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Die alte Jungfer: eine Erzählung
By Marie Nathusius

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einer Antwort zu angegriffen. Während dessen war Tina vom Bock herunter geklettert und übernahm die Antwort: Meinem Fräulein geht es gut, sehr gut. Was thut denn ein Bischen Hitze? ich bin da auf meinem Thron auch nicht elysäisch zu Muthe gewesen. Alberne Person! hauchte die Tante. Tina lachte gutmüthig und klopfte dabei der Tante vertraulich auf die Schulter. Liebe Tante, wir werden dich sehr pflegen, daß du dich bald erholt, sagte Elisabeth in herzlicher Theilnahme. Die Worte wurden nicht sehr von der Tante berücksichtigt, wohl aber sah sie mich höchst aufmerksam und mit dem Ausdruck der Befriedigung an; ich verstand diese Bewunderung. Minna küßte der Tante manierlich die Hand, während der kleinste, fechsjährige Karl sie auf feine eigene Weise begrüßte: er stand

mitten im Wege, die Hände in den kleinen Hosentaschen,“

Augen und Mund weit auf, ob vor Erstaunen oder geheimen Schrecken ließ sich nicht genau bestimmen. Die Tante, schlank und hoch, mit einem mächtigen Strohhut, wie man sie damals trug, auf dem schwarzen Löckenkopf,

überreichlich mit coclicorothen hochstehenden Schleifen garniert,

in einem Sommermantel von grünem Atlas, hatte seine Fantasie wer weiß auf welche Weise in Bewegung gesetzt. – Was hat denn dieses Kind? hauchte die Tante verdrießlich. Der arme Junge gehörte sehr entschieden zu den Blonden. Komm Karlchen, küsse der lieben Tante die Hand, wollte ihn Minna schmeichelnd überreden, er aber fähielte bedenklich von der Seite die seltsame Erscheinung

an, fähüttelte den Kopf und schlug ruhig einen Seitenweg ein. Wir ignorierten diese kleine Scene und führten die Tante mit desto größerer Aufmerksamkeit nach ihrem Zimmer. Wie gewöhnlich wurden wir außer der Mutter vor der Thür entlaffen, – uns schon recht, denn die erzwungene Gravität war unserem Uebermuthe höchst lästig. Lottchen an der Spitze eröffneten wir unten im Familienzimmer eine höchst amusante Sitzung. Lottchen war gut und brav, sie würde nie ihren Nächften verleumdet oder absichtlich gekränkt haben, aber feine Schwächen ganz gelegentlich zum eigenen Vergnügen auszubeuten, machte sie sich kein Gewissen. Fritz und ich ebenfalls. Unser Uebermuth war sprudelnd bis zur Albernheit. Nur Elisabeth sagte: Ich weiß nicht, wenn ich etwas über Menschen rede, was sie eigentlich nicht hören dürfen, das macht mir bange. Lottchen und ich suchten fie zu überzeugen, daß, wenn man es nicht böse meine und es auch nur in ganz bekannten Kreisen geschähe, es kein Unrecht sei. Elisabeth wußte nichts dagegen einzuwenden, aber selbst Fritz hatte nach ihrer Aeußerung uns bedenklich angeschaut und gewissenhaft mit dem Kopf genickt, er schien auch sehr geneigt, eine gelehrte Abhandlung über erlaubte und unerlaubte Kritik zu halten. Lottchen und ich ließen es nicht dazu kommen, wir ließen aber Tante Adelgunde aus dem Spiel und richteten unsere Heiterkeit und Lachlust auf andere Gegenstände. Die Dämmerung war vorüber, wir hatten auch un

fer einfaches Abendbrod bereits genoffen, als die Thür sich leise öffnete. Darf ich hereinkommen? fragte Tina. Sie erhielt gern die Erlaubniß. – Wir beiden da oben langweilen uns wie die Möpse, fagte sie höchst unehrerbietig. Glauben Sie nur, das Fräulein wäre von Herzen gern unten, wenn sie nur nicht angegriffen fein müßte. Ich habe jetzt zu ihr gesagt, wenn man krank wäre, wäre man am besten allein aufgehoben, und ich wollte mich hier unten etwas verpusten. Sie hat mich auch entlaffen, aber ich soll ihr Bericht abstatten, warum Sie hier unten fo laut lachen. Für Elisabeth war es eine große Genugthuung nicht fagen zu müffen: Wir haben über Tante Adelgunde gelacht. Fritzens zukünftige Studentenwirthschaft war unser letztes Thema, und zu Tinas Entzücken wurde das weiter von uns ausgesponnen. Ihr Vergnügen wurde durch die Klingel der Tante unterbrochen, aber bald hörten wir ihre laute lachende Stimme als Berichterstatterin durch die dünnen Wände hindurch, und fie war gewiß die Ursache, daß die Tante sich fchon zum Frühstück als völlig ” hergestellt anmelden ließ.

Am andern Morgen wurde die Tante von uns herzlich begrüßt, sie war viel zu gutmüthig, hatte uns trotz aller Wunderlichkeiten zu lieb, als daß wir sie nicht hätten follen wieder lieben. Auch war sie nicht immer nervös, fie konnte oft sehr vergnügt mit uns sein, und als sie diesen Morgen bei uns eintrat, sahen wir ihren Augen an, daß ihr Barometer auf Sonnenschein stand. Schon beim Früh

stück versicherte die Tante, der Aufenthalt bei uns fei der Champagner ihres Lebens. Tina, welche diese Bemerkung zufällig mit anhörte, fragte: Fräulein, was trinken wir wohl, wenn wir allein find? Die Tante fragte gütig: Nun was meinst du Tina? Diese gab die unartige Antwort: Ich glaube gar Kamillenthee, gnädiges Fräulein. Die Tante fand das fehr witzig, und wir durften alle darüber lachen. Nach dem Frühstück, wußten wir, folgte eine verhängmißvolle Scene. Tante Adelgunde theilte ihre Geschenke aus – Geschenke, wie Elisabeth einmal der Mutter treuherzig versicherte, wo man oft nicht weiß, ob man darüber weinen oder lachen soll. Es waren nur abgelegte Sachen, immer sehr guter Stoff, aber seltsame Formen, und da die Mutter zu wenig auf das Aeußere gab, waren wir Kinder oft genöthigt uns nach unserer Meinung höchst geschmacklos anzuziehen. Als Tina mit dem bewußten Koffer in die Stube trat, konnte Fritz wohl gleichmüthig ihr beim Oeffnen behülflich sein, er konnte ja von den abgelegten Sachen keinen Gebrauch machen; wir andern standen mit klopfenden Herzen dabei. – Für die beiden lieben Mädchen habe – ich hier zwei Anzüge, begann die Tante feierlich, fast noch neu: wenn die Verhältniffe, in denen ich lebe, die vielen Gesellschaften mich nicht zum Wechseln der Toilette zwängen, so würde ich sie selbst noch aufragen. Sie entfaltete ein blauschwarzes Seidenkleid, Aermel und Taille mit vielen Zacken und Franzengarnitt, dazu gehörte ein weißer Maria-Stuart-Kragen. Dann folgte ein kanariengelber Tuch-Oberrock mit Kapuchon und großer leidener Quaste. Ich weiß noch nicht recht, welchem von euch Mädchen dieses schöne Gelb am besten stehen wird, fagte sie nachdenklich.

Mir wohl das Schwarze beffer! stotterte ich in Herzens

angst, aber ohne an die arme Elisabeth zu denken. So nimm das dunkele, sagte die Tante entschieden; ja der Stuart-Kragen wird deinem schlanken Halle sehr gut stehen. Ich bedankte mich besonders lebhaft in dem Gefühl, den Kanarienvogel nicht nehmen zu müffen. Dir, liebe Elisabeth, wandte sich die Tante zu der Erschrockenen, schenke ich den Tuchrock, er ist einfach und nobel und viele Jahre

wirst du ihn tragen können, er ist unverwüstlich. Elisabeths stummer Dank, ihre Verlegenheit hatte die Tante

sicher wieder auf ihre blonde Abstammung geschoben, denn die brünette Minna, die jetzt mit einem wunderlichen blauen Sammetspenzer an die Reihe kam, sprach ihr aufrichtiges Entzücken in schmeichelhaften Worten aus. Karlchen sollte aus einer großen Manchester-Pellerine eine Art Kurrendemäntelchen bekommen, er schien sich nicht fehr dafür zu interessieren, dagegen entschloß er sich für einige Bonbons, der Tante die Hand zu küssen. Die Mutter und Lottchen erhielten wie gewöhnlich neue Sachen, und Fritz wurde mit dem Versprechen entschädigt, die Tante wolle sich an der Einrichtung einer Studentenwirthschaft betheiligen. Am Abend saßen Fritz, Elisabeth und ich im Wohnzimmer, es war dämmerig, am klaren blauen Himmel stand Die alte Jungfer.

The old maid: a story
By Marie Nathusius

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an answer to being attacked. Meanwhile, Tina had climbed down from the box and took the answer: My maid is fine, very good. What does a little bit of heat do? I was not on my throne Elysäisch to Muthe. Silly person! the aunt breathed. Tina laughed good-naturedly, tapping his aunt’s face confidentially. Dear aunt, we will take care of you very much so that you will soon recover, said Elisabeth with warm sympathy. The words were not much taken into account by the aunt, but she looked at me most attentively and with the expression of satisfaction; I understood this admiration. Minna kissed the aunt’s hand gracefully, while the smallest, six-year-old Karl greeted her in his own way: he stood

in the middle of the way, hands in little trouser pockets, ”

Eyes and mouth wide open, whether in amazement or secret horror could not be pinpointed. The aunt, slim and tall, with a mighty straw hat, as one wore at that time, on the black lion’s head,

garnished overly with coclicorothen upstanding loops,

in a summer coat of green atlas, had his imagination who knows in what way set in motion. – What does this child have? the aunt breathed morosely. The poor boy was definitely one of the blondes. Come, Karlchen, kiss your dear Aunt’s hand, she wanted to persuade him flattering Minna, but he scowled from the side the strange appearance

, shook his head and calmly took a detour. We ignored this little scene and led the aunt with more attention to her room. As usual, we were blown out of the door, except for the mother, and we were all right, for the forced gravity was extremely troublesome to our exuberance. Lottchen at the top, we opened downstairs in the family room a most amusing meeting. Lottchen was good and good, she would never have slandered or intentionally offended her neighbor, but to occasionally exploit her weaknesses for her own pleasure, she did not feel guilty. Fritz and me too. Our exuberance was bubbling to the point of silliness. Only Elisabeth said: I do not know, when I talk about people, what they are not allowed to hear, that scares me. Lottchen and I were trying to convince them that if you did not mean it bad and only did it in very well-known circles, it was not wrong. Elisabeth did not object to this, but even Fritz, after her statement, looked at us questionably and nodded her head carefully. He also seemed very inclined to hold a scholarly treatise on permitted and unauthorized criticism. Lottchen and I did not let it happen, but we left Aunt Adelgunde out of the game and turned our cheerfulness and lust for laughter on other objects. The dusk was over, we had also un but even Fritz, after her statement, looked at us doubtfully and nodded conscientiously with his head. He also seemed very inclined to hold a scholarly treatise on permitted and unauthorized criticism. Lottchen and I did not let it happen, but we left Aunt Adelgunde out of the game and turned our cheerfulness and lust for laughter on other objects. The dusk was over, we had also un but even Fritz, after her statement, looked at us doubtfully and nodded conscientiously with his head. He also seemed very inclined to hold a scholarly treatise on permitted and unauthorized criticism. Lottchen and I did not let it happen, but we left Aunt Adelgunde out of the game and turned our cheerfulness and lust for laughter on other objects. The dusk was over, we had also un

The evening meal was already over, when the door opened quietly. May I come in? Tina asked. She gladly received the permission. We two up there bore us like boobs, she said most dishonorably. Believe only that the Fraulein would like to be down, if only she did not have to be attacked. I said to her now that if you were sick, it would be best to be left alone, and I wanted to blow something down here. She blew me too, but I have to tell her why you laugh so loud down here. For Elisabeth it was a great satisfaction not to say: We have laughed about Aunt Adelgunde. Fritz’s future student husbandry was our last topic, and to Tina’s delight this was further spun out of us.

The next morning our aunt was warmly welcomed by us; she was far too good-natured, too lovable in spite of all the oddities, for us not to love her again. Nor was she always nervous, she could often be very happy with us, and when she came in this morning, we saw her eyes that her barometer was in the sunshine. Already at the morning

The aunt assured us that the stay with us was the champagne of her life. Tina, who happened to hear this remark, asked: Miss, what do we drink when we are alone? The aunt asked kindly: Now what do you mean Tina? This gave the naughty answer: I believe even Kamillenthee, gracious Miss. The aunt thought that was really funny, and we were all allowed to laugh about it. After breakfast, we knew, a fatal scene followed. Aunt Adelgunde distributed her presents – presents, as Elisabeth once confidently assured her mother, where one often does not know whether to cry or laugh at it. They were only discarded things, always very good material, but weird shapes, and as the mother gave too little attention to the outside, we children were often obliged, in our opinion, to wear very tasteless. When Tina came into the room with her conscious suitcase, Fritz was quite able to help her openly; he could not make use of the things he had left; we others stood with beating hearts. For the two dear girls I have two suits here, the aunt began solemnly, almost even more: if the conditions in which I live, the many societies do not force me to change the toilet, I would even raise them up. She unfurled a blue-black silk dress, sleeves and waist with many pips and Franzengarnitt, including a white For the two dear girls I have two suits here, the aunt began solemnly, almost even more: if the conditions in which I live, the many societies do not force me to change the toilet, I would even raise them up. She unfurled a blue-black silk dress, sleeves and waist with many pips and Franzengarnitt, including a white For the two dear girls I have two suits here, the aunt began solemnly, almost even more: if the conditions in which I live, the many societies do not force me to change the toilet, I would even raise them up. She unfurled a blue-black silk dress, sleeves and waist with many pips and Franzengarnitt, including a white Maria Stuart collar. Then followed a canary-yellow cloth-topcoat with Kapuchon and big bad tassel. I still do not know which of you girls will enjoy this beautiful yellow best, she said thoughtfully.

For me the black thing! I stuttered in my heart

fear, but without thinking of poor Elisabeth. So take that dark, said the aunt decidedly; yes, the Stuart collar will stand your slim hall very well. I thanked me particularly vividly in the feeling of not having to take the canary. To you, dear Elisabeth, the aunt turned to the frightened, I give the cloth skirt, he is simple and noble and many years

you will be able to carry it, it is indestructible. Elisabeth’s dumb gratitude, her aunt had her embarrassment

certainly pushed back to her blonde descent, for the brunette Minna, now with a whimsical blue Sammetspenzer’s turn, pronounced her sincere delight in flattering words. Karlchen was to get a sort of Kurrendemäntelchen from a great Manchester-Pellerine, he did not seem very interested in it, however, he decided to kiss some candies, the aunt’s hand. The mother and Lottchen were given new things as usual, and Fritz was compensated with the promise that the aunt wanted to take part in the establishment of a student economy. In the evening, Fritz, Elisabeth and I sat in the living room, it was dusky, in the clear blue sky stood the old maid .

Das Tierreich, Volume 2
By Dr. Ludwig Heck

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Deutsche uns nachsage» lasse», daß wir diese entzückende. Zwergrafse vernachlässigt und fast verloren haben, so daß wir sie uns jetzt aus Belgien als 6ri6orl Lruxslloi« wiederholen müssen. Ich denke noch mit Vergnügen daran, wie uns auf einer Versammlung in Frankfurt a, M. Herr Schumacher zwei Hündinnen dieses rotbraunen, auf etwas derberen Läufen stehenden Schlages vorführte: das Ware» wirklich „süße Vichcher”, die die langen Verhandlungen angenehm unterbrachen!

4. den glatthaarigen Zwergpinschcr. Den haben wir uns besser erhalten, auch besser als seine große Stammform, Eine Zeit lang mußte er aber hinter dem englischen Black-aud ta»°toy-terricr zurücktreten, bis ma» sich überzeugte, daß dieses wiuzigc, kaum einige Pfund wiegende Zittcrgcstcllchcn in der Körpersvrm zwar genau dem großen Blackaud-tan entspricht, aber oft doch allzu sehr verfeinert, au der bindfadendünnen Rute und dein cingczogcucn Bauch kam» mehr behaart ist. Da lobe ich mir unsere» derbere», rotgclb(Rchpinscher) oderschwarz uiit rote» Abzciche» gefärbte» Zwergpinschcr, dem wir gewöhnlich Öhrchen »»d Schwänzchen stutzen! Was steckt in dem drolligen Knirps für ein reger Geist! Als uns Katcrbvw in der Sitzung des Vereins „Hektor” einst seinen „Prinz” vorführte, mußte er „auf den Tisch”, weil man ihn sonst nicht ordentlich sehe» konnte. Als da aber ei» Mitglied z» lachen wagte, fuhr ihm der kleine Held sofort »ach der Nase und warf ihm sein Bier um!

5, die englischen Zwergspaniels, Für sie könnte man allenfalls den deutschen Name» Wachtelhündchen anwende»: denn sie sind aus de» Spaniels, kleine», niedrigen, langhaarigen Jagdhunden, hervorgegangen. Während sie aber zur Zeit König Karls II,, nach dem die schwarzen, rot gebrannten King-Charles heiße», und auf deni Schlosse Blenhcim-House des Herzogs von Marlborough, wo sie weiß mit rot gezüchtet wurden, noch leichte, bewegliche Tierchen mit natürlicher Kopfbilduug waren, hat sie inzwischen die englische Übertreibungssucht in blödsinnige, träge Krüppel verbildet unter Ausnutzung der bei allen Zwergrafse» vorhandenen Neigung, die kindlichen Schädelverhältnisse, das Überwiegen des Hirntcils über den Kicferteil, beizubehalten. Anderwärts arbeitet man dem glotzäugigen „Apfelkopf”, dessen Hirnschale mitunter nicht einmal ganz geschlossen ist.

[graphic]
Sssenplnscher.

(Nack Sperling)

möglichst entgegen; die heutigen Liebhaber der Toyspanicls, die zu dem KingCharles und dem Blenheim noch den rcinroten Rudy und den dreifarbigen Prince-Charles hinzugefügt haben, sind aber geradezu stolz darauf, daß bei ihren unglücklichen Lieblingen der Obcrkopf „völlig halbkugelförmig, mitunter sogar mehr als halbkreisförmig gerundet ist”, daß die Stirn über den Augen vorsteht und die aufwärts gerichtete Nase fast berührt. Dazu die ewig thränenden Glotzaugen, die mit ihren langen Haaren fast bis auf die Erde herabhängenden Ohren und die kurzen, breit gestellten, nicht nur auf der Rückseite mächtig bcfcdcrten, sondern auch noch mit langen Haarpinseln zwischen den Zehen „gezierten” Läufe, und mau muß sich wirklich fragen, wie solch ein armes Viehchcn überhaupt noch existieren kann! Im Freien sich bewegen kann es ungestraft kaum! Ob man nicht aber ein allerliebstes Schoßhündchcn erzielen könnte, wenn man den Engländern ihre schlechtesten Toyspanicls abkaufte uud sie nach dem heutigen Staudard immer schlechter, d. h. immer gesünder und vernünftiger züchtete, so herzustellen suchte, wie sie früher in England selbst waren? Die prachtvollen, satten Farben wären wohl der Mühe wert!

6, den japanischen Tschin (englisch Chili, richtig japanisch Tsin). Er sieht auf den ersten Blick aus, wie ein schwarzweißcr, kürzer behaarter, schlecht „bchaiigcncr” lkurzohrigcr) und rollschwänziger Zwcrgspanicl, weil er einen mindestens ebenso sehr verbildeten Kopf hat; er hat aber ein leichteres, gängigeres Gebäude und ist dem entsprechend auch lebhafter und geistig regsamer. Bei näherem Zusehen erweist sich auch seine Körpcrform als viel kürzer und höher gestellt, und Beckmann möchte ihn daher eher als einen langhaarigen Mops betrachten.

7, den Mops, kurzhaarig, stein- (schwarz-) oder gclbgran, rundkvpfig, glotz’ äugig, kurzschnauzig, mit faltigem Gesicht, schwarzem „Aalstrich” übers Rückgrat und Rollschwanz. Wie wir ihn heute wieder herausgezüchtet haben, nachdem er in den fünfziger Jahren angeblich dem Aussterben nahe war, ein zwar kleiner, aber durchaus nicht etwa winziger uud gebrechlicher, sondern stämmiger und untersetzter Bursche, ist der Mops allerdings kaum mehr als Schoßhund zu betrachte»; wenigstens muß der Schoß schon recht geräumig sein, auf dem er mit seinen sieben oder gar zehn Kilogramm bequem Platz hat, und noch weniger dürfte, wie dies doch ans früheren Zeiten geschildert wird, eine alte Jungfer von heutzutage im stände sein, ihren vielgeliebten nnd noch dazn sprichwörtlich fetten Mopo im Haudarbcitskvrbchen oder Muff mit sich hcrnmzutragcn. Der Mops alten Schlages muß also ein ganz anderes Tier, viel kleiner nnd ein wirklicher Schoßhund gewesen fein; bei seiner oft getadelten Fettsucht, Mürrischkcit und Bösartigkeit glaube ich aber nicht, daß wir viel an ihm verloren haben, nnd unser moderner Mops, dieser nette, reinliche, muntere nnd drollige Hausgenosse und Begleiter auf dem Spaziergang ist mir jedenfalls lieber.

8, das Windspiel, die Zwergform des kurzhaarigen Windhundes von höchstens fünf Kilogramm Gewicht: ein ohne Zweifel sehr feines nnd vornehmes Hündchen, bei uns im Freien aber meist eine ängstliche, frierende, in sich selbst zusammengezogene Jammergestalt, der ich keinen Geschmack abgewinnen kann.

