it is related that every moment of leisure was devoted to the perusal of the Liao Chai, and that at the period of his death in 1820 he was contemplating the admission of its author into the list of worthies commemorated in the Confucian temples. Still more notable among the Ana of this work is the story concerning Wang

Yii-yang EE % # a Cabinet minister in the reign of K’ang Hi, who is said to have paid the author a very i. sum for the permission to add the few observations which appear under his name at the end of some of the tales, as the surest method of handing down his name to remote posterity. The superstition with respect to “fairy-foxes” is o rooted in the Chinese mind, and has endured, as Dr. Birch has noted, from remote antiquity. It is most prevalent, however, in the Northern Provinces, whilst the belief in supernatural beings endowed with the faculty of mixing with the human race which prevails among the natives of Southern

China takes the Wu T’ung H. # (Genie. lit. Five Perceptions) as its object. The fairy foxes are of all descriptions in respect to character—malignant, beneficent, studious, amatory, and winebibbing. To enter upon an inquiry regarding the nature of the superstition at large would extend this article beyond reasonable limits; and a single example is therefore simply appended in conclusion, which—selected as one of the shortest and most presentable among the three hundred tales—may

serve as a specimen of the quality of the work under notice. It consists in the following story:—

THE Boon CoMPANIon. }}| Ž A certain man named Ch’é, although of limited means, was deeply addicted to drinking. Unless he drained three brimming bowls during each night he was unable to obtain repose. For this reason, the bottle by his bedside was never empty. One night, waking from his sleep, and turning on his side, it apared to him as though some person were lying }. him; but he supposed that it was only the coverings which had fallen in a heap. On laying his hand upon them, however, he felt that some ielding object was covered underneath, in shape #. but larger than a cat. He cast a light upon it and behold!, it was a fox, lying asleep (as if) drunk. He looked at the bottle, and it was empty! Amused at this, he exclaimed: “Here is a booncompanion for me!” and could not bring himself to startle his bed-fellow, but covered it with the clothes and threw his arm around it, and betook himself to rest beside it, keeping his candle alight to watch its transformation. In the middle of the night the fox stretched itself, and our hero laughed saying: “Well done | You have had a nap !” and throwing off the covering beheld a handsome man in scholar’s garb, who rose and made an obeisance before his pillow, in gratitude for the mercy shewn in not putting him to death while sleeping. Our hero replied: “My inveterate passion for the juice of the grain makes the world look upon me as a madman; but you, good Sir! shall be to me as Pao Shu was to Kwan Chung, (i.e., as Damon was to Pythias). If there is no hesitation on your part, you shall be my trusty friend of the wine-press.’ Saying this, he quietly returned to the bed and proceeded to share his repose with the stranger, adding: “Let us often meet, good sir, and let there be no suspicions between us!” The fox assented to this. When our hero awoke, the fox had disappeared, but he prepared a bowl of wine in anticipation of its return, and, in truth, at nightfall it arrived. The two friends, pressing close to each other in friendly contact, indulged themselves in drink; and the fox, reflecting on the good-nature of his entertainer, regretted bitterly having obtained his friendship so late. … The tale concludes with manifestations of gratitude on the part of the fairy fox, who on repeated occasions found means of requiting substantially the kindness of his booncompanion. Not so innocent as these, however, are the exploits (as is hinted above) of many of the fairy foxes. he only additional point of interest in connection with the Liao Chai Chih Yi which occurs to the writer is the reference to the work by Morrison in his Radical Dictionary, under the character Pao, where it is mentioned as “The Faery Queene” of China. This strange and most io. posite comparison can only be explained on the supposition that Dr. Morrison’s reminiscences of Spenser’s great Fo were somewhat dimmed b time, and that he had never looked at so muc

as a page of the Liao Chai. (To be continued.)