Noch weniger natürlich dcn geradezu ekelhaftrn, bis auf einen Schopf zwischen den Ohren vollkommen haarlosen Nackthnnden, die ans Mexiko und Süd’Amerika manchmal zu uns kommen nnd in ihrem Körperbau plumpen Windspielen ähneln! Als durch und durch krankhafte Geschöpfe verraten sie sich auch durch ihr verkümmertes Gebiß.

Ehe wir mit dcn Windhunden zu dcn Jagdhunden im weitesten Sinne übergehen, möchte ich hier noch dcn Dalmatiner, Tiger- oder Wagcnhund einschiebe», der dcn enteren Namen ebenso sehr mit Unrecht trägt, wie die beiden letzteren mit Recht, Mit Dalmaticn hat er jedenfalls gar nichts zu thun, und Hunde seiner Zeichnung, weiß mit schwarzen Tupfen, züchtete man früher, wo man auffallende Farbcnabälidcrungcn liebte, bei vielen Rassen, wie man sie ja auch heute noch bei den deutschen Toggen hat. Nach Shaw will man den Talmatincr neuerdings, besonders im Kopf, auf dcn Pointcr züchten nnd rühmt ihm sogar jagdliche Eigenschaften nach. Ursprünglich hat er aber doch wohl mehr vom Bullterrier, ist nur leichter gcbant und als flotter Läufer so recht zur Begleitung von Pferd nnd Wagen geeignet. Er ist auch bei uns in Deutschland vcrbrcitctcr, als man denkt, und bat sagar in Berlin einen Spccialklub, Eine Schattenseite der Rasse ist leidcr, daß in einem gewissen, unbestreitbaren, für uns aber natürlich geheimnisvollen Zusammenhang mit der weißen Grundfarbe und dcn hellen Augen der Dalmatiner öfters von Geburt taub ist. Ich habe diese Erfahrung mehrfach an den Nachkommen eines prämiierten Paares Tamm’schcr Zucht gemacht, »nd au einem von diesen hat Ramitz die weitgehendsten Verkümmerungen nnd Entartungen der inneren Gehörorgane, sowie der zugehörigen Nervenbahnen und Gchirntcile nachgewiesen.

Ter Windhund, d. h. ein hochbeiniger, schneller, leichter Hund, der das Wild nicht mit der Nase verfolgt, sondern nach dem Gesicht hetzt, ist vielleicht die älteste ausgeprägte Hunderasse. Wir finden ihn ganz unverkennbar, nnd zwar mit aufgerollter Rute, beim Hunde, einem Zeichen langer Haustierschaft, schon auf den altägyptifchcn Denkmälern, und man kann sich allerdings denken, daß gerade dieser Jagdgchilfc des Menschen sich dem Bedürfnis zufolge zuerst hcrvorbildcn, Jahrhundertc nnd Jahrtausende erhalten mußte, solange eben die Jagd ohne Fcrnwaffcn betrieben wurde und nicht bloß dem Vergnügen, sondern auch dem Flcischbcdarf diente. Der mittelalterliche Edelmann erscheint mit dem Falken auf der Faust und dem Windhund an der Seite, und es gab früher alle Arten Windhunde, von den größten und stärksten mit Doggen gekreuzten für die WolfsHetze bis zu den leichtesten und schnellsten, den sogenannten „Beizwinden”, die bei der Falkenbeize mitzuhelfen hatten.

Heutzutage ist in der Hauptsache nur noch eine rein auf die Schnelligkeit gezüchtete Windhnndform übrig geblieben, die zwar noch dcn Hascn hctzt, abcr nicht um seiuctwillen, sondcrn zur Erprobung und Übung der eignen Schnelligkeit. Diesem modernen, glatthaarigen, westeuropäischen Windhund hat man alle irgend entbehrliche Masse abgezüchtet; sein Körper ist eigentlich nur noch Brustkorb und Beine, sein Kopf ist mir noch Grcifzange. Schön im künstlerischen Sinne sieht er deshalb auch nicht aus mit der kolossal tiefen Brust und den fast in nichts zusammengezogenen Weichen dahinter; aber wenn dieser sehnige Körper arbeitet, sich streckt, dehnt in rasendem Laufe, das muß doch ein eigenartig fesselndes Schauspiel sein, bis schließlich der arme Lampe nach verzweifeltem Hakenschlagen mit dem langen, weitgeöffnetcn „Fange” gegriffen wird.

Die ängstliche Dünne des Windhundkörpers wird durch prächtige, reiche, seidenweiche Behaarung verdeckt bei dem langhaarigen Windhund, heute dem größten und stärksten Schlag, der in seiner Heimat, Rußland, noch zur Wolfshatz gebraucht wird. Bei uns hat er sich dank der unbestreitbaren Vornehmheit und Eleganz seiner Erscheinung, die durch schöne Färbung, meist weiß mit Kopf< zeichnung und farbigen Platten, noch erhöht wird, eine gewisse verdiente Schätzung und Verbreitung als Luxushund erworben. Wenn er sich nur besser trüge, insbesondere den schmal zusammengedrückten Kopf, dessen lange, ganz flach gewölbte Profillinie (fast ohne jeden Stirnabsatz!) Beckmann sehr treffend mit der Schädelbildung des Eisbären vergleicht, nicht so oft zwischen die Schultern niedersinken ließe! Der Unterschied, der in dieser Beziehung zwischen den photographicrteii und den meisten gezeichneten Barsois (russischer Name, vollständiger ?ssovis Sainoi) besteht, hat mich immer ordentlich belustigt: der Künstler kann in unbewußter, aber notwendiger Verschönerung des Modelles fast gar nicht anders: cr macht den Hals länger und setzt ihn hoch auf, so daß der Kopf das Ganze krönt, nicht tief unten davorhängt. Man sehe nur Meister Spechts russische Windhunde an: die sind schön, aber es sind keine!

Eine bessere Kopfhaltung und zugleich auch bessere Nase soll der schottische Hirschhund (äesrkouuä) besitzen, ein rauhhaariger, sehr großer und starker, in der Körpcrgestalt nicht so auf die Spitze getriebener Windhund, der aber immer seltener wird, weil mit de» heutigen Verhältnissen der Hochwildjagd die laute, das ganze Revier in Aufregung bringende Hetze sich kaum mehr verträgt. Schade, daß er aus Liebhaberei nicht mehr gepflegt und anderwärts eingeführt wird! Beckmann, der ihn in seiner Heimat kennen gelernt hat, ist sehr entzückt von seiner imposanten äußeren Erscheinung und den graziösen Bewegungen und empfiehlt ihn sehr wegen seines ruhigen, menschenfreundlichen Wesens, also gerade in der Hinsicht, in der die anderen Windhunde zu wünschen übrig lassen.

Entsprechend dem hohen geschichtlichen Alter der Windhundform giebt es auch in allen Ländern der alten Welt, wo weite Ebenen die Hatzjagd erlauben, eingeborene Windhundrassen, und den edlen, arabisch-afrikanischen Slngi nimmt selbst der strenggläubigste Muselmann gern von der Verachtung aus, die sonst in mohammedanischen Ländern ans dem Hunde als unreinem Tier lastet.

Als Nichtjäger, wie ich es leider bin, über Jagdhunde zu schreiben, ist eine schwere Sache; da muß eben der Tierpfleger und Rassetierliebhaber in mir aushelfen, so gut es gehen will!

In der Art, zu jagen, schließen sich an die Windhunde, die laut, d. h. bellend, aber zunächst mit der Nase die „warme”, d. h. eben erst getretene Fährtc de? Wildes verfolgenden Koppel- und Meutcnhunde an, die früher, wie beim Rothirsch geschildert, die größte Rolle spielten, heute aber nur noch für ganz bestimmte Jagdarten und ganz bestimmte Jagdverhältnisse verwendet werden.

In der Gegenwart ist der wichtigste unter ihnen der englische Fuchshund, der Träger des oben beschriebenen Nationalsports der Engländer, für den jährlich ein

[graphic][merged small]
ungeheures, den Leuten der ländlichen Gegenden, unter die es gebracht wird, aber sehr willkommenes Geld ausgegeben wird. Bei uns dient er nur den winterlichen, meinem Leser bereits durch Wort und Bild bekannten Kaiserlichen Parforcejagden auf Schwarzwild und den meist hinter einer künstlichen „Schleppe” gerittenen Jagdreiten der Militär-Rcitinstitute. Ein prächtiger Anblick solche Meute edler, dreifarbiger, auf weißem Grunde schwarz und orangerot gezeichneter Fuchshunde, wenn sie, erwartungsvoll mit den hochgctragencn Fahncnruten wedelnd.

The Animal Kingdom, Volume 2
By Dr. Ludwig Heck

About this book

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1223 – 1227

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Germans tell us “Let it be that we have this delightful. Neglected and nearly lost the dwarf-grave, so that we now have to repeat it from Belgium as a triumvirate. I still remember with pleasure how, at a meeting in Frankfurt, Herr Schumacher, two bitches demonstrated this reddish-brown beat, which stood on somewhat rougher runs: the merchandise “really” sweet Vichcher, “which pleasantly interrupted the long negotiations!

4. the smooth-haired Miniature Pinscher. We have better preserved it, even better than its great ancestral form. For some time, however, he had to resign himself behind the English Black Auditorium-terricr, until it was finally confirmed that this remarkable, scarcely a few pound-pounder Although the body size is exactly the same as the big Blackaud-tan, it is often over-refined, except for the thinnest-colored tail and your cingocytic abdomen. Here I praise our “coarser,” rotgclb (Rchpinscher) or black “Zwergpinschcr” colored with red “Abzciche”, to which we usually trim the ears! What is in the funny little boy for a lively mind! When Katcrbvw once presented his “prince” to us in the meeting of the association “Hektor”, he had to “sit on the table”, otherwise you would not be able to see him properly. But when a member of the party dared laugh, the little hero immediately drove him to his nose and threw his beer at him!

5, the English Zwergspaniels, For them one could possibly use the German name “Quail Puppy”: for they are the “Spaniels, small,” low, longhaired hounds. But while at the time of King Charles II, “after the black, red-burned King-Charles,” and at the castle of Blenhcim-House of the Duke of Marlborough, where they were bred with white, there were still light, mobile creatures with natural In the meantime, she had turned the English exaggeration addiction into idiotic, lazy cripples, using the tendency among all the dwarf-rascals to maintain the child’s cranial relations, the predominance of the brain over the kink. Elsewhere you work the goggle-eyed “apple head” whose brain is sometimes not even completely closed.

[Graphic]
Sssenplnscher.

(Nack sparrow)

as possible contrary; but today’s lovers of the Toyspanicls, who have added the red Rudy and the tri-color Prince Charles to the King Charles and Blenheim, are almost proud of the fact that their unfortunate darlings have the head rounded to a completely hemispherical, sometimes even more than semicircular shape “that its forehead protrudes above the eyes and almost touches the upturned nose, and the ever-piercing, goggle-eyed, with their long hair almost ears hanging down to the earth, and the short, broad, not only on the back mighty, but also with long hair-brushes between the toes “decorated” runs, and you must really wonder how such a poor cattle can still exist! It can barely move in the open air! But if one did not buy the English from their worst toy-pans, and then, according to the present day Staudard, they always tried to produce, as they used to do in healthier and more sensible ways, the same as in England itself? The gorgeous, rich colors would be well worth the effort!

6, the Japanese Chin (English chili, really Japanese Tsin). He looks at first glance like a black-and-white, shorter-haired, badly “bachelor” short-haired and roll-tailed dandruff, because he has at least a very deformed head, but he has a lighter, more common building and is accordingly more lively and lively On closer inspection, his body shape turns out to be much shorter and higher, and Beckmann would therefore rather consider him a long-haired pug .

7, the pug, short-haired, stone (black) or goby, round-breasted, gnawed-eyed, short-snouted, with a wrinkled face, black “eel-line” across the spine and tails, as we have bred out today after being raised in the fifties Although the pup was supposedly close to extinction years ago, a smaller, but by no means tiny and frail, but sturdy and stocky fellow, the pug is little more than a pet dog to look at “, at least the lap must be quite spacious, on which he was with its seven or even ten kilograms comfortably has space, and still less, as it is described in the earlier times, an old maidby now being able to carry along with her much-beloved, and still fatally proverbial, fat mopo in hair-coloring or muff. The Pug old school must therefore a completely different animal, much smaller NND a real lapdog been fine; but I do not believe that we have lost much in his often censured obesity, grumpiness, and malice, and that he likes our modern pug, this nice, clean, cheerful, and droll fellow-companion on the walk.

8, the windgame, the dwarf form of the short-haired greyhound, weighing no more than five kilograms: a very fine and distinguished puppy without doubt, but here in the open air but usually a timid, freezing, self-absorbed miserable figure, of whom I can gain no taste.

Still less, of course, are they disgusting, except for a hairless head between the ears of hairless women, who sometimes come to us from Mexico and South America, and in their physique resemble clumsy wind chimes! As thoroughly pathological creatures, they also betray themselves through their stunted teeth.

Before we pass on to greyhounds with hunting dogs in the broadest sense, I would like to insert here Dalmatian, tiger or wag-dog, who is just as wrong in wearing the name as the latter two, and certainly with Dalmaticn To do nothing, and dogs of his drawing, white with black polka dots, were bred in the past, where they loved striking colors, in many races, as they are still found among the German Toggen today. According to Shaw, the talmatin is nowadays being propagated, especially in the head, to Pointcr, and even praising him for hunting qualities. Originally, but he probably has more of the Bull Terrier, is only slightly gcbant and as a fast runner so right for the accompaniment of horse and car. He is also stronger here in Germany than one thinks and asked in Berlin a spinal club, A shadow side of the breed is sorry that in a certain, undeniable, but of course mysterious connection with the white ground color and bright eyes of the Dalmatian is often deaf by birth. I have made this experience several times in the offspring of an award-winning pair of Tamm’schcr breeders, and on one of these Ramitz has proved the most extensive fecundations and degeneration of the internal organs of hearing, as well as of the associated nerve tracts and gyrates.

The greyhound, that is, a high-legged, fast, light-weighted dog who does not track the game with his nose but rushes for the face, is perhaps the oldest breed of dog. We find it quite unmistakable, with the tail rolled up, with the dog, a sign of long pet ownership, already on the ancient Egyptian monuments, and it may be thought, however, that precisely this human hunting aid, according to the need, first survives centuries and millennia As long as the hunt was conducted without weapons and served not only the pleasure, but also the Flcischbcdarf. The medieval nobleman appears with the falcon on the fist and the greyhound on the side, and there used to be all sorts of greyhounds,

Nowadays, the main thing left over is a wind-less form, bred purely for speed, which, although it still hunts, not only for the sake of pleasure, but for the testing and exercise of its own speed. This modern, smooth-haired, Western European greyhound has been bred out of any expendable mass; His body is really only chest and legs, his head is still Grcifzange me. Beautiful in the artistic sense looks he therefore did not leave with the colossal deep chest and the points, almost contracted, behind; but when this sinewy body works, stretches, stretches in a furious course, that must be a strangely captivating spectacle, until at last the poor lamp is seized with a long, wide-open “catch” after a desperate hook-beating.

The fearful thinness of the Greyhound’s body is masked by magnificent, rich, silky soft hair in the long-haired greyhound, today the largest and strongest blow used in his native Russia for the Wolfshatz. Thanks to the undeniable refinement and elegance of his appearance, which is enhanced by beautiful coloring, usually white with head and colored plates, he has earned himself a certain deserved appreciation and dissemination as a luxury. If only he carried himself better, especially the narrowly compressed head, whose long, very flat profile line (almost without any forehead!) Compares Beckmann very aptly with the skull formation of the polar bear, would not sink so often between the shoulders! The difference, the boring Borzois (Russian name, more complete? ssovis Sainoi) in this relationship has always amused me: the artist can hardly change the unconscious but necessary embellishment of the model: cr makes the neck longer and set it up high so that the head crowns the whole thing, not in front of it low down. Just look at Meister Specht’s Russian greyhounds: they are beautiful, but they are not!

The Scottish stag dog (äesrkouuä) is said to possess a better head position and at the same time a better nose, a rough-haired, very large and strong greyhound whose body shape is not so extreme, but which is becoming ever rarer because, according to today’s conditions, the big game hunt the loud, the whole area in exciting excitement hardly tolerate. It is a pity that he is no longer cared for and imported elsewhere. Beckmann, who got to know him in his native country, is very delighted with his impressive appearance and the graceful movements and recommends him very much because of his quiet, philanthropic nature, especially in the way in which the other greyhounds leave much to be desired.

According to the high historical age of the greyhound form, there are also indigenous greyhound breeds in all the countries of the old world, where wide plains allow the hunt, and even the most orthodox Moslem man likes to take away from the contempt, which otherwise exists in Mohammedan, of the noble, Arab-African Slngi Countries where dogs weigh as impure animal.

As a non-hunter, as I unfortunately am to write about hunting dogs, is a hard thing; The animal keeper and the animal lover must help me out as well as I can!

In the manner of hunting, the greyhounds, the loud, ie barking, but first with the nose the “warm”, ie only just taken, the feral pursuing coupling and Meutcnhunde that earlier, as in the red deer described, played the biggest role, but today only for very specific hunting types and very specific hunting conditions are used.

At the present time, the most important among them is the English Foxhound, the bearer of the above-described national sport of the English, for which an annual

[graphic] [merged small]
tremendous, the people of the rural areas under which it is brought, but very welcome money is spent. With us it serves only the wintry, to my reader already well-known by word and picture Imperial Parforcejagden on wild boar and the mostly behind an artificial “train” ridden hunting rides of the military-Rcitinstitute.A splendid sight such pack noble, dreicolare, on white ground black and orange-red painted fox-dogs, wagging, wagging expectantly with the tall-toothed fahncnruten.

Alte jungfer und schosshund (Google Books)

Die Wittwe – Volumes 3-5 – Page 27
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Endlich aber, nachdem Sir Edward und seine Gemahlin ohne seine Begleitung zu ihrem zweiten Morgenspaziergange aufgebrochen waren, wurde er durch den Eintritt der alten Jungfer, seiner Tante Kammerfrau, erfreut, die ihren Schoßhund …
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… tändelnde junge Mädchen spielen, mährend rings um sie mit schadenfrohem Mitleid geflüstert wurde: „Sie ist nun auch schon eine alte Jungfer. … Sie hatte ein kleines Vermögen, lebte allein mit einer Herde von Katzen und einem Schoßhund, haßte die Kinder mit einem trockenen, … Und die dritte kommt her mit ihrem leisen Schritt und ihrem liebe», verstehenden Lächeln: Tante Gustchcn, unser lieber …
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„Mama, weine nicht! vielleicht … wenn es einer von den Tanten gälte – ich wünsche ihnen alles Gute, aber Großtante Isa, die starr vor sich hin träumt, seit Onkel … Zugleich kam leider Tante Kornelia in einem grauen Talar aus dem alten Schloßflügel. … Dienerschaft und ihren Wagen; Tante Kornelia, die Papa eigentlich nur aus Mitleid bei sich duldet, hat ihre Kammerjungfer und ihren Schoßhund Scipio, …
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Krams bediente den Alten, wie nur ein Fürst bedient werden kann. „Wohlgeboren” hier! … Und ob sein alter Herr ihn nicht verwöhne wie einen Schoßhund? Krams dankte … „Nun, in der Küche spricht man so hin und her, sie sei zu hübsch, um noch lange Jungfer zu bleiben.” „Gott ja !” knurrte … Weder Frau von Dorthöven noch Tante Wendchen schoben sich störend in diesen Gedanken. — Er fühlte, er …
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Finally, however, after Sir Edward and his wife left for their second morning walk without his escort, he was delighted by the entry of the old maid , his aunt, chambermaid, who had her lapdog …
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… playful young girls, while whispering around them with malicious compassion: “She is already an old spinster . … She had a small fortune, lived alone with a flock of cats and a lapdog , hated the children with a dry, … And the third comes with her quiet step and her dear, understanding smile: Aunt Gustchcn, our dear …
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“Mama, do not cry! maybe … if it was one of the aunts – I wish them all the best, but great-aunt Isa, who is dreaming to herself, since uncle … At the same time unfortunately Aunt Kornelia came in a gray gown out of the old castle wing. … servants and their wagons; Aunt Kornelia, who only tolerates Papa out of pity, has her maid and her lapdog Scipio, …
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Krams served the old man as only a prince can be served. “Honor ” here! … And if his old man did not spoil him like a lap dog ? Krams thanked … “Well, in the kitchen we talk back and forth, she was too pretty for a long time maid to stay. ” “God yes!” Growled … Neither Frau von Dorthöven nor Aunt Wendchen interfered with this thought – he felt he …
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Drawing on hermeneutic theory and the work of Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hall argues that by approaching sexual diversity with openness and humility, we are becoming active participants in the politically urgent process of reading the …
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Identity Trouble assembles contributions from a variety of discourse fields to discuss the pressures on traditional understandings of identity.

W. Die alte Jungfer.
1.
Ein Mädchen, das vergeſſen worden, hat ſeine Ahnen, ſeinen Namen,
ſeine Schönheit, ſeine Jugend, ſeine Güter hoffnungslos verloren.
Mémoires concernant les Chinois p. p. missionaires de Pe-kin.
X. 147. Cit. n. Klemm. Die Frauen. I. S. 299.
2.
Lykon ſagte von einem armen Mädchen: „Eine ſchwere Laſt iſt für
den Vater immer ein Mädchen, deren Lebensblüte aus Dürftigkeit der
Mitgift bereits verblüht iſt.“
Diogenes Laertius. V. 65.
3.
Die alte Jungfer phyſiologiſch.
Betrachten wir das alternde Mädchen in anatomiſcher Beziehung,
ſo ſehen wir allmählich die Roſen von ihren Wangen ſchwinden; die
Haut wird fahl und grau, die Lippen blaß und dünn; die Naſen-Lippen
Furche, welche nach vorn hin die Wange abgrenzt, wird ſcharf ausge
ſprochen und tief; unter den Augen entſtehen zuerſt leichte, dann immer
tiefere Schatten; am äußeren Augenwinkel tritt eine Gruppe von ſeichten
Hautfältchen auf; die Augen erhalten einen matten Glanz und einen weh
mütigen, klagenden Ausdruck. Auch die Stimme hat nicht ſelten einen
ſchmerzlichen und doch ſcharfen Beiklang. Die Wollhärchen des Geſichtes,
namentlich an den Seitenpartien der Oberlippe, auch wohl am Kinn und
an den Wangen dicht neben dem Ohre, beginnen ſich zu etwas kräftigeren
und je nach der Farbe des Kopfhaares blonden oder dunkeln kurzen,
aber echten Haaren zu entwickeln. Das Fettpolſter des Unterhautgewebes
verringert ſich in auffallender Weiſe. Das markiert ſich in erſter Linie
an den Brüſten, welche kleiner und nicht ſelten welk und hängend werden.
Sie ſcheinen an dem Bruſtkaſten gleichſam beinahe handbreit herunter
gerutſcht zu ſein. Denn die fettarme Haut bedeckt den oberen Teil des
Bruſtkorbes kaum anders als beim Manne, während bei der blühenden
Jungfrau an dieſen Stellen das Unterhautfettgewebe um ſo ſtärker ent
wickelt iſt, je mehr die Bruſthaut in diejenige der eigentlichen Brüſte
übergeht. Hierdurch geſchieht es, daß die obere Grenze der Brüſte in
der Blüte der Jahre viel höher zu lieg
V. Die alte Jungfer 235
als früher, und daß die oberen Rippen und die Schlüſſelbeine, früher
unter dem reichlicheren Fettpolſter verſteckt, jetzt mit großer Deutlichkeit
zu Tage treten. Die Oberſchlüſſelbeingruben vertiefen ſich erheblich; es
bildet ſich, wie der Berliner Volksmund ſagt, das Pfeffer- und Salzfaß
aus. Auch die Arme nehmen, wenn auch in leichterem Grade, an der
Abmagerung teil; aber doch markieren ſich auch an ihnen ſowohl die
Muskelgruppen als auch namentlich die Knochenvorſprünge des Ellbogens
und der Handwurzel um vieles deutlicher als früher. Das Fettpolſter
des Bauches wird ebenfalls geringer, ohne daß letzterer jedoch dabei
ſeine jungfräuliche Rundlichkeit und Straffheit einbüßt. Am wenigſten
und unter allen Umſtänden am ſpäteſten werden die Formen und der
Umfang der Hinterbacken, der Schenkel und der Waden beeinträchtigt,
und gerade die letzteren ſind es, welche am allerlängſten auf ihrem ur
ſprünglichen Zuſtande auszuharren pflegen.

W. The old maid.
1.
A girl who has been forgotten has his ancestors, his name,
his beauty, his youth, his goods lost hopelessly.
Mémoires concernant Chinois p. p. missionaires de Pe-kin.
X. 147. Cit. n. clamp. The women. I. p. 299.
Second
Lykon said of a poor girl, “A heavy burden is for
the father always a girl, whose lifeblood out of poverty of the
Dowry has already withered. ”
Diogenes Laertius. V. 65.
Third
The old maid physiological.
Consider the aging girl anatomically,
so we gradually see the roses disappear from their cheeks; the
The skin becomes pale and gray, the lips pale and thin; the nose-lips
Furrow, which delimits the cheek at the front, becomes sharp
spoken and deeply; under the eyes first light, then always
deeper shadows; at the outer corner of the eye enters a group of shallow
Skin wrinkles on; the eyes get a dull glow and ache
humble, mournful expression. Even the voice often has one
painful yet sharp. The woolly hairs of the face,
especially on the lateral parts of the upper lip, probably also on the chin and
on the cheeks close to the ear, begin to something stronger
and depending on the color of the head hair, blond or dark short,
but to develop real hair. The fat pad of subcutaneous tissue
decreases noticeably. This is first and foremost
on the breasts, which become smaller and not seldom withered and hanging.
They seem to be almost hand-wide down the chest
to have slipped. Because the low-fat skin covers the upper part of the
Rib cage hardly different than the man, while at the flowering
Virgo at these sites the deeper the subcutaneous fatty tissue ent
The more the breast skin turns into that of the actual breasts
passes. By this it happens that the upper border of the breasts in
the flowering years much higher
V. The old maiden 235
as earlier, and that the upper ribs and the clavicles, earlier
hidden under the more abundant fat pad, now with great clarity
come to light. The upper key trenches deepen considerably; it
forms, as the Berlin vernacular says, the pepper and salt keg
out. The arms also take, albeit to a lesser degree, the
Emaciation part; but both of them are also marked on them
Muscle groups and especially the bony prominences of the elbow
and the carpus much more clearly than before. The fat pad
the abdomen is also lower, but the latter is not
loses its virgin roundness and tautness. Least
and in all circumstances the latest forms and will
Circumference of the buttocks, thighs and calves impaired,
and it is the latter who are the longest on their ur
maintain normal conditions.

Als den Zeitpunkt, zu welchem bei den Mädchen unſeres Volkes im
Durchſchnitt dieſes Verwelken beginnt, müſſen wir das 27. oder 28. Jahr
bezeichnen, obwohl auch nicht ſelten bereits mit 25 Jahren die erſten
Spuren dieſer Umbildungszuſtände ſich einfinden. Einmal begonnen,
pflegt der Prozeß in rapider Weiſe bis zu der vorher geſchilderten Aus
bildung ſeine Fortſchritte zu machen. Daß tiefe ſeeliſche Mißſtimmung
und allerlei nervöſe Beſchwerden dieſe Zuſtände nicht ſelten begleiten,
das haben wir im vorigen Abſchnitte bereits beſprochen. Es iſt nun im
höchſten Grade bemerkenswert nicht allein für den Arzt, ſondern auch
für den Anthropologen, daß es ein wirkſames und niemals verſagendes
Mittel giebt, dieſen Prozeß des Verwelkens nicht nur in ſeinem Fort
ſchreiten aufzuhalten, ſondern ſogar auch die bereits geſchwundene Blüte,
wenn auch nicht ganz in der alten Pracht, doch in nicht unerheblichem
Grade wieder zurückkehren zu laſſen, nur ſchade, daß unſere ſozialen Ver
hältniſſe nur in den allerſeltenſten Fällen ſeine Anwendung zulaſſen und
ermöglichen. Dieſes Mittel beſteht in einem regelmäßigen und geord
neten geſchlechtlichen Verkehre. Man ſieht nicht eben ſelten, daß bei
einem bereits verblühten oder dem Verwelktſein nicht mehr fernſtehenden
Mädchen, wenn ſich ihm noch die Gelegenheit zur Ehe bietet, bereits
kurze Zeit nach ihrer Vermählung alle Formen ſich wieder runden, die
Roſen auf den Wangen wiederkehren, und die Augen ihren einſtigen
friſchen Glanz zurückerhalten. Die Ehe iſt alſo der wahre Jugend
brunnen für das weibliche Geſchlecht. So hat die Natur ihre feſt
ſtehenden Geſetze, welche mit unerbittlicher Strenge ihr Recht fordern,
und jede vita praeter naturam, jedes unnatürliche Leben, jeder Verſuch
der Anpaſſung an Lebensverhältniſſe, welche der Art nicht entſprechen,
236 Die Liebe.
kann nicht ohne bemerkenswerte Spuren der Degeneration an dem Orga
nismus, dem tieriſchen ſowohl als auch dem menſchlichen, vorübergehen.
– Ploß. Das Weib in der Natur- und Völkerkunde.
II. S. 535 u. 536.

As the time when the girls of our people in
Average of this withering begins, we must be the 27th or 28th year
Although not uncommon, they are the first ones at the age of 25
Traces of these reorganization states occur. Once started,
The process maintains in a rapid manner to the previously described out
education to make progress. That deep mental ill-humor
and all sorts of nervous complaints often accompany these conditions,
We have already discussed this in the previous section. It is now in
most notable not only for the doctor, but also
for the anthropologist, that it is an effective and never failing
Means, this process of withering not only in his fort
to stop, but even the already dwindling bloom,
if not quite in the old splendor, but not insignificant
It is a pity that our social Ver
only in the very rare cases, and that
enable. This remedy consists in a regular and geord
Neten sexual transports. It is not rare to see that at
an already withered or no longer distanced from withering
Girl, if he still has the opportunity to marry, already
Shortly after their marriage, all the forms round themselves again
Roses on the cheeks return, and the eyes of their former
get fresh shine back. So marriage is true youth
Fountain for the female sex. This is how nature has its feasts
standing laws, which demand their right with relentless rigor,
and every vita praeter naturam, every unnatural life, every attempt
the adaptation to living conditions, which do not correspond to the species,
236 Love.
can not without remarkable traces of degeneration on the organ
nism, both animal and human.
– Ploss. The woman in nature and ethnology.
II. P. 535 u. 536th

Die alte Jungfer pſychologiſch.
Wer kennt ſie nicht, die ſo oft beſchriebene Erſcheinung, das „ſpäte
Mädchen“ mit den ſich ſcharf abzeichnenden Konturen der Kopfnicker
muskeln am Halſe, mit den „Gänſefüßchen“ an den Schläfen und mit
den dünnen, etwas bleichen Lippen. Ein ewiges verſchämtes Backfiſch
Lächeln umſpielt ihre Züge, ſchmachtende Blicke der Sehnſucht ſchießt ſie
nach den Herren, mit denen ſie zuſammentrifft, aber wohl verſtanden nur
nach den Männern in etwas reiferen Jahren und hier auch nur nach
den Unverheirateten, den Verwittweten oder den Geſchiedenen. Stets
iſt ihr Anzug zierlich und gewählt, ſtets ſpielen bunte und grelle Farben
dabei eine große Rolle, namentlich ſolche, welche nach den gewöhnlichen
Begriffen äſthetiſcher Farbenlehre wenig oder garnicht zuſammengehören.
Auch fehlt es daran nicht an auffallenden Draperien, wie ſie ſonſt höchſtens von Mädchen auf der ſo reizvollen Übergangsſtufe von dem
Kinde zur Jungfrau getragen werden. Erfordert es die Sitte, mit ent
blößten Schultern zu erſcheinen, ſo iſt ihr Kleid oben erheblich kürzer
als diejenigen der anderen unverheirateten Damen. Sie kann aus
anatomiſchen Gründen tiefer ausgeſchnitten erſcheinen als die friſchen
Mädchengeſtalten um ſie herum, ohne jedoch den Männern deshalb
mehr zu enthüllen. Wird in den geſelligen Vereinigungen muſiziert,
dann iſt ſie eine der erſten, welche ihre ſchon etwas an ſchlechte
Blechmuſik erinnernde Stimme erſchallen läßt. „Nur wer die Liebe
kennt, weiß was ich leide!“ Dieſes und ähnliche Ergüſſe unbefriedigter
Sehnſucht bilden ihr Repertoir. Aber der ewig heitere Himmel
auf ihrem Geſichte iſt nur ein ſcheinbarer. Dem ſcharfen Beobachter
entgehen nicht die Blitze, welche ihr Mienenſpiel durchzucken, wenn
die immer unbegreifliche Männerwelt ſich von ihr abkehrt, um ſich mit
den jungen Damen in Unterhaltung einzulaſſen, „den reinen Kindern,“
wie ſie ſich ausdrückt, wo es ihr unbegreiflich iſt, wie kluge Männer an
den Geſprächen ſolcher 18- bis 25jährigen dummen Dinger Geſchmack
finden und ſie ſelbſt unberückſichtigt laſſen können.
Jedoch zum ſchrecklichen Gewitter wird dieſes Wetterleuchten in der
Häuslichkeit; nichts iſt ihr recht, niemand verſteht ſie, von jedem fühlt
ſie ſich gekränkt und beleidigt. Aber ſie ſelber hat für jeden Anweſenden
eine ſpitzige Bemerkung, jeden Abweſenden ſucht ſie zu verdächtigen, oder
V. Die alte Jungfer. 237
ihm etwas Schlechtes nachzuſagen, und wenn nicht alles nach ihrem
Wunſche und ihrer Laune ſich fügt, dann ſtellen ſich zu rechter Zeit der
Weinkrampf oder die Migräne ein, um das unerquickliche Bild vollends
abzuſchließen.
Aber auch ihr haben einſt beſſere Tage geleuchtet, auch ſie hat die
Liebe gekannt, ſelbſtverſtändlich im keuſchen Sinne, aber derjenige, für
welchen einſt ihr Herz geglüht hat, dem ſie mit ihrer ganzen Seele ſich
zu weihen, dem ſie gänzlich und für das ganze Leben anzugehören bereit
war, der hat ſie nicht verſtanden; er hat eine andere gefreit, die ihn,
wie ſie annimmt, niemals glücklich zu machen imſtande iſt. Noch mehr
mals in ihrem Leben fand ſie Männer, denen ſie mit gleicher Inbrunſt
der Liebe zu begegnen bereit war. Aber trotzdem ihr Liebeswerben nun
ſchon an Deutlichkeit nicht mehr viel zu wünſchen übrig ließ, iſt ſie
von der gefühlloſen Männerwelt dennoch wieder unverſtanden geblieben.
So iſt ſie allmählich mit der Welt zerfallen und hat ſich in ſich ſelbſt
zurückgezogen. Nur einen noch hat ſie, dem ihr Herz gehört, von dem
ſie alle Launen erträgt, in deſſen treuverſchwiegenen Buſen ſie all ihr
Leid und all ihren Harm ausſchüttet, der ebenſo feindſelig der Welt
gegenüberſteht wie ſie ſelber, das iſt ihr treuer Zimmer- und Bettgenoß,
ihr Schoßhund. Mit ihm ſitzt die verblühte Roſe einſam hinter dem
Epheugitter, das ihr Fenſter ſchmückt, und gedenkt mit ſtiller Wehmut
der Tage, da ſie noch ein friſches Knöspchen war.

The old maid psychologically.
Who does not know them, the so often described phenomenon, the “late
Girls “with the sharp-edged contours of the Kopfnicker
muscles on the neck, with the “goose feet” on the temples and with
the thin, somewhat pale lips. An eternal shy fish
Smiles play around her features, languishing looks of longing shoot her
after the gentlemen with whom she meets, but well understood only
after the men in more mature years and here only after
the unmarried, the widowed or the divorced. Always
is her suit dainty and chosen, always play colorful and bright colors
a great part in this, especially those which are after the ordinary ones
In terms of aesthetic color theory, they belong little or not at all.
Nor is it lacking in striking draperies, such as at most of girls on the so charming transition from the
Children are born to the Virgin. Does it require the custom, with ent
Her shoulders were showing off her shoulders, so her dress is much shorter at the top
as those of the other unmarried ladies. She can out
anatomical reasons appear deeper cut than the fresh ones
Girl shapes around her, but without the men therefore
to reveal more. Is music played in the sociable associations,
then she is one of the first who already owns something bad
Sounding metal music. “Only who love
knows, knows what I’m suffering! “This and similar effusions unsatisfied
Longing form her repertoire. But the eternally cheerful sky
on her face is only an apparent one. The keen observer
do not miss the flashes, which wince their play when
the ever incomprehensible male world turns away from her to join in
to engage the young ladies in conversation, “the pure children,”
as she expresses herself, where it is incomprehensible to her, like wise men
the conversations of such 18- to 25-year-old stupid things taste
find and disregard them yourself.
However, to the terrible thunderstorm this weather light will be in the
domesticity; nothing is her right, no one understands her, everyone feels
she is offended and insulted. But she herself has for everyone present
a pointed remark, every absent one seeks to suspect her, or
V. The old maid. 237
to say something bad to him, if not everything after her
Desires and their mood adds, then put in the right time the
Spasmodic or migraine to the unpleasant picture completely
complete.
But you have once shone better days, she has the
Love, of course, in the chaste sense, but the one, for
which once her heart has glowed, which she herself with all her soul
to consecrate to whom she is willing to belong wholeheartedly and for the whole life
he did not understand her; he has given another to him,
as she assumes, never able to make happy. Even more
In her life she found men to whom she had equal fervor
willing to meet love. But still her courtship now
she has not left much to be desired in terms of clarity
yet again misunderstood by the callous men’s world.
So it has gradually disintegrated with the world and has become in itself
withdrawn. Only one still, to whom her heart belongs, of the
she endures all whims, in whose faithful bosom all her
Suffering and all its harm, the equally hostile to the world
as she herself, this is her faithful room and Bettgenoß,
her pet dog. With him the faded rose sits lonely behind the
Epaulic litter adorning her window, remembering with quiet melancholy
the days when she was still a fresh boy.

Die arme alte Jungfer! Wieviel wird über ſie geſpöttelt, und man
vergißt dabei vollſtändig, wieviel Schmerz und Herzeleid und wieviel
getäuſchte Hoffnung dieſe Furchen in ihrem Antlitze ziehen halfen.
Aber wir müſſen es zum Ruhme des weiblichen Geſchlechts hervor
heben, daß das ſoeben entrollte Bild doch nur auf einen ſehr kleinen
Teil der eheloſen Jungfrauen paßt. Bei weitem die Mehrzahl hat es
verſtanden, ſich rechtzeitig klar zu machen, daß es für das Lebensglück
des Weibes in noch viel höherem Grade als für den Mann notwendig
iſt, einen Wirkungskreis und einen Lebensberuf zu haben. So findet
man ſie oft als die Lehrerinnen der Jugend, als die Pflegerinnen der
alternden Eltern, oder endlich, und nicht am ſeltenſten, als die treue
Stütze im Haushalte der verheirateten Geſchwiſter. Wieviel Segen ſie
hier ſtiften, wieviel Entſagung ſie üben und wieviel Liebe ſie ſäen, davon wiſſen beſonders die Ärzte zu erzählen, welche bis in das geheimſte
Innerſte der Familie zu blicken die Gelegenheit haben. Wenn der Anſchein
nicht trügt, ſo hat der Stand der alten Jungfern in den letzten Jahrzehnten
erheblich an Anzahl zugenommen. Die unverhältnismäßige Steigerung aller
Lebensbedürfniſſe muß nicht zum geringſten Teile hierfür verantwortlich
238 Die Liebe.
gemacht werden. Aber auch die heutige Erziehnng der weiblichen Jugend, welche vielleicht mehr wie gebührlich auf das Äußerliche gerichtet iſt und den
Sinn für eine rechte Häuslichkeit zu ſpät dem Mädchen zum Bewußtſein
kommen läßt, kann doch wohl nicht vollſtändig von der Schuld an dieſen
unnatürlichen Verhältniſſen freigeſprochen werden.
Ebendaſ. S. 533–535.
5.
Betrachtet jetzt die Mädchen, die unverheiratet alt geworden ſind;
unterſucht ihr Äußeres und ihr Inneres, ihre guten und ſchlechten Eigen
ſchaften, ihr werdet immer auf einen Mangel ſtoßen und werdet der ver
heirateten Frau den Vorzug geben müſſen.
Die alte Jungfer iſt unduldſam, zänkiſch, immer bereit, jemand zu
verletzen, zu zerreißen; ſie iſt kleinlich, in ihren Handlungen ſelbſtſüchtig,
oft unbarmherzig gegen die Fehler anderer, neidiſch auf ein Glück, von
dem ſie ausgeſchloſſen iſt; traurig unter Seufzern verfließen ihre Tage.
Weder Rückſichtnahme noch Zuvorkommenheit, weder die Freuden der
Eitelkeit, noch die Annehmlichkeiten des Reichtums können ſie darüber
tröſten, daß ſie alte Jungfer iſt; ihr Charakter zeigt im Grunde eine
Härte, einen Neid und eine Bitterkeit, die die überzeugendſten Beweiſe
gegen die Eheloſigkeit und für die Ehe ſind.
Debay. Physiologie descriptive des trente beautés de la
femme. S. 245 u. 246.

The poor old maid! How much is sneered at her, and one
completely forgets how much pain and heartache and how much
deceived hope helped to draw these ruts in their countenance.
But we must make it to the glory of the female sex
lift that just unrolled picture but only on a very small
Part of the married virgins fits. By far the majority has it
understood, in time to make it clear that it is for the happiness of life
of the woman in a much greater degree than necessary for the husband
is to have a sphere of activity and a life profession. So finds
they are often called the teachers of the youth, the nurses of the
aging parents, or at last, and not least, than faithfulness
Support in households of married siblings. How much blessing you
Here donate, how much renunciation they practice and how much love they sow, of which especially the doctors tell, which up to the most secret
In the heart of the family to have the opportunity to look. If the appearance
not deceiving, so has the state of the old maids in recent decades
considerably increased in number. The disproportionate increase of all
Life needs must not be responsible for the slightest part of this
238 The love.
be made. But also today’s education of the female youth, which is perhaps more properly directed to the external and the
Sense of a right domesticity too late for the girl to consciousness
can not come completely from the blame for this
unnatural circumstances are acquitted.
Ebendas. Pp. 533-535.
5th
Now consider the girls who have grown old unmarried;
examines her appearance and her interior, her good and bad qualities
You will always encounter a defect and become the ver
married woman must give preference.
The old maid is intolerant, quarrelsome, always ready to somebody
hurt, tear; she is petty, selfish in her actions,
often ruthless against the mistakes of others, jealous of happiness, of
she is excluded; sad with sighs flow their days.
Neither consideration nor courtesy, neither the joys of
Vanity, nor the amenities of wealth they can do about it
comfort that she is old maid; her character basically shows one
Hardness, an envy and a bitterness, the most convincing proofs
against celibacy and for marriage.
Debay. Physiology descriptive des trente beautés de la
femme. P. 245 and 246th

Bektashi (Google Books)

Alevism-Bektashism: a brief introduction
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Ali Yaman, ‎Aykan Erdemir – 2006 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Bulgaristan’da Alevi-Bektaşi kültürü – Page 299
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Li︠u︡bomir Mikov, ‎Orlin Sŭbev – 2008 – ‎Snippet view
S. S. Bobchev, Bulgaristan Kızılbaşlarından birinin, tavşanın Hz. Ali’nin kedisi olduğu ve dolayısıyla Kızılbaşların Hz. Ali’ye duydukları saygıdan bu hayvanın etini yemedikleri doğrultusundaki açıklamayı dile getirmektedir.’2′ A. Degrand, buna …
Ansiklopedik Alevilik-Bektaşilik terimleri sözlüğü – Page 100
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Esat Korkmaz – 2005 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Yine Battal Gazi, Aşkar adlı atını, bir süre için aslana emanet eder; Hıristiyan beyinin kızı erkek kılığında karşısına çıktığı zaman, ne denli güçlü olduğunu göstermek için bir aslanı elinde kedi gibi taşır. Benzer bir durum Hacı Bektaş Veli için de …
Günümüz Alevi, Bektaşi, Mevlevi, Nusayri: inanç ve toplum … – Page 102
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Ayhan Aydın – 2006 – ‎Snippet view
Politik olarak, siz her Alevi köyünde belki yatırım yapamazsınız. Hep Mevlâna, şu, bu diyorsunuz, buraya da bir taş … taraf dökülmüş, damlar çökmüş, kediler, köpekler yavrulamış, harabeydi. 60 yılına kadar, dernek olarak yürüttük. Vakıflardan …
Aydınlar, kanaat önderleri, sanatçılarla Alevilik-Bektaşilik söyleşileri
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Ayhan Aydın – 2009 – ‎Snippet view
Alevilikle ilgili resimler içinde en sevdiğinin deve üzerinde kendi tabutunu götüren Hz. Ali figürü olduğunu söyleyen İrene MelikofFun yanından ayrılmayan bir İran kedisi de var. Çiçekler, tablolar, kitaplar, biblolarla MelikofFun evi bir müzeyi …
Osmanlı arşivi’nde, Mühimme ve İrâde Defterleri’nde, … – Page 47
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Cemal Şener – 2002 – ‎Snippet view
… taht-ı kazânızda karye-i îmâr’dan Ercüment nâm kimesne, Bir sureti: Dahi müşârün-ilcy kara Kadısına sen ki kadısın su- ret-i sicil gönderüb taht-ı kazânızda karye-i Kara- kedi’den Halil nâmkimesne BELGE: BOA – Mühimme Defteri, cilt: 12, s.
Ağaçeri Türkmenleri: Tahtacılar – Page 324
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Ali Selçuk – 2008 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Bütün Alevi-Bektaşi- lerde tavşanın tabu kabul edilmesi ve etinin yenmemesi hakkındaki anlatımlar arasında benzerlikler … Bunun yanı sıra Nevşehir yöresi Bektaşileri ile Balkanlardaki Aleviler tavşanı Hz. Ali’nin kedisi olarak kabul ederler, …
The Saintly Exploits of Haci Bektaş Veli “Velâyetname”: Manâkib-i …
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Hacı Bektaş Veli – 2006 – ‎No preview
Managing Invisibility: Dissimulation and Identity Maintenance among …
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Hande Sözer – 2014 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The data for the book was gathered during 18 months of fieldwork in both settings.
İnançları Uğruna Öldürülenler: İnançları uğruna öldürülenaydınlar …
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Vecihi Timuroğlu – 2016 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Ölümünden sonra, Aleviler, Bektaşiler, Bayramilerin Melami kolu ve Mevlevilerin Şems kolları arasında, yaşamı … Hazreti Ali, kedi cesedini taşıyan deveyi çeker, Medine’nin her yolundan içeri giren Ali’yi deveyi çekerken gördüklerini söyler.

Alevism-Bektashism: a brief introduction
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The Alevi-Bektashi culture in Bulgaria – Page 299
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Li viewuippbomir Mikov, Orlin S Orbev – 2008 – Snippet view
S. S. Bobchev, one of the Bulgarian Kizilbash, the rabbit of the Prophet. Ali ‘s cat and therefore the Kizilbari Hz. He expresses his admiration for Ali that they do not eat the flesh of this animal.
Glossary of the terms Encyclopedic Alawism – Bektashism – Page 100
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Esat Korkmaz – 2005 – Snippet view – More editions
He also entrusts his horse named Battal Gazi and Aşkar to a lion for a while; When the daughter of the Christian brain appears before him as a man, he carries a lion as a cat to show how strong he is. A similar situation for Hacı Bektaş Veli …
Contemporary Alevi, Bektashi, Mevlevi, Nusayri: faith and society … – Page 102
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Ayhan Aydın – 2006 – Snippet view
Politically, you cannot invest in every Alevi village. Mevlana, that, you say, this is a stone, here, the side of the … Until the year 60, we conducted it as an association. Foundations …
Alevi-Bektashism interviews with intellectuals, opinion leaders and artists
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Ayhan Aydın – 2009 – Snippet view
In pictures about Alevism Hz. There is also an Iranian cat who doesn’t leave Irene MelikofFun who says that he is the figure of Ali. MelikofFun house is a museum with flowers, paintings, books, …
In the Ottoman Archives, Mühimme and the Books, – – Page 47
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Cemal Şener – 2002 – Snippet view
… from the karye-i îmâr’dan Ercüment nâm kimesne, a copy of the throne: I am the genius of the gospel of the gospel of the gospel of the gospel of the woman, the wife of the wife of the karye-i Khalal nâmkimesne DOCUMENT: BOA – English Book, Volume: 12, p.
Turkoman Turkomans: Tahtacılar – Page 324
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Ali Selcuk – 2008 – Snippet view – More editions
The similarities between the narrative of the rabbits in all the Alevi-Bektashis and the statements about not eating the meat ehir Beside the Bektashis in the Nevşehir region and the Alawis rabbit in the Balkans. They accept Ali’s cat,
The Saintly Exploits of Haci Bektaş Veli “Velâyetn”: Manâkib-i …
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Hacı Bektaş Veli – 2006 – No preview
Managing Invisibility: Dissimulation and Identity Maintenance …
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Hande Sözer – 2014 – Preview – More editions
The data for the book.
Those who were killed for their beliefs:
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Vecihi Timuroğlu – 2016 – Preview – More editions
After his death, Alawites, Bektashis, the Melami branch of the Feasts and the life of the sems of the Mevlevi Shams, Hazrat Ali, pulls a camel carrying the cat’s body, Ali, all the way through the Medina came to say they saw when shooting a camel.

The Middle East & the Balkans Under the Ottoman Empire: Essays on …
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Halil İnalcık – 1993 – ‎Snippet view
Portraits of the Famous and Infamous: Australia, New Zealand, and …
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Rex Nan Kivell, ‎Sydney A. Spence – 1974 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
The 1st International Symposium on Bektashism and Alevism: – Page 91
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2005 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Neden bu noktaya gelindi. Fütuhat ve yükselme devrinde aynı saflarda yer almış zümreler arasına sonralan neden kara kedi girdi. Mesele oldukça … Alevi-Bektaşi dünyasında “tasavvuf en belirgin çizgilerden biridir. Ama tasavvuf anlayışları da …
In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele
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Lynn E. Roller – 1999 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
This is the first thorough account of the nature and the spread of the cult of Cybele, the Great Mother, and the first to present her worship soberly as a religion rather than sensationally as an orgiastic celebration of self-castrated …
Islam in Anatolia After the Turkish Invasion: (prolegomena)
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Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, ‎Gary Leiser – 1993 – ‎Snippet view
A translation of the 1992 Turkish monograph, subtitled A Review of the Religious History of Anatolia after the Turkish Invasion and Sources for this History.
The Collective Dimension of Freedom of Religion: A Case Study on Turkey
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Mine Yıldırım – 2017 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
This book explores the notion of the collective dimension of freedom of religion or belief with a view to advance the protection of this right.
Kültür tarihimizde gizli diller ve şifreler – Page 155
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Emine Gürsoy-Naskali, ‎Erdal Şahin – 2008 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Ancak, kutlu bir hayvan olarak görülmeyip tam tersine, Muaviye’nin kedisi olarak nitelenip uğursuzluğun simgesi sayılır. – 3. … Dolayısıyla, Alevi-Bektaşi Türk topluluğunun çok rahatlıkla gizli dil sınırları içerisinde değerlendirilebilecek kavram, …
Understanding and Influencing Public Support for Insurgency and …
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Paul K. Davis, ‎Eric V. Larson, ‎Zachary Haldeman – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Using and testing a conceptual model that draws on social science and particularly social movement theory, this volume examines public support for al-Qa’ida’s transnational jihadist movement, the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan, the …
After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam
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Lesley Hazleton – 2009 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
In this gripping narrative history, Lesley Hazleton tells the tragic story at the heart of the ongoing rivalry between the Sunni and Shia branches of Islam, a rift that dominates the news now more than ever.
Alevi Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives : Papers …
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Tord Olsson, ‎Elisabeth Özdalga, ‎Catharina Raudvere – 1998 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
Alawites; cultural, religious and social perspectives.

The Middle East & the Balkans Under the Ottoman Empire: Essays on …
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Halil Inalcik – 1993 – Snippet view
Portraits of the Famous and Infamous in Australia, New Zealand, and …
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Rex Nan Kivell, Sydney A. Spence – 1974 – No preview – More editions
The 1st International Symposium on Bektashism and Alevism: – Page 91
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2005 – Snippet view – More editions
Why is this point reached? In the period of Fütuhat and ascension, the black cat entered the same ranks. The issue is quite … In the Alevi-Bektashi world “sufism is one of the most prominent lines. But the concept of sufism …
God of Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele
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Lynn E. Roller – 1999 – Preview – More editions
This is the first time we’re in New York!
Invocation of Islam in Anatolia (prolegomena)
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Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Gary Leiser – 1993 – Snippet view
A translation of the 1992 Turkish monograph, subtitled A History of Anatolia
The Collective Dimension of Freedom of Religion: A Case Study on Turkey
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1315535769

Mine Yıldırım – 2017 – Preview – More editions
This is a book.
Secret languages ​​and passwords in our cultural history – Page 155
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Emine Gürsoy-Naskali, Erdal Şahin – 2008 – Snippet view – More editions
However, he is not seen as a blessed animal, but on the contrary, he is considered to be Muaviye’s cat and is considered the symbol of bad luck. – 3 … Therefore, the concept of Alevi-Bektashi Turkish community which can be evaluated within the limits of secret language very easily …
Public Support for Insurgency and …
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Paul K. Davis, Eric V. Larson, Zachary Haldeman – 2012 – Preview – More editions
The concept of social responsibility theory, the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan, the …
After the Prophet: The Epic
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Lesley Hazleton – 2009 – Preview – More editions
In this gripping narrative history, Lesley Hazleton tells the tragic story of the Sunni and Shia branches of Islam.
Alevi Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0700710876

Tord Olsson, Elisabeth Özdalga, Catharina Raudvere – 1998 – No preview – More editions
Alawites; cultural, religious and social perspectives.

Ansiklopedik Alevilik-Bektaşilik terimleri sözlüğü – Page 100
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Esat Korkmaz – 2005 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Yine Battal Gazi, Aşkar adlı atını, bir süre için aslana emanet eder; Hıristiyan beyinin kızı erkek kılığında karşısına çıktığı zaman, ne denli güçlü olduğunu göstermek için bir aslanı elinde kedi gibi taşır. Benzer bir durum Hacı Bektaş Veli için de …
Aydınlar, kanaat önderleri, sanatçılarla Alevilik-Bektaşilik söyleşileri
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Ayhan Aydın – 2009 – ‎Snippet view
Alevilikle ilgili resimler içinde en sevdiğinin deve üzerinde kendi tabutunu götüren Hz. Ali figürü olduğunu söyleyen İrene MelikofFun yanından ayrılmayan bir İran kedisi de var. Çiçekler, tablolar, kitaplar, biblolarla MelikofFun evi bir müzeyi …
Türk edebiyatında Bektaşi tipine bağlı fıkralar: (inceleme-metin)
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Dursun Yıldırım – 1976 – ‎Snippet view
Buyrun, arzu ederseniz siz de demlenin, yalnız bana dokunmayın. Bakmış, fârelerden söz dinleyen yok : — Hay Allah kahretsin, demiş. Bektaşi olacağıma keşke kedi olsaydım. Sizin bir okka samanınızdan otuz OKka dumanınızdan çıkarırdım.
Bektaşi kiz – Page 21
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Niyazi Ahmet Banoğlu – 1945 – ‎Snippet view
Beni erkek olerak da Bektaşi yaptılar. Bu merasimi anlatmak çok uzun. O gece benim şerefime eğlenildi- Ama ne, … Babanın önünde süt dökmüş- :kedi gibi el pençe duruyordu. Gelenler, sık sık beni süzüyorlardı. Büyük bir sofra hazırlandı.
Osmanlı arşivi’nde, Mühimme ve İrâde Defterleri’nde, … – Page 47
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Cemal Şener – 2002 – ‎Snippet view
… taht-ı kazânızda karye-i îmâr’dan Ercüment nâm kimesne, Bir sureti: Dahi müşârün-ilcy kara Kadısına sen ki kadısın su- ret-i sicil gönderüb taht-ı kazânızda karye-i Kara- kedi’den Halil nâmkimesne BELGE: BOA – Mühimme Defteri, cilt: 12, s.
Bulgaristan’da Alevi-Bektaşi kültürü – Page 299
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Li︠u︡bomir Mikov, ‎Orlin Sŭbev – 2008 – ‎Snippet view
S. S. Bobchev, Bulgaristan Kızılbaşlarından birinin, tavşanın Hz. Ali’nin kedisi olduğu ve dolayısıyla Kızılbaşların Hz. Ali’ye duydukları saygıdan bu hayvanın etini yemedikleri doğrultusundaki açıklamayı dile getirmektedir.’2’ A. Degrand, buna …
Portraits of the Famous and Infamous: Australia, New Zealand, and …
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Rex Nan Kivell, ‎Sydney A. Spence – 1974 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
Günümüz Alevi, Bektaşi, Mevlevi, Nusayri: inanç ve toplum … – Page 102
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Ayhan Aydın – 2006 – ‎Snippet view
… taraf dökülmüş, damlar çökmüş, kediler, köpekler yavrulamış, harabeydi. 60 yılına kadar, dernek olarak yürüttük. Vakıflardan her sene biraz para kopararak, bazı restorasyonlarla eski havasına, eski haline dönüştürmeye çalıştık. Tabii bu …
Uluslararası Anadolu İnançları Kongresi bildirileri: 23-28 Ekim 2000 …
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2000 – ‎Snippet view
Kara kedi insanın önüne çıkarsa işlerin ters gideceğine inanıldığından dolayı kedinin önden geçmemesi için gidilen yol … Bektaşiler Budizm’deki tenasuh inancından etkilenerek yeniden dünyaya gelecek olan insanlar bir tavşan veya yılan …
Kediler krallara bakabilir – Page 90
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Enis Batur – 1990 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
duvarlara bektaşi levhaları asılır, yerlere fırdolayı hasır dö- şenirdi. Tavandan peykelerin hizasına kadar inen camların önü çiçek saksıları, bilhassa fesleğenlerle donatılırdı. Kahvehanenin ortasında daima, etrafı saksılarla süslü bir havuz ve …

Glossary of the terms Encyclopedic Alawism – Bektashism – Page 100
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Esat Korkmaz – 2005 – Snippet view – More editions
He also entrusts his horse named Battal Gazi and Aşkar to a lion for a while; When the daughter of the Christian brain appears before him as a man, he carries a lion as a cat to show how strong he is. A similar situation for Hacı Bektaş Veli …
Alevi-Bektashism interviews with intellectuals, opinion leaders and artists
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Ayhan Aydın – 2009 – Snippet view
In pictures about Alevism Hz. There is also an Iranian cat who doesn’t leave Irene MelikofFun who says that he is the figure of Ali. MelikofFun house is a museum with flowers, paintings, books, …
The items related to the type of Bektashi in Turkish literature: (review-text)
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Dursun Yıldırım – 1976 – Snippet view
Come on, if you want to brew yourself, do not touch me alone. He looked, the listeners do not listen to say: – Hay Allah damn, he said. If I were a cat I’d be a goose. I would take you out of your okka straw from your smoke.
Bektashi girl – Page 21
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Niyazi Ahmet Banoglu – 1945 – Snippet view
They made me a man, and they made Bektashi. It’s too long to tell this ceremony. But what, … he poured milk in front of your father–: he was standing with claws like cats. The people who came in often were watching me. A large table was prepared.
In the Ottoman Archives, Mühimme and the Books, – – Page 47
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Cemal Şener – 2002 – Snippet view
… from the karye-i îmâr’dan Ercüment nâm kimesne, a copy of the throne: I am the genius of the gospel of the gospel of the gospel of the gospel of the woman, the wife of the wife of the karye-i Khalal nâmkimesne DOCUMENT: BOA – English Book, Volume: 12, p.
The Alevi-Bektashi culture in Bulgaria – Page 299
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Li viewuippbomir Mikov, Orlin S Orbev – 2008 – Snippet view
S. S. Bobchev, one of the Bulgarian Kizilbash, the rabbit of the Prophet. Ali ‘s cat and therefore the Kizilbari Hz. He expresses his admiration for Ali that they do not eat the flesh of this animal.
Portraits of the Famous and Infamous in Australia, New Zealand, and …
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Rex Nan Kivell, Sydney A. Spence – 1974 – No preview – More editions
Contemporary Alevi, Bektashi, Mevlevi, Nusayri: faith and society … – Page 102
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Ayhan Aydın – 2006 – Snippet view
… the sides were poured, drips collapsed, cats, dogs fry, ruined. Until the year 60, we conducted it as an association. Every year from the foundations, we tried to make some money and transform them into the old atmosphere with some restorations. That’s …
International Congress of Anatolian Beliefs: 23-28 October 2000 …
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2000 – Snippet view
When the black cat comes out in front of people, it is believed that things will go wrong.
Cats can look at kings – Page 90
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Enis Batur – 1990 – Snippet view – More editions
goose slabs were hung on the walls, places were straw in the oven. The flower pots on the front of the windows descending from the ceiling to the level of the corners were equipped with basins. In the middle of the coffee shop, there’s always a pool and a pool …

Kediler – Page 176
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Salâh Birsel – 1988 – ‎Snippet view
Çiçeği de Bektaşi Babası Hüsnü Beymiş. Çevresindekilere boyuna gülle gibi nükteler fırlatırmış. Okumadığı kitap da yok gibiymiş. Kahvenin bir yüzü de bir avluya açılır. Orda da sol kolda, elmasiyesiyle ünlü Şükran Lokantası İzmirlilerin ayak …
14000+ Estonian – Turkish Turkish – Estonian Vocabulary
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Gilad Soffer – Preview
… sazan karske kanaatkâr karskus kaçınma kartus endişe karusmari bektaşi üzümü karusnahk kürk karvane kıllı karvane kıllı kas olup olmadığını kasin kanaatkâr kask huşağacı kass kedi kassasse çıkış kassett kartuş kast kutu kaste pansuman …
Managing Invisibility: Dissimulation and Identity Maintenance among …
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Hande Sözer – 2014 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The data for the book was gathered during 18 months of fieldwork in both settings.
Toplumsal tarih – Issues 121-124
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2004 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Osmanlı resim sanatında kedi portreleri Aynı resmin tümüyle aynı bir başka kopyasının daha aynı albümde bulunması, … ederek avlamayı sevmeleri gibi özellikleri anlatılmasına rağmen ressam onları giydiği başlıktan bir Bektaşi olduğunu …
Bizim Bahçe Sayı: 158 / Ekim 2018 – İki Karpuz Bir Koltuğa Sığmaz
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Preview
-O kedi korkmuş belli, acıkmış da olabilir. … Bir kap çıkarıp süt döktü, küçük kedi hemen pembe tatlı dilini süte daldırıp çıkarmaya başlamıştı bile. – Sadece o … Bu hafta arkadaşlarıma Hacı Bektaşi Veli hazretlerini anlatmak için hazırlanıyordum.
Nazım Pasa’nın anıları: – Page 41
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Nazım Paşa – 1992 – ‎Snippet view
Bektaşi, desteği, münasebetsizliğine merak etmiş çalışmış, çabalamış yerinden koparmış. … cari bu gir ü dar Hakikatine bürhan-ı mücessem olarak bir yağmur, o münasebetle evde bir kaç ufacık göl ve hususiyle bir de tekir kedi peyda oldu.
The 1st International Symposium on Bektashism and Alevism: – Page 91
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2005 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Neden bu noktaya gelindi. Fütuhat ve yükselme devrinde aynı saflarda yer almış zümreler arasına sonralan neden kara kedi girdi. Mesele oldukça … Alevi-Bektaşi dünyasında “tasavvuf en belirgin çizgilerden biridir. Ama tasavvuf anlayışları da …
In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0520210247

Lynn E. Roller – 1999 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
This is the first thorough account of the nature and the spread of the cult of Cybele, the Great Mother, and the first to present her worship soberly as a religion rather than sensationally as an orgiastic celebration of self-castrated …
Türk folklor araştırmaları – Volume 14 – Page 6439
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İhsan Hinçer – 1972 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Keza “Muaviye Mel’ûnun kedisi”diye tavşanı Şî’a mensuplarının sevmedikleri, bir de Şâh-ı Vilâyet Hazret-i Alî’nin atını ürkütmüş olarak da suçlandırıldığını duydum. Ibn-i Batuta, Sinob’da (ki … Jacob: Bektaşilik, s: 37). Alevîler Hz. Alî’nin …
Alamut’un Efendisi Hasan Sabbah ve Haşhaşiler
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Kursad Berkkan – Preview
… 2010 Büyük Kulaklar(Casusluk – İstihbarat Örgütleri), Berkay Sadi Türkol, Kariyer Yayınları, 2010 Mason Bektaşiler( … Kariyer Yayınları, 2010 Mozart ve Gizli Örgütler, Helmut Reinalter, Kırmızı Kedi Yayınevi, Çeviri: Filiz Karahasanoğlu, …

Cats – Page 176
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Salâh Birsel – 1988 – Snippet view
His father Hüsnü Beymiş in blossom. He throws wisps around his neck like laughs. There was no book he didn’t read. One side of the coffee opens into a courtyard. In the left arm, there is also the famous Şükran Restaurant.
14000+ Estonian – Turkish Turkish – Estonian Vocabulary
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Gilad Soffer – Preview
… carp counterfeit carnage avoidance eagle worries carous gooseberry karusnahk fur carivia hairy carvane hairy muscles whether or not muscular abusive helmet birch kass cat kassasse exit kassett cartridge caste box kaste dressing …
Managing Invisibility: Dissimulation and Identity Maintenance …
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Hande Sözer – 2014 – Preview – More editions
The data for the book.
Social history – Issues 121-124
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2004 – Snippet view – More editions
The portraits of the cat in Ottoman art The same picture is exactly the same as another copy of the same album, while loving to tell the features such as love, although the artist is wearing a Bektashi is the title …
Our Garden Number: 158 / October 2018 – Two Watermelons Seize a Seat
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Preview
– The cat is scared, and he’s hungry. … he took out a pot and poured milk, the little cat was already starting to take his pink sweet tongue out of the milk. – Only he … This week I was preparing to tell my companions Haji Bektashi Veli.
Memories of Nazım Pasa: – Page 41
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Nazım Paşa – 1992 – Snippet view
Bektashi was curious about his support and his lack of interest. … this current entry in the narrow truth of the bürhan-ı mushroom as a rain, at that time a few teeny lakes in the house and a tabby cat in the eyes was very popular.
The 1st International Symposium on Bektashism and Alevism: – Page 91
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2005 – Snippet view – More editions
Why is this point reached? In the period of Fütuhat and ascension, the black cat entered the same ranks. The issue is quite … In the Alevi-Bektashi world “sufism is one of the most prominent lines. But the concept of sufism …
God of Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0520210247

Lynn E. Roller – 1999 – Preview – More editions
This is the first time we’re in New York!
Turkish folklore studies – Volume 14 – Page 6439
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İhsan Hinçer – 1972 – Snippet view – More editions
I also heard that the “Muaviye Mel’ûnun cat” was accused of not liking the members of the rabbit Şî as well as the scourge of the horse of Shah-e-Al-Fitr. Ibn-i Batuta, in Sinob (which is … Jacob: Bektashism, p. 37). Alevi Hz. Alî’s …
The Lord of Alamut Hasan Sabbah and Haşhaşiler
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Kursad Berkkan – Preview
… 2010 Great Ears (Espionage – Intelligence Organizations), Berkay Sadi Türkol, Career Publications, 2010 Mason Bektashis (… Career Publications, 2010 Mozart and Secret Organizations, Helmut Reinalter, Red Cat Publishing, Translated: Filiz Karahasanoğlu, .. .

İnançları Uğruna Öldürülenler: İnançları uğruna öldürülenaydınlar …
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Vecihi Timuroğlu – 2016 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Ölümünden sonra, Aleviler, Bektaşiler, Bayramilerin Melami kolu ve Mevlevilerin Şems kolları arasında, yaşamı … Hazreti Ali, kedi cesedini taşıyan deveyi çeker, Medine’nin her yolundan içeri giren Ali’yi deveyi çekerken gördüklerini söyler.
Bilgelik ve Hikmet Yolcusuna Nükteler
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Mehmet Akbulut – 2015 – ‎Preview
Yüreklere su serpen cevap, Bektaşi’den gelmiş: – Hiç üzülme, onu da ben yakaladım! Eşek Nasıl Gidiyor? rastlamış. Onunla alay etmek için, – Eşek … Kedi Yutmalısın Bir ahmak, doktora gitmiş. – Karnıma fındık faresi. Bir Bektaşî nasıl olmuşsa …
Understanding and Influencing Public Support for Insurgency and …
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Paul K. Davis, ‎Eric V. Larson, ‎Zachary Haldeman – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Using and testing a conceptual model that draws on social science and particularly social movement theory, this volume examines public support for al-Qa’ida’s transnational jihadist movement, the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan, the …
Doğumunun 50., yazı hayatının 30. yılı münasebetiyle hocam Prof. Dr. …
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Ali Berat Alptekin, ‎Saim Sakaoğlu – 1989 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… Nasreddin Hoca’ ya bağlı bir fıkra olarak anlatılmasını sayabiliriz : “Bu kedi ise et nerede, bu et ise kedi nerede?” (9) Bu açıdan incelediğimiz zaman Nasreddin Hoca fıkraları Ebu’n-Nevas, Cuhâ, bektaşi, İncili çavuş, molla, köylü, adamın biri, …
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1984 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… bir hikâyenin Nasreddin Hoca’ya bağlı bir fıkra olarak anlatılmasını sayabiliriz : «Bu kedi ise et nerede, bu et ise kedi … Keza bektaşi fıkraları de Ebu’n-Nevas, İncili Çavuş, Karagöz, Nasreddin Hoca, vs. gibi fıkra tipleriyle karıştırılmaktadır.
Türk fıkraları ve Nasreddin Hoca – Page 15
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Saim Sakaoğlu – 1992 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… alan bir hikâyenin Nasreddin Hoca,ya bağlı bir fıkra olarak anlatılmasını sayabiliriz: “Bu kedi ise et nerede, bu et ise kedi nerede?” (9) Bu acıdan incelediğimiz zaman Nasreddin Hoca fıkraları Ebu,n- Nevvas, Cuhâ, bektaşi, İncili çavuş, molla, …
İlâhiyat Fakültesi mecmuasi: tarihî, içtimaî, dinî, felsefî
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İstanbul Üniversitesi. İlâhiyat Fakültesi – 1929 – ‎Snippet view
… ve Bektaşilerden başka bir tarzda te- leKki edilmektedir, bu kelime talaffuz edilebilir, yalnız Alinin kedisi olduğu için etini … Tahtacı Aleviliği arasına Çelebi kolu Aleviliğinin te’siratı ve Bektaşi nefesleri, kendilerine ilk muallim olan Halil efendi …
Ağaçeri Türkmenleri: Tahtacılar – Page 324
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Ali Selçuk – 2008 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Bütün Alevi-Bektaşi- lerde tavşanın tabu kabul edilmesi ve etinin yenmemesi hakkındaki anlatımlar arasında benzerlikler … Bunun yanı sıra Nevşehir yöresi Bektaşileri ile Balkanlardaki Aleviler tavşanı Hz. Ali’nin kedisi olarak kabul ederler, …
The Collective Dimension of Freedom of Religion: A Case Study on Turkey
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This book explores the notion of the collective dimension of freedom of religion or belief with a view to advance the protection of this right.
Şebinkarahisar I. Tarih ve Kültür Sempozyumu: 30 Haziran-1 Temmuz …
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Ali Çelik – 2000 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Kedi yalanırsa bu misafir gelecek demektir. Siyah kedinin birinin önünden geçmesi uğursuzluk sayılır. … İnan, Tarihte ve Bugün Şamanizm, Ankara 1972, s.64 46 Ahmet Yaşar Ocak,Alevi ve bektaşi İnançlarının İslam öncesi Temelleri. İstanbul …

Those who were killed for their beliefs:
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Vecihi Timuroğlu – 2016 – Preview – More editions
After his death, Alawites, Bektashis, the Melami branch of the Feasts and the life of the sems of the Mevlevi Shams, Hazrat Ali, pulls a camel carrying the cat’s body, Ali, all the way through the Medina came to say they saw when shooting a camel.
Wisdom and wisdom
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Mehmet Akbulut – 2015 – Preview
Su serpen answer to hearts, Bektashi came from: – Don’t worry, I caught him! How the Donkey Goes? He had come across. To make fun of him, – Donkey … Swallow a cat A dope, he’s gone to a doctor. – I’m nuts on my stomach. How could a Bektashi be …
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The concept of social responsibility theory, the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan, the …
50th anniversary of the birth, 30 years of writing life of my teacher. Dr. …
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Ali Berat Alptekin, Saim Sakaoglu – 1989 – Snippet view – More editions
… Nasreddin Hodja as a joke that can be described as: “This cat is where the meat, this meat is the cat?” (9) Nasreddin Hodja anecdotes when we examine this aspect Abu-Nevas, Juhu, gooseberry, sergeant, mullah, peasant, man, …
Folklore and ethnography research – Page 447
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1984 – Snippet view – More editions
… to tell a story as an anecdote to Nasreddin Hodja: “This cat is where the meat is, and this meat is the cat. Likewise, the gooseberry jokes are also known as Abu-Nevas, the Gospel Sergeant, Karagoz, Nasreddin Hoca, etc. It is mixed with clause types.
Turkish jokes and Nasreddin Hodja – Page 15
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Saim Sakaoğlu – 1992 – Snippet view – More editions
… a narrative of Nasreddin Hodja, or a joke. (9) When we examine this pain Nasreddin Hodja jokes Abu, n- Nevvas, Juhu, gooseberry, sergeant, mullah, …
Faculty of Theology Faculty: Historical, Religious, Religious, Philosophical
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Istanbul University. Faculty of Theology – 1929 – Snippet view
… and the Bektashis, they are used in a different way, this word can be dialed, only because the Alin is the cat of his flesh … Tahtacı Alevism between the Chalabi branch of Alevism te’irirat and the Bektashi breath, the first teacher of Halil Efendi …
Turkoman Turkomans: Tahtacılar – Page 324
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Ali Selcuk – 2008 – Snippet view – More editions
The similarities between the narrative of the rabbits in all the Alevi-Bektashis and the statements about not eating the meat ehir Beside the Bektashis in the Nevşehir region and the Alawis rabbit in the Balkans. They accept Ali’s cat,
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This is a book.
Şebinkarahisar I. History and Culture Symposium: 30 June-1 July …
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Ali Çelik – 2000 – Snippet view – More editions
If the cat lies, this means the guest will come. It’s bad luck for a black cat to walk in front of you. … Believe in History and Today Shamanism, Ankara 1972, p.64 46 Ahmet Yaşar Ocak, Pre-Islamic Foundations of Alevi and Gooseberry Beliefs. Istanbul …

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The Irish Reformation, Or the Alleged Conversion of the Irish Bishops …
By William Maziere BRADY
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under him the bishops of Kildare, Daly; of Leighlin, Cavenagh; of Ossory, Gafney; and, of Ferns, Devereux. Herle erroneously adds a bishop of Carlow, or Catherlagh, or, as written, most likely after some mis-pronunciation of the Irish word, “Coutheriewagh.” But there was no see of Carlow separate from that of Leighlin. In Cashel province, among the list of Catholic and confederate prelates, is the archbishop, by name Maurice Macgibbon, then in Spain “cum magno stipendio,” and, as it were, the head of the conspiracy. The bishops of Waterford (Patrick Walsh), of Ross (O’Herlihy), of Ardfert and Aghadoe (James Fitzmaurice), of Cork (either Landes, the Papal bishop, or Dixon, the Elizabethan bishop, who by some is said to have been deprived for Catholicism), of Emly (Maurice MacBrien), and of Killaloe (Malachy O’Molony) are likewise counted as Catholics and confederates. Walsh, of Waterford, and Fitzmaurice, of Ardfert, were both Marian bishops. In Tuam the Catholic and confederate prelates were the archbishop, the bishops of Clonfert and Elphin, of Mayo, Achonry, and Killala. Three of these were Marian prelates, namely, Bodkin, of Tuam; De Burgo, of Clonfert; and Eugene MacBreohan, of Mayo. The other bishops were O’Harte, of Achonry, and O’Gallagher, of Killala. It is mentioned of O’Gallagher that he was a follower of Mac William Burg, who in another part of this document is described as a particular enemy of England and a partner in the conspiracy. Bodkin’s intimacy with Clanrickarde, and his daily mass at Tuam, have been already noticed. In this “survey” Clanrickarde is called “addictissimus Catholicae religioni.” Another document, namely, the petition prepared in 1569 and brought to the Spanish King by Maurice MacGibbon, which Mr. Froude mentioned in his Hist. Eng., vol. x. 494-5, has been sharply criticised in the pages of the Contemporary Review, by a writer who charges Mr. Froude with having described mere names or titles as signatures, and with giving the titles of three archbishops instead of four. But the transcript, which this reviewer has obtained, is that of the copy or duplicate of the petition, not of the petition itself, which was in the hands of the Letter of Mr. Froude. 173 King’s confessor, as appears by the memorandum in the handwriting of Philip. The original petition was, no doubt, regularly signed, and, if preserved, would give the Christian names of the prelates. The memorandum made by the King upon the document laid before his council is evidently no answer to the original petition, although the reviewer seems to think it to be one; nor is there much difficulty in conjecturing the names of those who signed the petition. The twelve prelates whose names are given in this paper as those of persons devoted to the Papacy are Creagh, of Armagh; a Papal archbishop of Dublin, whose name as yet has not been found; Mac Gibbon, of Cashel; Bodkin, of Tuam; Walsh, of Meath; Leverous, of Kildare; Walsh, of Waterford; Landes, of Cork; Lacy, of Limerick; O’Herlihy, of Ross; and a bishop of Ossory, who seems to have been inserted in the list by mistake, for Gafney was a Protestant, and there was no Papal bishop of Ossory in that year. The petition to Philip and Herle’s “note” or “survey” contain no contradiction of the facts already detailed concerning the Irish bishops under the various sees. The arguments which have been urged against Mr. Froude’s view and that of the writer have not shaken Mr. Froude’s belief. As the attainment of historical truth is the chief end of all honest investigation, the acknowledgment of errors, if clearly pointed out, would no doubt be frankly made. Mr. Froude’s reply to the attacks which have been made upon him is given in the following letter, which he addressed to the author:

“MY DEAR SIR,

“Mr. Lee’s pamphlet on the conduct of the Irish bishops in the 16th century requires some notice from me; although, as the controversy is one in which I have little interest, and in which I took part but accidentally, what I have to say will be very short. I have given no opinion as to the claims of the present episcopate to the descent from St. Patrick. The observations, which I made, referred entirely to alleged conversions to the Reformation, or conformity, or submission, or however else the behaviour might be described, of the great body of the Irish hierarchy at the accession of Elizabeth. The condition of the country appeared to me to renderany such submission on the bishops’ part, if not impossible, yet in a high degree improbable. I had found no contemporary evidence, or evidence at all, which appeared to me to deserve attention, that the bishops had so submitted. I did not believe it, and when I was asked for my opinion I gave it as plainly as I could. I said that there was no record in the State Papers of any Marian prelate in Ireland, except the Archbishop of Dublin, having abjured the Pope and taken the oath to Elizabeth. I was mistaken. I had overlooked the Bishop of Leighlin. Two bishops, and not one, as I supposed, can be proved to have conformed; but whether one or two affects but very slightly the bearing of the question; while the conformity of this particular bishop would have borne out, had I observed it, only more completely the general grounds on which I found my opinion. The see of Leighlin was in the principality of the Earls of Ormond, the only Protestant noblemen in Ireland. Except in the English Pale, at Cork or Waterford, and in this one district, the Irish Catholic prelates had not only no inducement to forsake their religion—they had not only nothing to dread by refusing to abjure their allegiance to the see of Rome—but they would have exposed themselves gratuitously to the vengeance of their own people. Elizabeth could not have protected them, and they would either have been murdered or sent to Spain to the Inquisition.

“Dr. Lee appears—he must forgive me for saying so—illinformed of the secular state of Ireland at the period with which alone we are here concerned. He complains of me for saying that the English Government had no jurisdiction beyond the Pale. I did not mean, of course, that the English Queen claimed less than the allegiance of all the Irish people, but simply that English law did not exist beyond the Pale. The septs were governed by their own chiefs, under their own customs; and every attempt which was made by the Government to extend their authority remained, till the last quarter of the century, an absolute failure. Sir Edward Fitton was sent as president into Connaught; on his first circuit his train was dispersed; he was defeated in the field, and shut up in the fortress of Athlone, till his funds were exhausted, and the scheme was abandoned as hopeless.

Letter of Mr. Froude. 175

“Lord Sussex planted a garrison in Armagh Cathedral, and tried to reduce Shan O’Neil. Sussex was again defeated. Shan O’Neil was allowed to treat on equal terms with Elizabeth : he continued to the end of his life to defy her power, and was for several years the absolute sovereign of Ulster. In what condition was Elizabeth to force unwilling bishops to submit to her ecclesiastical authority in provinces where her sword was powerless?

“Dr. Lee selects, as an instance of my disposition to romance, a description of Ulster which he tells us that truth compels him to correct. Who, he asks, would have imagined that the country which I describe as in so wild a condition had been conquered a few years previously by Sir H. Sidney? I might answer that anybody would imagine it who had read what I had written. I have myself related Sir H. Sidney’s expedition in great detail. I gathered my conception of the state of the country chiefly from a narrative of that very expedition drawn up by a friend of Sidney’s who accompanied him, and who described it as ‘comparable only to Alexander’s journey to Bactria. Sidney marched through the country, laying it waste as he went—he left behind him O’Neil’s castles which he could not take. He went up by Armagh, he descended by Sligo, he left a garrison at Derry which was destroyed soon after by famine and disease. In a few months later the English held not an inch of ground in Ulster beyond the frontier of the Pale except the few acres within the lines of Carrickfergus, and this Dr. Lee calls a conquest.

“He finds occasionally that correspondents of the Government speak of the country as quiet; and he infers that in that case the Queen could have deposed a bishop if she had pleased; and whenever she did not, he concludes the bishop must have been obedient. If Dr. Lee will read carefully the dispatches of the Irish Council, of Sir William Fitzwilliam, of Lord Sussex, or Sir H. Sidney, or Sir Nicholas Arnold, he will find that the supposed quietness existed only for a few weeks after some violent English raid, when the Irish combinations had been dispersed, or more often when the English were sitting still doing nothing, in Arnold’s language, “not stirring sleepy dogs till they had a staff prepared to beat them with.’

“Dr. Lee quotes a passage from Dr. Lingard to shew how Elizabeth dealt with refractory bishops; but Ireland was not England. Elizabeth’s policy in Ireland was not her policy in England. When Essex went to Ulster in 1573, she told him ‘that he should not seek too hastily to bring people that had been trained in another religion from that in which they had been brought up.” [Lord Essex to Burghley. Wright’s Elizabeth and her Times, vol. i. p. 485.]

“In 1563 she even thought of removing Loftus from Armagh, and allowing Shan O’Neil to nominate another Primate more agreeable to himself and the people. [Instruction to Sir T. Cusack, August 7, 1563, MSS., Ireland. State Paper Office.]

“These arguments are presumptive merely, and will yield to positive evidence if positive evidence there is, and on the other side. I will not say that Dr. Lee has produced none at all. He has shewn that there was a tradition in the 17th century that the Irish Bishops had submitted, and that must pass for what it is worth. To me it seems worth but little in the absence of contemporary confirmation, while the silence of the State Papers —a silence utterly incomprehensible if we are to believe that the bishops became sincere converts to Protestantism, as some ardent controversialists have asserted—is a fact on the other side which Dr. Lee must attempt to explain. For it is not merely negative. Through the first two years of Elizabeth’s reign, there are incessant complaints, in the letters of the correspondents of the Government, as to the little progress which Protestantism was making without the Pale or within it. Is it conceivable that if the great body of the Prelates had been converted, as is pretended, and were making efforts to spread the Reformation, so remarkable a phenomenon should never have been alluded to. Dr. Lee, indeed, quotes a letter of Elizabeth, addressed in 1571 to the bishops of Ireland, and thanking them for their services in the late session of Parliament; but inasmuch as Elizabeth had at that time several bishops” of her own

* There were at that time eleven or twelve Elizabethan bishops in Ireland to whom, no doubt, and not to those “dumb dogs,’ the Marian prelates, her Majesty’s thanks were addressed. These Reformation bishops were Loftus, of Dublin; Brady, of Meath; Daly, of Kildare; J. Devereux, of Ferns; Gafney, of Ossory; Cavenagh, of Leighlin; Magrath, of Cashel; Lancaster, of Armagh; Merriman, of Down; Dixon, of Cork; Maurice O’Brien (although not consecrated), of Killaloe; and perhaps Casey and Campbell, of Limerick.

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1962 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 8 8 • d o o’ U. Above: Nikki – a malemut dog especially trained since the … (The ambassador, though his understanding of English syntax was impeccable, and his mastery of diplomatic meaning … be seen, attended by a sleepy team of estate workers, setting out excitedly with a string of ponies.
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1984 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
When the Elizabethan earl of Shrewsbury explosively reversed this trend — ‘You have wakened a sleepy dog’ … £24.00 Lawrence and Jeanne Stone define the English landed elite as the occupiers of country houses above a certain size.
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tell Tom hello’ ” — after which he would pass over the receiver for Tom to hear for himself the little woman’s sleepy, saintly squeaks. … Even dogs are playing the stock market these days, and only natural-born bums can lick the Government. … Kwimpers. inbred holdouts against every progressive movement since the Revolution (they spoke Elizabethan English until the school system caught up with them) …

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In Tudor times this tradition of the dog’s loyalty proved capable of wider extension. It was not a hound but a mastiff which saved the life of Elizabeth I’s master of the Armoury, Sir Henry Lee; he had it … thou art as weary as a dog, As angry, sick, and hungry as a dog, As dull and melancholy as a dog, As lazy, sleepy, idle as a …
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Robert Allen – 2008 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
But Shakespeare did not invent the phrase; it is found in earlier Elizabethan literature and collections of sayings, notably … and lazy; and ‘ifyou once give a dog a bad name’ –as the sailor-phrase is – ‘he may as welljump overboard’. go to the …
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Robert Hendrickson – 2000 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
dialect, though often humorous, is far morethan the caricature it has been made over the years by lazy, lanky, tobacco-chawin’ characters … who live in places like Dogpatch, Hog Heaven, Hardscrabble, Possum Hollow, Puckey-Huddle, Barely-Do and Hang Dog Creek. … Though pronunciation and vocabulary in mountain areas vary, the Elizabethan English of the highlanders is virtually the same from …
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1964 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
poodle or adored lap-dog show that it would be happier in the countryside rather than on its owner’s knee? On the contrary. These animals … In fact, they are lazy. Dogs should not be … AN article I have just read in the Sunday Times strikes me as being the perfect example of taking anti-Beatle-ism too far. The article tells the …
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“Ajax” was a pun on “jakes,” an Elizabethan word for a privy. … Shocked by the obscene and satirical contents, they indict the writer on ten charges, including laziness, the skewering of enemies, … as good members of our country, more worthily than the great Bear that carried eight dogs on him when Monsieur was here.
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Elizabethan Puritans, continuing one line of thought from Wiclifs … This passage represents July astronomically, and the reign of the Dog-star, Sirius, with the pestilences then abroad, … Morrell. Sicker6 thou’s but a lazy lourd,? And rekes much …
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1974 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
A New Statesman editor can look at a queen Elizabeth I A dancing, betting, racing, indispensable man Washington ( . I. The “Armada … Former lovers describe her as passive and lazy In bed. In any case, there will … Even her sympathy for underdogs is spurious, an indirect way of getting back at top-dogs. These underdogs …
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Ella March Chase – 2008 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
In her sweeping historical debut, Ella March Chase explores a thrilling possibility: that the Tudor bloodline did not end with the Virgin Queen.
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1944 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Nelson, $2.50. A spirited tale of Elizabethan England. … The north country, with its trappings of husky dogs, Hudson Bay posts, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. … Tra Walter the lazy mouse, by Marjor Walter was such a lazy mou time.

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John William Robertson Scott – 1950 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
E seldom hear of the pet dogs of the Elizabethans, since W such domestic pleasures were not much recorded, even in their letters. … Sir John was the author of by far the best English translation of the ‘Orlando Furioso’ of Ariosto – a very great poem absurdly inaccessible … On one distressing occasion he got lost when ‘some idle pastimers did diverte themselves with huntinge mallards in a ponde, and …
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Joe Randolph Ackerley – 1999 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
“First published in Great Britain by Secker & Warburg, 1956″–T.p. verso.
The Elizabethan age – Page 140
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David Lloyd Stevenson – 1967 – ‎Snippet view
He says that idle drones have carved the roots of briony into the shapes of men and women, and that this practice > has … Witness also John Caius’ account of English dogs, which has little in it, aside from a moral tale or two, of the marvelous.
The Living Age … – Volume 134 – Page 584
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1877 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
When England began to maintain a regular standing army, and military service was no longer national but mercenary, we do not … again one might fancy he heard an employer of labor under Victoria complaining that the British workman was going to the dogs, … And yet whenever any piece of plate or furniture or needlework of the Elizabethan age turns up in an auction room we rush to pay … Of course great swarmes, and especially “ idle swarmes,” of servants mean rich masters.
The Drama: Its History; Literature and Influence on Civilization
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Alfred Bates, ‎James Penny Boyd, ‎John Porter Lamberton – 1904 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
(They make a valiant pretense of work as Horatio and Fortinbras enter.) Horatio.—(Ecstatically, completely deceived by this simple ruse.) My Master-Builders! Fortinbras.—Idle dogs! Ist Clown.—(Elizabethan again.) Argal, goodman builder, will …
Survey of London: Poplar, Blackwall and the Isle of Dogs, the Parish …
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London (England) Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London, ‎London County Council, ‎Greater London Council – 1994 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
London (England) Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London, London County Council, Greater London Council … A number of late Elizabethan and Jacobean allusions to the Isle of Dogs show only that the name – or the phrase – had some popular currency. … Rocque’s map (1746) shows gibbets on the riverside, while in Hogarth’s depiction of the Idle Apprentice’s departure from …
Patterns of reform: continuity and change in the Reformation kirk
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James Kirk – 1989 – ‎Snippet view
Yet if the Catholic bishop, negligent in his duties, was assuredly, in protestant eyes, the false bishop, – the proud prelates, dumb dogs, idle bellies tyrants and wolves, … In a catalogue of complaints directed at the more serious shortcomings of the Elizabethan church, the Englishman, … Again, shortly before his death in 1 572, Knox recalled his own refusal to become ‘a great bischope in England’ and …
The Elizabethan Woman – Page 157
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Carroll Camden – 1975 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… som gathering flowers, others in discourses of the excellency of the place, some in prattle with the birds, all busie, none idle. … 6 The ladies of the Elizabethan court circles had various kinds of pets, the most popular of which was the dog; although the breed is … In the preface to Lyly’s Euphues and His England, the author writes ‘To the Ladies and Gentlewoemen of England,’ urging them to read his …
The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus
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Christopher Marlowe, ‎William-Alan Landes – 1997 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844
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Frederick Engels – 2012 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
The work also contains seminal thoughts on the state of socialism and its development.

Demon Possession in Elizabethan England – Page 51
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Kathleen R. Sands – 2004 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Aubon’s barking reminds us that Elizabethans viewed dogs rather differently than we do. … to the Nyndge brothers and their contemporaries a range of negative abstractions such as greed, idleness, lust, discontent, fear, revenge, and anger.
Elizabethan England: from A description of England by William …
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William Harrison, ‎Lothrop Withington – 1889 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND. in their teeth, to saw and beg for meat, to take a man’s cap from his head, and sundry such properties, which … jackets are for the like vagabonds, who seek no better living than that which they may get by fond pastime and idleness. I might here intreat of other dogs, as of those which are bred between a bitch and a wolf, also between a bitch and a fox, or a bear and a mastiff.
The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England
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Ian Mortimer – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Any dogs, cats,and ratson board will notbeso careful where theydefecate, and the atmosphere below decks on along … ropes, fishing, calculating positions, caulking the vessel topreserve its seaworthiness—there is very littlescope for idleness.
“Rapt in Secret Studies”: Emerging Shakespeares – Page 326
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Darryl Chalk, ‎Laurie Johnson – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Line 95 contains a mockery of both Elizabethan Protestant and political discourses regarding the significance of idleness, by taking the … An assessment of idleness and playing consequently plagues the kingship of Henry, calling into question not only the nature of his … The intentionality of the dog image as a motif is left in no doubt in Act 3, Scene 4, where the English are referred to as “Foolish curs,” a …
Life in Shakespeare’s England: A Book of Elizabethan Prose – Page 133
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John Dover Wilson – 1949 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
A Book of Elizabethan Prose John Dover Wilson … Thomas Nashe, Pierce Penilesse, 1592 Lap-dogs The third sort of dogs of the gentle kind is the spaniel gentle, or comforter, or (as the common term … exercises, and to content their corrupt concupiscences with vain disport, a silly poor shift to shun their irksome idleness.
The Pageant of Elizabethan England – Page 142
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Elizabeth Burton – 1959 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… slothful, rough, outrageous, foolish, barbarous, effeminate, wanton, given to sleep, banqueting, dice, idleness and “the enticements of all concupisciencies”. … brewers to make”.8 Names of drinks are curious, rude and fascinating, huffcap, mad dog, angel’s food are the more * Travelling, however, was not easy. … There was also “artificial stuff” such as wormwood 142 The Pageant of Elizabethan England.
OF ENGLISH DOGS (VINTAGE DOG BOOKS BREED HISTORY SERIES)
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Johannes Caius – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
OF ENGLISH DOGS – The diversities, the names, the natures, and the properties. Originally written and published in 1576, this is a reprint of the earliest known work on dog breeds.
The Elizabethan Woman – Page 321
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Carroll Camden – 1975 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Dogs, 157-158. Doleful lay of Clorinda. See Herbert, Mary. Domestic duties, books of, 109. Domestic relationships, 109-149. … choice of a governess, 40-41 ; avoid men and serving maids, 41 ; avoid kissing, 41; neither give nor receive gifts, 41; avoid pride, 41-42; avoid idleness … England, Queen s proclamations, 226.
The Description of England: The Classic Contemporary Account of …
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William Harrison, ‎Georges Edelen – 1994 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Presents a portrait of daily life in Tudor England, including food and diet, laws, clothing, punishments for criminals, languages, lodging, and the appearance of the people.
The Living Age – Volume 134 – Page 584
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1877 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
When England began to maintain a regular standing army, and military service was no longer national but mercenary, we do … one might fancy he heard an employer of labor under Victoria complaining that the British workman was going to the dogs, … And yet whenever any piece of plate or furniture or needlework of the Elizabethan age turns up in an auction room we … So many degrees of men and such increase of idleness means so many more mouths to be fed ; and this, says …
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The Living Age, Volume 134
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value of Radwinter Rectory was 21/. lis. 4<f., tithes 2/. $s. 2 \-id.\ while that of Wimbish Vicarage, liis other living, was 8/., tithes I6j.: 32/. Ioj. 6 \-id. in all. By this scanty pittance he supported himself, his wife, and his children, on an income which he made up to 40/. a year, and though he could not be called “rich” with that annual income, it was enough for his wants. On it he spent the best part of his life at Radwinter working away at his “Chronology,” running up for a month or two to write this pamphlet his “Description” away from his books, bringing up his children not without the use of the rod,* and even collecting Roman coins, which were probably to be had for the asking, and not run up to fabulous prices as at our modern auctions. He took pains with his garden, too, in which, though its area covered but three hundred feet of ground, there was “a simple ” for each foot of ground, ” no one of them being common or usually to be had.” Sometimes we gather from his preface that he paid a visit to Lord Cobham in Kent, but wherever he was we may be sure, from his ” Description,” that he kept his eyes open, and saw all that was to be seen. We suppose that his “Description,” must have brought him fame. Perhaps the high praise which he paid to Elizabeth, and the good testimony which he bore to the virtue of her court, fell gently on the roval ear. On April 2, 1586, William Harrison was appointed canon of Windsor, and at once installed. This preferment he held for seven years. In 1593 he died, apparently at Windsor, and was buried there, though there is no record either of the day of his death or of the place of his interment.

Turning now to this ” Description of England” by this shrewd observer, it is with some regret we find that Mr. Furnivall has not thought the first book, the “Description of Britaine,” sufficiently interesting to reprint. He calls it “a long and dull historical and topographical book,”

* In book iii., which is to form the second volume of this reprint, Harrison says, speaking of his mastiff, “If I h.id beaten anie of mv children he would gentlie have assaied to catch the rod in his teeth and take it out of my hand, or else pluck down their clothes to save them from the stripes.” In which perhaps we see the old school usher peeping out

and even lays on It the blame that the “Description of England” is not “a thousand times more widely known.” It is perfectly true that any stick will serve to beat a dog; but, to our minds, who have known Harrison long before this reprint was thought of, the 1st book is as interesting as the 2nd or 3rd, and some readers might think it more so. A belter reason might be the length to which the reprint of Harrison’s “Pamphlet” would have run, if all these three books had been published by the New Shakspere Society; but this is scarcely a sufficient excuse. In such matters it is never worth while to make two bites of a cherry, and it could have mattered little to the members of the New Shakspere Society if Harrison’s “Description ” had filled two or three volumes, except that in the first case they would have been put into possession of a mutilated and in the second of a complete edition of the work. We must, however, be thankful for what we have got, and after this protest we turn to Mr. Furnivall’s reprint of the second book.

As a Churchman it is not unnatural that Harrison should begin with the constitution of the Church in England. Standing between the new state of things in England and the old, while he inveighs against the abuses of the Church of Rome he is not silent as to the evils peculiar to the Reformation. If he calls Becket in his first chapter ” the old cock of Canterburie,” after whom “all the young cockerells of other sees crowed,” and complains of the pride and sloth and luxury of Romish times, he is not slow to remark how the recent suppression of conferences of the clergy and laity by the ecclesiastical authorities had worked perniciously to the Reformed Church; for those gatherings and conferences, or “prophecyings” as they were also called, “stirred the parsons to applie to their bookes, which otherwise would give themselves to hawking, hunting, tables, cards, dice, lipling at the alehouse, shooting of matches, and other like vanities.” At the same time Harrison complains of the burdens which were laid upon an impoverished Church now that it had been stripped of its lands and possessions, so that it has ” now become the asse

whereon every market man is to ride and cist his wallet.” The prelates of old were covetous and the pope grasping after firstfruits and Peter’s-pence; but what was to he said of the covetousness of patrons under the new system? Of whom some “do bestow advowsons upon their bakers, butlers, cooks, falconers, and horse keepers,” while others forced them to pay for their “hawkes-meat,” or to let glebes to them for a tenth of their value, and so “scrape the wool from the cloaks of us parsons.” Nor are the glimpses which he gives us of the condition of the fabrics of the churches themselves without interest, as when be notes how Popish “images and monuments of idolatrie are remooved from the churches,” “onelie the stones on glasse windows excepted which are let to stay for a while from the scarcity and cost of white glass.” In his treatment of saints’ days Harrison is thoroughly Protestant, and makes a proposition to combine the religious and civil holidays, which would bring tears into the eyes of those earnest young men and women who date their letters on the “Vigil of St. Brice ” or on the ” Feast of St. Machutus.” Thus, though he expresses great satisfaction at the reduction of saints’ days in the calendar to twenty-seven, while under the pope they were “four score and fifteene, together with superfluous numbers of idle wakes, guilds, fraternities, church-ales, help-ales, and soule-ales called also dirge-ales, and heathenish rioting at bride-ales,” he adds, “And no great matter were it if the feastes of all our apostles, evangelists, and martyrs, with that of all saints, were brought to the holidays that follow upon Christmasse, Easter, and Whitsuntide; and those of the Virgin Marie with the rest utterlie removed from the calendars, as neither necessarie nor commendable in a reformed church.” In dress the reformed ministers presented a praiseworthy and remarkable contrast to that of their Popish predecessors. “Those blind Sir Johns, who went either in diverse colors like plaiers, or in garments of light hew as yellow, red, greene, etc., with their shoes piked; so that to meet a priest in those daies was to behold a peacock that spreadeth his taile

when he danseth before the henne.” The hint may be of use to the variegated section of our modern clergy.

As for the universities, though he praises Henry VIII. for reproving his courtiers when they wished him to divide among them the estates of those learned bodies as he had done those of the Church, he is so far from finding the education of young men at Oxford and Cambridge perfect, that he deplores over and over again “the packing and bribery practised at elections for fellowships and scholarships,” and how “poore men’s children are commonly shut out by the rich, whose sons ruffle and roist it out, exceeding in apparell, and haunting riotous companie, which draweth them from their bookes unto another trade.” In one point Harrison is quite agreed with our modern university reformers. He is dead against ” idle fellowships,” and declares that after forty years of age such men become drones and “live on the fat of the colleges, withholding better wits from the possession of their places.” “Long continuance at the university,” he declares, “is either a signe of lacke of friends, or of learning, or of a good and upright life ; as Bishop Fox sometimes noted, who thought it sacrilege for a man to tarrie any longer at Oxford than he had a desire to profit.” In spite of all this the professors and the workingmen at the universities were equal to the best in any foreign nation, and if they would only give up going to Italy, from which they generally returned corrupted, Harrison would be quite satisfied with them. The general ignorance and incompetence of the country clergy, noted by almost every divine of the time as well, drives Harrison to another proposition in which neither the patrons of livings in his own nor in our age would be likely to agree. He thinks that the university authorities should have the sole power of appointing to Church livings; for if ” this order were taken, then should the Church be provided of good pastors by whom God should be glorified, the universities better stored, the Simoniacal practices of patrons utterlie abolished, and the people better trained to live in obedience to God and their prince, which were an happie estate.”

So wrote Harrison of the Church and the universities, painting his description in sad and sober grey; for to no writer, however able, is it given to rise above the circumstances which surround him, and from the conditions of his existence; and the eyes of a man insensibly catch the color of his cloth. William Harrison cert linly is no exception to the rule. He was a country parson with poor preferment, and his book is sobered and saddened by the hard experiences of his daily life. But for all that — though he often hardly seems to see it — it was an age of wonderful progress, and the England of the Virgin Queen was striding towards wealth and power at a pace which would have astonished the cautious Henry VII.; just as the stingy George III. would rub his eyes and wring his hands could he behold this imperial London of Victoria, with all its wealth and luxury. Henry VIII. had created the young giant and set him, so to speak, on his legs, and though Mary had done her best to bind him with spiritual swaddling clothes, he had cast them off and was now rejoicing to run his course in “the spacious limes of great Elizabeth.”

At no time had the lower nobility and the gentlemen and merchants had such a field for advancement. The Wars of the Roses and the policy of Henry VII. had broken and almost destroyed the old nobility of the land, and under Henry VIII. the power of the Church was uprooted, and its estates bestowed on new comers. There never had been such days for new men, and the new men were not slow to avail themselves of their opportunity. As for the old temporal peers, they had dwindled to one marquis, Winchester, twenty earls, two viscounts, and forty-three barons. There had been dukes in England, and one duke even in Elizabeth’s reign; but before Harrison wrote the treacherous nature of the Duke of Norfolk had found its fitting end on the scaffold, and Harrison, in this as in many others the laudator temporis acti, does not fail to remark, “The title of duke . . . now a name of honor, although perished in England, whose ground will not long beare one duke I at once; but if there were many as in time past, or as there be now earles, I do not think but that they would flourish and prosper well enough.” That they have so nourished and prospered since Harrison’s time, any one may see who will turn to the peerage and count our modern dukes, when it will not be unprofitable also to reckon the number of marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons which the age of

Victoria has to set against that of Elizabeth. So much for the ” lords temporal.” but where came the bishops in Harrison’s days? He classes them with “lords of office,” or what we should call “lifelords.”

Unto this place [he says] I refer our bishops who arc called lords and hold the same room in the Parliament-house with the barons . . . and whose countenances in time past were much more glorious than at this present it is; because these lustie prelats sought after earthlie estimation and authoritie with farre more diligence than after the lost sheepe of Christ. . . . Howbeit in these days these estates remaineth no lesse reverend than before. . . . They retaine also the ancient name “lord” still, although it be not a little impugned by such as love either to heare of change of all things or can abide no superiors.

Passing from these remnants of a temporal and spiritual past, Harrison proceeds, in his account of the degrees of people in England, to the great class of gentlemen out of which in due time a new nobility was to be created. “Gentlemen,” according to him, “be those whom their race and blood, or at the least their virtues, do make noble and knovvne.” Thus there are gentlemen whose ancestors are known to have come in with the Conqueror, and others who having distinguished themselves in arts or in arms “can live without manuell labor.” “Such a man,” adds Harrison ironically, “who will bear the porte, charge, and countenance of a gentleman, shall for monie have a cote and arms bestowed upon him by heralds . . . and be called ‘ Master,’ which is the title that men give to esquires and gentlemen, and be reputed a gentleman ever after. By this arrangement the crown loses nothing; for the gentleman, when called to the warres pays for his own outfit. His title hurts no man but himself; if he chooses to walk in ‘wider buskens than his legs will beare,’or as the proverb says ‘bear a bigger saile. than his boat is able to ‘susteine.'” From all which it is easy to see that our worthy Essex rector thought little of such herald’s gentlemen. while he esteenrjd greatly gentlemen of Norman blood; “for of the Saxon races yet remaining,” he says, “we now make none accompt.” But in nothing, perhaps, does he show his sturdy old conservative nature more characteristically than in the way in which he inveighs against foreign travel, and noblemen and gentlemen sending their sons to Italy, “from whence they bring home nothing but meere atheisme, infidelitie, vicious con

versation, and ambitious and proud behavior.” As for unhappy Italy, to which England as well as all the world had been so indebted, the very mention of her name acts on Harrison as red cloth to a bull — he bellows and stamps the ground, and can find no worse epithet for a gentleman or a scholar of that day than to say that he is ” Italionate.”

Another class had enormously increased in England in those latter days, and that in a way not altogether to Harrison’s liking. These were the merchants. There were too many of them — just as there were too many lawyers, a profession worse even to Harrison than Italians—and they sinned in two ways; first in carrying the necessaries of life out of the land to other countries, and so making them dear at home, and secondly in having a monopoly of foreign trade, and so keeping up the price of imports. “In times past,” groans Harrison in accents which it would have done Cobden good to hear, “when the strange bottoms were suffered to come in, we had sugar for fourepence the pound, that now is worth halfe a crowne; raisons or corints [raisins and currants] for a penie, that now are holden at sixpence, and sometimes at eight and ten pence the pound; nutmegs at twopence halfepenie the ounce. Ginger at a penie an ounce . . . cinnamon at foure pence the ounce, cloves at two pence an ounce, and pepper at twelve or sixteen pence the pound.” Lest any one should think that the price of spices such as cinnamon, cloves, or nutmegs could not be a serious object to householders in any age, they must remember that old English cookery made very great use of them, and that many of the dishes in that age were rendered as nauseous with cloves and nutmegs as that most famous but most disgusting of all dainties, “lamb stuffed with assafstida.” Worse still, these wicked merchants were not content with their old trade to “Spaine, Portingal, France, Flanders, Danske, Norwaie, Scotland, and Irelande onelie ;” but have ilsoughte out the East and West Indies, and made,” to Harrison, “suspicious voiages not onlie unto the Canaries and New Spaine, but likewise unto Cathaia, Moscovia, Tartaria, and the regions there about, from whence, as they saie,” but Harrison does not believe them, “they bring home great commodities. But alas, 1 see not by all their travel! that the prices of things are in any whit abated.” In all which who does not hear the cry re-echoed in this age too by all who have fixed incomes, that everything gets

dearer and dearer, while their means to provide for themselves and their families grow less and less? Whatever we may think of our own time, we see clearly that Harrison’s outcry against merchants and their prices is but a confession of the increase of England’s wealth and prosperity, in an age when those very merchants with their bold ventures were laying the foundations of that enormous system of trade which has made England the mistress of the world. Even for the monopolies of which he complains much might he said. They were as useful in the infancy of commerce as they are prejudicial to its maturity, as encouraging a new class of men to risk their capital in enterprises on which without that security they could not have been induced to embark. They were the ladder by which England climbed to the top of the tree, and it would be as unphilosophic to abuse them in Elizabeth’s reign as it would be false political economy to advocate their continuance in an age when commerce needs no leading-strings. Besides the merchants there were yeomen in England, a class which will soon be as extinct among us as the woolly-haired rhinoceros and the cave-bear of our prehistoric period. A yeoman, according to Harrison, was “a freeborne Englishman who could spend of his owne free land in yearlie revenue six pounds.” They lived well and worked hard, and made money by the increased price paid for their produce. So that these little farmers, too, had a share in the national advancement, and were able to buy out poor gentlemen, and, educating their sons at schools and universities, so made them gentlemen, and left them capital. “These were they,” says Harrison with honest pride, ” that in times past made all France afraid. And albeit they be not called ‘ Master ‘ as gentlemen are ” — like Master Shallow — “or ‘Sir’as to knights appertained ” — like Sir John Falstaff —” but onelie ‘John’ and ‘Thomas,’ “yet have they been founde to have doone verie good service ; and the kings of England, in foughten battels, were woont to remaine among them, who were their footmen, as the French kings did amongst their horsemen; the prince thereby shewing where his chiefe strength did consist.” Such were the yeoman of Harrison’s time, worthy sons of those who had conquered at Cressy, Agincourt, and Flodden. Men who afterwards went with Sidney and the Veres and Ogle to the Low Countries, who steadily withstood the Spantards at Nieuport, and defied the leaguer of Ostend, As Cromwell’s Ironsides they broke the power of Charles and his Cavaliers, and swarmed up to London with Monk when the second Charles came to what he called his own again. When England began to maintain a regular standing army, and military service was no longer national but mercenary, we do not find the yeomen so constant to the wars. But their arms were felt at Landen and Neerwinden under William of Orange, and they helped to win the wonderful series of victories which adorn the career of Marlborough. Perhaps there were still a few of them at Dettingen and Fontenoy, and at Culloden the Butcher Cumberland may have led some against the Highland clans. Wellington’s glorious campaigns were fought and his victories won by armies moulded out of such vile materials, that they justified the remark that a good general can make a soldier out of anything. Certainly there were few yeomen in his ranks. In these modern times if we ask for the English yeoman and what has become of him, the answer must be a reference to those Doomsday Books of the three kingdoms which tell the fatal truth that the land of Great Britain and Ireland has passed into the possession of a few thousand owners, who, if they were all mustered, would not make up one of the corps d’arrnte of Germany or France. Things of course might be worse even than this, and we may still come to that worse condition. We remember that Sparta, the soldier-state when ancient Greece was Greece indeed, had passed, when the Romans took possession of it, into the hands of one or two heiresses.

The fourth and last class of the English community are the day-laborers and artificers. As for slaves and bondsmen, says Harrison, “we have none.” Nay, “if anie come hither from other realms, so soone as they set foote on land they become as free of condition as their masters.” These laborers and artificers have no rule in the country but are to be ruled, though sometimes they serve the State on inquests, and are made churchwardens, sidesmen and aleconners, ” and even constables.” But this class, too, was feeling the prosperity of the times and the growing wealth of the upper classes. As for the artificers, they never had more encouragement and were never better workmen, but they labored under a great fault, that of scamping their work, and ” so bungle up and despatch many things, they care not how so they be out of their hands, where.by,” adds Harrison, “the buier is often

sore defrauded and findeth to his cost that hast maketh wast according to the proverbe;” where again one might fancy he heard an employer of labor under Victoria complaining that the British workman was going to the dogs, and took no heed of the way in which his work was turned out so that he had got it done. And yet whenever any piece of plate or furniture or needlework of the Elizabethan age turns up in an auction room we rush to pay fool’s prices for it, and carry it off declaring that the English handicraftsmen in those days were very different and very much better than those of our own time. But the branch of laborers which most showed the luxury of the times was that of the serving-men^ whose numbers were such that Harrison calls them “great swarmes.” Of course great swarmes, and especially “idle swarmes,” of servants mean rich masters. It is in vain that Harrison quotes the proverb, “Youn; serving-men old beggars;” “for them as much as now service was no inheritance,” or, as he calls it, “none heritage.” In vain, too, he points out that such idle fellows “are enemies to their masters, to their friends, and to themselves.” To support them their masters are driven to extortion towards their tenants from whom these very serving-men sprang. In this was they injure their friends and waste young gentlemen’s estates. As for themselves they take in the end to highway robbery, and so come to the gibbet. England keeps more of them than any other nation, and “the number of such idle vagabonds should be lessened, else it will be worse for the state.” Yet in spite of these and other protests the swarms of serving-men went on increasing.

So many degrees of men and such increase of idleness means so many more mouths to be fed ; and this, says Harrison, is all the more serious, “because the situation of our region being near unto the north doth cause the heate of our stomachs to be of somewhat greater force; therefore our bodies doo crave a little more ample nourishment than the inhabitants of the hotter regions.” “It is no marvel, therefore, that our tables have always been more plentifully garnished that those of other nations, and even the Scots,” says Harrison, “have of late years given themselves under verie ample and large diet and now exceed us in tabling and belly-cheere.” Very different were they from the North Britons of more ancient times who supported themselves for days in their bogs and marshes on a ” certain

Life in Shakespeare’s England: A Book of Elizabethan Prose

Lap-dogs
The third sort of dogs of the gentle kind is the spaniel gentle, or
comforter, or (as the common term is) the fisting-hound, and
those are called Melitei, of the Island Malta, from whence they
were brought hither. These are little and pretty, proper and fine,
and sought out far and near to satisfy the nice delicacy of dainty
dames, and wanton women’s wills; instruments of folly to play
and dally withal, in trifling away the treasure of time, to withdraw
their minds from more commendable exercises, and to content
their corrupt concupiscences with vain disport, a silly poor shift
to shun their irksome idleness. These sybaritical puppies, the
smaller they be (and thereto if they have an hole in the foreparts
of their heads) the better they are accepted, the more pleasure also
they provoke, as meet playfellows for mincing mistresses to bear
in their bosoms, to keep company withal in their chambers, to
succour with sleep in bed, and nourish with meat at board, to lie
in their laps, and lick their lips, as they lie (like young Dianas) in
their waggons and coaches. And good reason it should be so, for
coarseness with fineness hath no fellowship, but featness with
neatness hath neighbourhead enough. That plausible proverb,
therefore, verified sometime upon a tyrant, namely that he loved
his sow better than his son, may well be applied to some of this
kind of people, who delight more in their dogs, that are deprived
of all possibility of reason, than they do in children that are capable
of wisdom and judgment. Yea, they oft feed them of the best,
where the poor man’s child at their doors can hardly come by the
worst. But the former abuse peradventure reigneth where there
hath been long want of issue, else where barrenness is the best
blossom of beauty, or, finally, where poor men’s children for
want of their own issue are not ready to be had. It is thought of
some that it is very wholesome for a weak stomach to bear such
a dog in the bosom, as it is for him that hath the palsy to feel the
133
LONDON
daily smell and savour of a fox. But how truly this is affirmed, let
the learned judge: only it shall suffice for Dr Caius to have said
thus much of spaniels and dogs of the gentle kind.
WILLIAM HARRISON, Description of England, 1587 (2nd ed

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The Zurich Letters: Or, The Correspondence of Several English …, Volume 52
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however, I have sent you twenty crowns by master Springham’. as a small testimony of my gratitude. I know that you will take it in good part. If you wish for any information respecting our affairs,—when we consider the temper and fickleness of mankind, when we regard either the contempt of the word [of God] or the neglect of a religious life, we can hardly dare to expect a long continuance of the gospel in these parts. There is every where au immense number of papists, though for the most part concealed: they have been quiet hitherto, except that they are cherishing their errors in their secret assemblies, and willingly shut their ears against the hearing of the word. When however we reflect upon the infinite goodness of God, which has restored us to our native land, and given his word free course, and committed to us the ministry thereof, we take courage, and cherish a firm hope that we shall not again be forsaken by so kind a Father. Let us therefore continue to serve him with a courageous and strong mind, casting all our care and the success of our affairs upon him.

The heads of our popish clergy are still kept in confinement. They are treated indeed with kindness, but relax nothing of their popery. Others are living at large, scattered about in different parts of the kingdom, but without any function, unless perhaps where they may be sowing the seeds of impiety in secret. Our neighbours the Scots, thank God! are happily furthering the gospel. The papists are wonderfully raising their spirits, since the disorders in France. May God of his accustomed goodness turn all things to the good of those who love him! may he defend Ins own people, and shortly break in pieces the fury of his enemies! Amen. We are anxiously desirous to learn what is going on in your parts, and especially in reference to the kingdom of Christ. May the Lord Jesus preserve you to us very long in safety! Salute in my name master Henry Bullinger, a man worthy of all possible regard. I and my wife salute you and yours. London, Aug. 5, 1562.

Your brother in Christ, Richard Cox, Bishop of Ely.

No one has as yet crushed the furious Hosius2.

f 1 Richard Springham was a merchant of London, a contributor to the afflicted gospellers, temp, queen Mary. Strype, Memorials, m. i. 224.]

[2 Cardinal Hosius was sent by Pius IV. to engage the emperor Ferdinand to continue the council of Trent; whore he was employed as legate, to open and preside at the council. His chief works are, 1. Confessio eatholicce fidei, said to have been reprinted, in various languages, thirty-four times. 2. De communione sub utraque specie. 3. De sacerdotum conjugio. 4. De mis&j, vulgari lingua celebranda. He died in 1579. In a letter from Cox to Cecil,

LXXI. H. FOLKERZHEIMER3 TO J. SIMLER. [B. 39.]
Salisbury, Aug. 13, 1562.

Tell me, my Josiah, what has come into your mind, that in your last letter you thought you had nothing worth writing about to one who is so exceedingly inquisitive about all your affairs as I am? What then? Must I remain ignorant what effect my poor letters produce, how my friends are going on, how my garden is flourishing, which, though then in idea and thought only, had however begun to be formed in rows? But yet I will nevertheless admit that you deserve some thanks, in spite of your short and inauspicious letter, because you did not, happily, omit to mention my father’s health. As the bishop of Salisbury had given me a most friendly invitation to visit him, and I perceived that France was so disturbed by civil discord4 that literary pursuits were altogether at a stand; having left Poictiers I proceeded to Rochelle, a port of France of some celebrity, and visited at my leisure, not without danger, the salt-works of Brouage5, and other places in the neighbourhood. But having obtained tolerably fine weather, (for although the wind was by no means favourable, I did not shrink from a second trial,) I left Rochelle on the 29th of June”. Nothing was more irksome than the want of a companion to converse with; so that there came into my mind all at once rocks, tempests, shallows, pirates, a rascal of a captain, and in short every thing that might have befallen Arion of old. But I was in no fear that the God of hosts, who rules the sea, the winds and the tempests, and who had ever been my most faithful guide through the whole of my past life, would forsake me then, because he especially promises to protect those who go down to the sea. When therefore we were carried into the bay of Biscay, we kept such a continued

from Downham, dated Dec.28, 1563, the bishop says, “Hosius’ bokes flye abrode in all corners, unica gloriatio omnium papistarum, who swarme in all corners, saying and doing almost what they lyste.” MS. Lansd. 6, 87.]

[s Herman Folkerzheimer was of a noble family in East Friesland; he afterwards became Hofmeister to Christopher, archbishop, duke, and count Palatine.]

[4 Namely, by the wars which had broken out Bome months before between the Roman catholics and protestants.]

[5 Brouage is near a bay of the sea, 17 miles south of Rochelle.] [• The Lat. has tertio CaL SextU. But this is evidently a mistake, as it appears by bishop Jewel’s letter to Simler, that Folkerzheimer reached Salisbury on the 8th of July. And on the 20th, as appears from a subsequent part of this letter, he visited Stonehenge.]

course night and day, that although the storms were raging as usual, we only once cast anchor. When we had been tossed about in this manner for the space of eight days, the much wished for land began at last to appear in sight, and having left the isle of Wight on our right, we landed at Southampton. Here I heartily thanked God, and recruited myself, having become a good deal fatigued by my tossing about on the sea. Three days after, having fortunately procured a good horse, I arrived at Salisbury. When the bishop saw me, to the great surprise of his attendants, he hastened towards me as I was entering, and closely embracing me, Oh! my Herman, said he, you are welcome; you are come as a guest than whom I have received no one with greater pleasure of a long time. He then particularly inquired how Martyr, Julius, Bullinger, Josiah, Lavater, Zuinglius, and our other common friends were going on? whether all was well with them? I replied that I hoped so, but that I did not know for certain, as from having been resident in France in such uncertain and turbulent times, I had received no intelligence of your affairs either by letter or report. The remainder of our discourse was employed in conversation upon French matters. He assigned me two very accomplished young men, acquainted with the French language, for my companions, and they were to conduct me wherever I chose. We viewed the city, the churches, the little rivulets, one of which flows most delightfully through every street.

But although the whole of the city belongs to the bishop, his domestic arrangements delighted me more than any thing else. His palace, in the first place, is so spacious and magnificent, that even sovereigns may, and are wont to be suitably entertained there, whenever they come into these parts. Next, there is a most extensive garden, kept up with especial care, so that in the levelling, laying out, and variety, nothing seems to have been overlooked. A most limpid stream runs through the midst of it, which, though agreeable in itself, is rendered much more pleasant and delightful by the swans swimming upon it, and the abundance of fish, which (the bishop) is now causing to be inclosed in an iron lattice-work. After having most courteously saluted me on the following day, he turned to his attendants, and, “Let the horses,” he said, “be saddled and bridled, and take this guest of mine a hunting.” Accordingly having taken our dogs with us, when we arrived at the place where the game was wont to hide, we pursued two deer which we had discovered; both of which, before they were worn out with running, the dogs with incredible swiftness quickly came up with, and easily caught and brought them to the ground. There was, however, but little occasion for the halloo with which Xenophon sets on his dogs in hunting, Well, well, well done, dogs, well done; for our dogs did their duty even without being set on. Do you ask whether we often go a hunting? The bishop indeed, I perceive, does not take much delight in this kind of amusement. What pleasure, says he, I pray you, can possibly be derived from pursuing with fierce dogs a timid animal, that attacks no one, and that is put to flight even by a noise? I should, however, tell an untruth, were I to say that I am not delighted with it. But yet, were I frequently to repeat the same thing, I think it would not afford me so much amusement. But although the bishop never goes out a hunting, and I very seldom, the dogs are by no means idle. The young men are required to provide a supply of venison, that the table may always give proof of the activity of the dogs and the labours of the huntsmen.

But as I like to deal with you after our custom, the custom I mean, of the most intimate companions, I shall allow myself this liberty of prating, and will not abstain even from the most minute details; though indeed you deserve from me nothing of the kind, who are so cautious as not to weary me either with joking or sober sense. See, my excellent Josiah, how my circumstances have changed in so short a time. When I left France in silence and in concealment, and in the greatest loneliness, I had nothing to relieve my weariness but one little book; every thing was so dirty and loathsome and disagreeable, that the ship would make one sick, even were it laid up on shore. The table was laid out, as Cicero1 says, not with shell or other fish, but with a quantity of stinking meat. The same person was cook and steward. Piso had no baker at home, nor I from home: he got his bread and wine at a huckster’s, and from a public house; but I, poor wretch, as soon as I had emptied my flask, could find no huckster from whom I could procure one, nor any public house, where they would draw one even the smallest quantity at the greatest cost; so that as soon as our wine had failed about the fifth day, we mixed vinegar and water, which to most of us, thirsty as we then were, did not seem very different from it. I reached a fortunate island when I arrived at Salisbury. Immortal powers! what a sudden change I experienced, what power of breathing freely after my long imprisonment! I am transplanted into the magnificent abode of a prosperous in’dividual, with whom, as you know, I have long been on the most [l See Cic. in Pisonem, 27.]

intimate and friendly terms. He, remembering our ancient intimacy, received me in such a manner, that he could not have received •even his own brother more lovingly. He directed his attendants, most elegant young men of rank, and very different from our dirty crew of sailors, to order some wine to be brought. The butler forthwith makes his appearance, bearing a large golden goblet. And also, when dinner or supper time arrived, how can I describe to you the abundance or magnificence of the silver plate? Yet great as it is, it does not seem to afford much pleasure to its possessor, and appears to have been provided rather for his guests’1 sake than his own. But, without entering upon any further details, you will easily guess the nature of them, and judge of the difference between a ship and a palace. For my part, I am quite ready to allow those who choose to philosophize on the subject, to be of Xenophon’s opinion, that domestic economy is nowhere better understood than on board a ship, and to require all heads of families to imitate their carefulness; provided only that I am at liberty to keep my own opinion.

On the 20th of July1 we rode into the country with a large retinue, as the bishop said he would shew me some things that would astonish me. When I saw the cavalcade in the middle of the plain, Why, said I, is not Josiah a witness of this? or Bullinger, or indeed any Zuricher? for as to Peter Martyr, he is well acquainted with all your circumstances. I wish, he replied, those worthy men were here. But what do you think they are now doing? Perhaps, he said, they have finished their dinner, and I fancy that I see Martyr seated in his elbow chair. When we had gone on a little farther, he very kindly pointed out to me the whole character and bearing of the neighbourhood. There, says he, stretching out his arm, was formerly old Sarum; there are the mounds which you can distinguish even now, and there the ramparts. And then, in another place, Here was a camp of the ancient Romans2, of which these are the vestiges that we see. At length wo arrived at the place which Jewel had particularly wished me to visit, and respecting which I should hesitate to write what I have seen, unless I could confirm it by most approved witnesses; because it has generally been my custom, when I had ascertained anything to be true, which might at first sight appear incredible, rather to prefer not to mention it, than to describe it, lest I should be regarded as unworthy of credit. I beheld, in a very extensive

P See above, p. 149, note 6.]

[2 The present remains are generally supposed to be Saxon.]

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I. Henry IV. Act II. Sc. 8. (iv., 248.)
“As dank here as a dog.”

Mr. Collier here mentions a conjecture that dog is a misprint for dock, though of course he does not insert it in the text, no alteration being requisite. Marlowe has well ridiculed the prevalent fancy of similar comparisons—

“Thou say’st thou art as weary as a dog,
As angry, sick, and hungry as a dog,
As dull and melancholy as a dog,
As lazy, sleepy, and as idle as a dog;
But why dost thou compare thee to a dog
In that for which all men despise a dog?”

Marlowe’s Works, ed. 1826, iii., 448.

I. Henry IV. Act V. Sc. 1. (iv., 318.)

“And, being fed by us, you us’d us so
As that ungentle gull, the cuckoo’s bird,
Useth the sparrow.”

Here Mr. Collier has no note, (probably thinking none required) but Mr. Knight actually reverses the ordinary meaning of the term gull, to make sense of the passage, and says it may mean the gutter, i.e., the one who gulls, or have a special meaning referring to the voracity of the “cuckoo’s bird.” Either explanation is clearly most forced and improbable. A reference to Mr. Wilbraham’s Cheshire Glossary, p. 44, seems to set the question, if question there be, at rest. He does not allude to the present passage, but he says that the term gull is applied by natives of that country to “all nestling birds in quite an unfledged state.” This appears to be by far the most natural method of interpreting the passage.

Henry V. Act II. Sc. I. (iv., 486.)
“His heart isfracted, and corroborate.

This Latinism occurs again in Shakespeare, “Timon,” act ii., sc. 1, but is not common even, in contemporary writers. Nares produces no example in any other author. Latinisms are abundant in the following extract:—

“Sir, retire ye, for it hath thus succeeded: the carnifex, or executor, riding on an ill curtal, hath titubated or stumbled, and is now cripplified, with broken or fracted tibiards, and sending you tidings of success, saith yourself must be his deputy.”—Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon, p. 39.

II. Henry VI. Act III. Sc. 1. (v., 163.)

“Say, that he thrive, as ’tis great like he will,
Why, then, from Ireland come I with my strength,
And reap the harvest which that rascal sowM.”

Great like, i.e., very probable. This phrase is still current in the North of England.

Henry VIII. Act I. Sc. 1. (v., 502.)
“All clinquant, all in gold, like heathen gods.”

As instances of clinquant are not common, I may add the following from Florio, which is more conclusive as to the meaning of the word than any yet produced.

“Aginina, a kind of networke, worne over tinsell or cloth of gold, to make it shew clinkant^—Florio’s New World of Words, fol., Lond., 1611, p. 15, col. 2. In his first edition of 1598 he had printed the last words “to make it shew the better.'”

Macbeth. Act I. Sc. 3. (vii., 103.)
“Aroint thee, witch! the rump-fed ronyon cries.”

No one, as far as I know, has discovered an early example of the word aroint in any other author. Mr. Hunter, however, asserts that “such are to be found, though they are rare;” but he only supplies one, and that from a History of Perkin Warbeck, quoted, with a very curious title, in the “Monthly Mirror” for October, 1810. See “New Illustrations,” vol. ii., p. 166.

Mr. Hunter confesses he never saw this History. Has any body else? It is scarcely worth while to transcribe the title and extract given by Mr. Hunter, but it is advisable to caution any one against receiving it as an evidence without farther inquiry. I cannot help thinking it bears the appearance of a forgery. It would really be satisfactory to find an example of aroint of unquestionable authority, for till then a doubt may perhaps exist with some, as to whether a corruption may not have crept into the text.

Macbeth. Act V. Sc. 6. (vii., 181.)

“Upon the next tree shalt thou hang alive,
Till famine cling thee.”

Mr. Collier is certainly right in explaining cling to shrink, the meaning given by Kennett in MS. Lansd., 1033. It is from A. S. clingan. Kennett has also “clung, clinged or shrunk up;” and in Cooper’s edition of Eliote’s Dictionarie, 1559, is the following entry — ” Coriago, the sickenesse of cattall whan they are clounge, that their skynnes dooe cleve fast to their bodies, hyde bounde.” The commentators have confused two words in their notes on the passage. It should, however, be observed that in the Craven Glossary, i., 79, clung is explained “hungry or empty, emaciated,” which perhaps agrees still better with the context in the passage under consideration. On the whole, I should explain cling in this place “to wither,” no single word better expressing the intended force of the threat.

“Theo nessche clay hit makith clyng”

Kyng Alisaunder, 915.

“My bonys were stronge, and myghtyly made;
But now thei clynge, and waxe all drye.”

Seven Penetential Psalms, ed. Black, p. 29.

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Art. VII. — The Performance of Dramas by Parish ClarJes and Players in Churches.

In the course of my examinations of the registers and tokenbooks preserved at St. Saviour’s, Southwark, for the purpose of the volume of ” Memoirs of the Principal Actors in the Plays of Shakespeare,” I met with some valuable documents, which had belonged to the church of St. Margaret, before it was pulled down, and the parish united with that of St. Mary Overy. They extend from 1444 to 1534, and are among the most ancient parish records in existence: they will be especially interesting to the Shakespeare Society, in connexion with our early drama and stage, since they afford distinct evidence that plays were periodically represented in the church itself by persons who were regularly paid for their performances.1

By way of fixing the locality, it may be mentioned that the church of St. Margaret stood on the “hilr’ in Southwark which is still called by her name. In Stow’s time, part of the edifice

1 Since this paper was written, I have been favoured with the following note by Sir H. Ellis, communicating a very remarkable entry on the subject, contained in one of the MSS. in the British Museum:

“79, Great Russell Street, “Dec. 13, 1846.

“My dear Sir—In perusing one of the small volumes of Excerpts from the Registers of Lincoln, preserved in the Haileian Library, I fell upon a passage which brought to my remembrance the church expences of St. Margaret, Southwark, which you spoke of at the last Council of the Shakespeare Society.

“It appears from one of the Dean and Chapter’s Registers (notat. E E. f. 18) that on June 7th, 1483, the Citizens of Lincoln had leave to perform a Play in the Nave of the Cathedral, as had been their custom upon the Assumption of the Virgin Mary: ‘Ludum, sive Serimonium, de

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of diabolical fury, was originally applied to doughty champions who went about wrapped in bear-skins, or who wore habits made of bear-skin over their armour. These warriors, writes Mr. Baring-Gould (p. 45), were often dressed in wolf-skins, and it was an easy transition to imagine these unscrupulous destroyers of the public peace as possessing the strength as well as the ferocity of the animals whose skins they wore. Among the Anglo-Saxons an outlaw was said to have the head of a wolf, and the legal form of sentence against the offender was that “he shall be driven away as a wolf and chased so far as men chase wolves farthest.”

Reginald Scot, in his work on witchcraft, 1584, relates some stories as to the power of men to change themselves into wolves and other animals, but treats them with great ridicule. He concludes his chapter on these transformations with the remark—

“But I have put twenty of these witchmongers to silence with this one question, to wit, whether a witch that can turn a woman into a cat, etc., can also turn a cat into a woman?” (Discovery of Witchcraft, ed. 1654, p. 70.)

There are numerous stories of unfortunate men and women being hanged or burnt for ravages imagined to be committed by them in their lupine shape. In France and Italy these executions occurred even so late as the year 1684.

Trials of animals for crimes and misdomeanors prompted by simple natural depravity were also frequent in Europe in the Middle Ages. According to a writer in Notes and Queries (3rd series, vol. v. p. 218), a sow, in 1403, killed and devoured a child at Meulan. All the forms of law were carried out, and the bill of costs was duly chronicled. A treatise was published so late as 1668, by Gaspard Bailly, a lawyer at Chambery, on legal proceedings against animals, with forms of indictments and modes of pleading. Nothing corresponding to this Trials of Animals. 37

occurs in English tradition, but, in one sense; animals here were proceeded against in cases of their killing, accidentally or otherwise, a human being. For instance, if a horse should strike his keeper, and so kill him, the horse was to be a deodand. He was to be sold, and his price given to the poor in expiation of the calamity and for the appeasing of the Divine wrath. It is curious to note that these statutes have only been repealed in the present century.

These trials probably had their origin in the Levitical law, as propounded in the twenty-first chapter of Exodus. Here we find that the punishment of the owner of an ox that had gored a man or a woman varied according to the rank of the individual, but in every case the ox was to be put to death by the cruel process of stoning, and its flesh was prohibited as food.

Topsell tells how some lions, which had grown so bold that they would attack men, were turned into scarecrows as a warning to their fellows:

“Polybius affirmeth that he saw them besiege and compasse about many citties of Affricke, and therefore the people tooke and hanged them up upon crosses and gallowses by the high waies to the terror of others.” (Page 464.)

The following passage in The Merchant of Venice (iv. 1) suggests the inquiry whether Shakspeare wittingly or by error of memory applied this punishment to maneating wolves:—

“Gratiano. O, be thou damn’d, inexecrable dog!
And for thy life let justice be accus’d.
Thou almost mak’st me waver in my faith,
To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
That souls of animals infuse themselves
Into the trunks of men: thy currish spirit
Govern’d a wolf, who, hang’d for human slaughter,
Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet,
And, whilst thou lay’st in thy unhallow’d dam,
Infus’d itself in thee; for thy desires
Are wolfish, bloody, starved, and ravenous.”

Shakspeare may have had the passage from his great authority, Holinshed, in his mind when he wrote thus:—

“For, said they [Plato and others] (of whom Pythagoras also had, and taught this errour), if the soule apperteined at the first to a king, and he in this estate did not leade his life worthie his calling, it should, after his decease, be shut up in the bodie of a slave, begger, cocke, owle, dog, ape, horsse, asse, worme, or monster, there to remaine as in a place of purgation and punishment, for a certeine period of time. Beside this, it should peradventure susteine often translation from one bodie to another, according to the quantitie and qualitie of his dooings here on earth, till it should finallie be purified and restored againe to an other humane bodie.” (Chronicles, vol. i. p. 35.)

James Howell, in his Familiar Letters, 1624 (p. 169, ed. 1754), tells the following anecdote of a Scotch piper and wolves:—

“A pleasant tale I heard Sir Thomas Fairfax relate of a soldier in Ireland, who having got his passport to go for England, as he passed through the wood with his knapsack upon his back, being weary, he sat down under a tree, where he opened his knapsack, and fell to some victuals he had; but on a sudden he was surprized with two or three wolves, who coming towards him, he threw them scraps of bread and cheese, till all was gone; then the wolves making a nearer approach to him he knew not what shift to make, but by taking a pair of bagpipes which he had, and as soone as he began to play upon them, the wolves ran all away as if they had been scared out of their wits: whereupon the soldier said, A pox take you all, if I had known you had loved music so well, you should have had it before dinner.”

The habit of the wolf of howling by moonlight is

alluded to by Shakspeare, ” Tis like the howling of Irish

wolves against the moon” (As You Like It, v. 2, 118),

and by Lyly, ” I am none of those wolves that barke most

when thou [the moon] shinest brightest” (Endimion).

The Jackal is not often mentioned in old writings.

Richard Jobson, in some observations touching

the river Gambia (Purchas, vol. ii. p. 1575),

describes this animal’s mode of hunting:—

“They have many lions, hardly seene by day, easily knowne by night, by reason of his ushers or fore-runners the jackall, sometimes

The Lion’s Provider. 39

two or three, which is a little blacke shag-haired beast, of the bignesso of a small spaniell; which when evening comes hunts for his prey, and comming on the foote, followes the scent with open crie: to which the lion as chiefe hunt, gives diligent eare, following for his advantage. If the jackall set up his chase before the lion comes in, he howles out maynly, and then the lion seiseth on it, making a grumbling noyse, whiles his servant stands by barking (as we not onely heard of the countrey people, but might heare our selves riding at anchor by night in our passing up the river). When the lion hath done, this attendant feeds on the relikes.”

CHAPTER III.

While Shakspeare has admiration to bestow on the “awless lion” and the “princely eagle,” he has in no one instance mentioned with appreciation the 08″ moral qualities of the dog. Sporting dogs he certainly describes with spirit, if not affection; but “to snarl, and bite, and play the dog,” appears to him the normal condition of the domestic animal. The poet must have been singularly unfortunate in his experience of the canine race, for his allusions are almost all of an unfavourable nature. Sir Henry Holland, in his Recollections of Past Life (p. 254), tells us that Lord Nugent, the greatest Shakspearian scholar of his day, declared that no passage was to be found in Shakspeare, “commending, directly or indirectly, the moral qualities of the dog.” A bet of a guinea was made, which Sir Henry, after a year’s search, paid. This was before the publication of Mrs. Cowden Clarke’s concordance. The only passage which could have had a chance of winning the wager is the speech of Timon:—

“Tim. Who, without those means thou talk’st of, didst thou ever know beloved? Apem. Myself.

Tim. I understand thee; thou hadst some means to keep a dog.”

(Timon of Athens, iv. 3, 113.)

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Are Bogs snobbish f 41

Lear asks of Gloucester—

“Lear. Thon hast seen a farmer’s dog bark at a beggar? Olou. Ay, sir.

Lear. And the creature run from the cur? There thou might’st behold the great image of authority: a dog’s obeyed in office.”

(King Lear, iv. 6, 158.)

Professor Huxley, sad to say, in his recent work on Hume, endorses Shakspeare’s opinion as to the total depravity of dog nature. He writes :—

“One of the most curious peculiarities of the dog mind is its inherent snobbishness, shown by the regard paid to external respectability. The dog who barks furiously at a beggar will let a well-dressed man pass him without opposition. Has he not then a ‘generic idea’ of rags and dirt associated with the idea of aversion, and that of sleek broadeloth associated with the idea of liking?” (Hume, 1879, p. 106.)

May not this distinction of persons be due to snobbishness on the part of the owners of dogs, to education, rather than to any natural tendency? A lady, who was in the habit of giving food to all who asked, saw her dog go to the open bread-pan, take out half a loaf, and give it to a beggar. What had become of this dog’s “inherent snobbishness “?

The beautiful description of Argus in the Iliad, so pathetic in its simplicity, shows that appreciation of the good qualities of the dog is not entirely of modern origin. Chester, a writer contemporary with Shakspeare, pays the following tribute to the attachment of the animal to its master:—

“The dogge, a naturall, kind, and loving thing,
As witnesseth our histories of old:
Their master dead, the poore foole with lamenting
Doth kill himself before accounted bold:

And would defend his maister if he might,
When cruelly his foe begins to fight.”

(Love’s Martyr, ed. New Shak. Soc.,
1878, p. 110.)

Doubtless some of the evil report attaching to dogs has descended to them in consequence of certain passages in the Bible. In the Old Testament this animal is generally spoken of as being, what he still is in Oriental countries, a shy, greedy, mean-spirited creature, uncared for, and left to dwell among the refuse of the city. Had he been in any way the companion of man, the dog must have been more favourably mentioned.

Ben Jonson is not much more complimentary to the dog than Shakspeare. In one play he writes:—

“0, ’tis an open-throated, black-mouthed cur,
That bites at all, but eats on those that feed him;
A slave, that to your face will, serpent-like,
Creep on the ground, as he would eat the dust,
And to your back will turn the tail, and sting
More deadly than a scorpion.”

(Every Man out of his Humour, i. 1.)

But in another play he makes some amends by reporting how, when Sabinus, by order of the tyrant, Sejanus, was thrown into the river Tiber,—

“His faithful dog, upbraiding all us Romans,
Never forsook the corpse, but seeing it thrown
Into the stream, leaped in, and drowned with it.”

(Sejanus, iv. 5.)

The writer Churchyard thus classifies the dog :— “A Turk, a Jew, a Pagan, and a dog.”

Sir John Davies, in an epigram, ridicules the prevalent fancy for making unmeaning comparisons between unpopular individuals and dogs, and shows a truer appreciation of the “friend of man” than his contemporaries.

“Thou dogged Cineas, hated like a dog,
For still thou grumblest like a mastiff dog,
Compar’st thyself to nothing but a dog:
Thou say’st thou art as weary as a dog,
As angry, sick, and hungry as a dog,
As dull, and melancholy as a dog,

Defence of Dogs. 43

As lazy, sleepy, and as idle as a dog;
But why dost thou compare thee to a dog,
In that for which all men despise a dog?
I will compare thee better to a dog:
Thou art as fair and comely as a dog,
Thou art as true and honest as a dog,
Thou art as kind and liberal as a dog,
Thou art as wise and valiant as a dog.”

(Marlowe’s Works, ed. Cunningham, p. 2G5.)

Id the play by Thomas Nash, Summer’s Last Will and Testament, printed in the year 1600, Orion, the hunter, thus answers a tirade of Autumn against his hounds:—

“A tedious discourse built on no ground,
A silly fancy, Autumn, hast thou told,
Which no philosophy doth warrantise,
No old-received poetry confirms.
I will not grace thee by refuting thee;
Yet, in a jest, since thou rail’st so ‘gainst dogs,
I’ll speak a word or two in their defence.
That creature’s best that comes most near to men;
That dogs of all come nearest, thus I prove:
First, they excel us in all outward sense,
Which no one of experience will deny:
They hear, they smell, they see better than we.
To come to speech, they have it questionless,
Although we understand them not so well,
They bark as good old Saxon as may be,
And that in more variety than we.
For they have one voice when they are in chase:
Another when they wrangle for their meat:
Another when we beat them out of doors.”

(Dodsley’s Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, vol. 8.)

Dogs seem to have been sufficiently plentiful in number and variety in England at this period. Fynes Morrison, in his Itinerary, writing about 1591, tells us:—

“England hath much more dogges, as well for the severall kinds as the number of each kind, then any other territorie of like compasse in the world, not onely little dogges for beauty, but hunting and waterdogges, whereof the bloudhounds and some other have admirable qualities.” (Ed. 1617, p. 148.)

Amoretto, in the play The Return from Parnassus, enumerates some of the different varieties:—

“He hath your greyhound, your mungrell, your mastiff, your leurier, your spaniell, your kennets, terriers, butchers dogges, bloudhoundes, dunghill-dogges, trindle tailes, and prick-eard curres.”

Orion concludes his defence of dogs by the following list of their acquirements :—

“Yea, there be of them, as there be of men,
Of every occupation more or less:
Some carriers, and they fetch; some watermen,
And they will dive and swim when you do bid them;
Some butchers, and they worry sheep by night;
Some cooks, and they do nothing but turn spits.
Cynies they are, for they will snarl and. bite;
Right courtiers to flatter and to fawn;
Valiant to set upon their enemies;
Most faithful and most constant to their friends.”

Shakspeare was perhaps indebted to this passage.

“First Murderer. We are men, my liege.
Macbeth. Ay, in the catalogue ye go for men:
As hounds, and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs,
Shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are clept
All by the name of dogs: the valued file
Distinguishes the swift, the slow, the subtle,
The housekeeper, the hunter, every one
According to the gift which bounteous nature
Hath in him clos’d; whereby he does receive
Particular addition, from the bill
That writes them all alike: and so of men.”

(Macbeth, iii. 1, 91.)

Dr. John Kaye, or Caius, as he called himself, was physician to three sovereigns of England, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. Amongst other works, Dr. Caius wrote, about the year 1550, a short treatise in Latin on English dogs, which was translated into English by Abraham Fleming in 1576. This hitherto scarce work has recently been reprinted, and published at a moderate The Bloodlwund. 45

price. Mr. Jesse, in his History of the British Dog, has drawn largely upon the pages of this pamphlet, which is indeed the chief authority on the subject.

The translator, in his preface, informs his readers that this little treatise was written by Dr. Caius at the request of Conrad Gesner, a Swiss naturalist, one of the most learned men of his time.

The most formidable of our English dogs was the Bloodhound. This dog was sometimes called

i- . 1-1 ii» ji-iii Bloodhound.

limier, or limehound, from the leash, lyme, or line, by which he was held while tracking the deer. He was employed to find the stag, but did not as a rule run with the pack. His superior sense of smell made him the most valuable addition to a hunting establishment. Dr. Caius distinguishes between the bloodhound and the limier. According to him the limier was a hound remarkable for quick running as well as for his scent, in size between a harrier and a greyhound. Other names for the bloodhound were slough, sleuth, slow, or slug hound; he was not unfrequently employed for tracing thieves and cattle-stealers through the mosses and bogs, impassable save to those intimately acquainted with them. Mr. Jesse quotes from Nicolson and Burn’s History of the Antiquities of Westmoreland and Cumberland, published 1777, a warrant, dated September, 1616, from Sir Wilfride Lawson and Sir William Hutton, two of his Majesty’s commissioners for the government of the middle shires of Great Britain, to the garrison of Carlisle, ordering that in consequence of the numerous robberies slough dogs should be provided, and kept at the charge of the inhabitants, at nine parishes in the neighbourhood of the Marches. A more formidable ally could scarcely be given to a pursuer.

Shakspeare has only one allusion to this variety by name: “Ay, come, you starved blood-hound” (2 Henry IV., v. 4, 31). Ben Jonson writes, “A good bloodhound,

The Works of William Shakespeare: As you like it. Taming of the shrew. 1856

Enter BIONDELLo, running. , \ Bion. 0 master, master, I have watch’d so long, _ \ That I ’m dog-weary ;‘° but at last I spied ‘ j An ancient angel41 coming down the hill,
\Vill serve the turn. -,I Tra. \Yllat is he, Biondello? I j Bion. Master, a mercatante,”2 or a pedant,
1;
I know not what; but formal in apparel,
‘t l’ In gait and countenance surely like
a father.43 ’ Luc. And what of him, Tranio ?
jj ‘ Tra. If he be credulous, and trust my tale, I ’11 make him glad to seem Vincentio ; 1 And give assurance to Baptista Minola,
As if he were the right Vineentio. j \ Take in your love, and then let me alone.“ [Ewen-nit LUCENTIO and BIANCA.

That teacheth tricks eleven and twenty long.
We have here
a very uncommon and perhaps unique expression; but it seems to mean no more than that the tricks were of an extraordinary kind. Eleven and
twenty is the same as eleven score, which signified
a great length or number as ap lied to the exertions of a few or even of a single person. Thus in the old
ba ad of the Low Country Soldier, —“ Myself and seven more—\Ve fought eleven
score.”-—Douce. The allusion may possibl be to the game of one-and-thirty. Tricks eleven and
twenty long would thus be, just the game, exactly to the purpose.
‘0 I’m dog-weary.
That is, very weary. Dog-cheap is
a similar compound. “To take up com modities at a high rate, and sell them againe dog cheape,” Cotgrave in v.1’rendrc. The expression, dog-mad, occurs in Howell’s Letters, 1650; and dog-sick, or as sick as a dog, in Buttes’ Dyets Dry Dinner, 1599.

Shameless

106. Grammatical gender is one of the most mysterious and oft en discussed phenomena in linguistics. Signifi cant diffi culties still persist about both the origin and the nature of
this kind of classifying function, as well as how it develops (Corbett 1991, 1; Lazzeroni 1993,
3; Weber 1999, 495–509). For a synopsis of recent discussions, see Unterbeck et al. 1999. In
general, these range from claims that the distribution of nouns into diff erent grammatical
genders is absolutely arbitrary (Eco 1976, 92, which holds, nonetheless, that the noun’s
grammatical marker lends its semantic content an aura of gendered connotation) to admissions, more or less detailed, of motivating rationale, especially regarding the names of animal beings, for the most part distributed into classes of grammatical gender corresponding
to the referent’s sex in each language (e.g., |marito [husband]| masc. vs. |moglie [wife]| fem.;
|cane| masc. vs. |cagna| fem.). Yet there do seem to be cases where it’s hard to rule out the
possibility that a noun (even the name of an inanimate object) has been assigned a grammatical gender for reasons of structural order, based on classes of masculine or feminine
entries in the cultural encyclopedia: in some Afro-Asiatic languages, for example, masculine nouns tend to denote objects that are large, robust, and long, while small, fragile, and
rounded objects have feminine names (a “semantically loaded gender marking system”:
Hurskainen 1999, 680–87). In my view, the concept of polarization helps explain the case of
Greek kyōn all the more, since the noun’s feminization is not the result of morphological
change but is instead a semantic shift : the noun, while formally keeping its indefi nite gender, changes its agreement, which is the factor that, in the case of a generic referent, signals
that it belongs in a “covert category” of semantic gender.
107. All this may seem strangely similar to the theory of “metaphorical gender” endorsed
by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century linguistics, whereby |earth|, for example, is feminine
since it is fertile and welcoming and |luck| would also be feminine, inasmuch as women are
also fi ckle and unpredictable (Baron 1986, 101–5), but the similarity is only superfi cial.
Polarization theory applies not as a general organizing principle for grammatical gender
but only to a specifi c case; it concerns not the gender of every noun but rather a given
binary pairing in a given culture; and it does not concern the “masculinity” or “femininity”
of referents per se but outlines the possibility that their opposition, in terms of cultural
polarity, has been represented on the grammatical level by a gender opposition.
9780520273405_PRINT.indd 242 30/07/14 1:39 PM
NOTES to pages 149–150 243
108. Pseudo-Aristotle, On Reported Marvels 116 (841b6). For the dating of this work, see
Giannini 1964, 133–34.
109. Consistent with my argument, Alessandro Giannini (1966, 283) off ered the following Latin translation of the Pseudo-Aristotle passage: “Nec porcum nec canem ullum
audere stercora hominum attingere.” For hys (f.), see especially Aelian, On the Nature of
Animals 8.19, 10.16. For feminine kyōn, see ibid., 7.40, 13.14, 13.24, 16.24. Th e two pieces of
evidence from the Aristotelian treatise and from Aelian cast doubts on a statement in the
scholia on Euripides that says the use of the feminine for common nouns was an especially
poetic usage (Scholia in Euripidis Phoenissas 3).
110. On this cultural polarity in the swine family, see now Franco 2006.
111. Female wild boars can be extremely dangerous, as the myth of the murderous
Crommyonian sow killed by Th eseus shows.
112. According to Jeff rey Henderson (1987, 161), the joke—understood as a metaphor for
“I will vent my anger freely”—draws its signifi cance from the fact that swine terms were
oft en used to indicate female sexuality.
113. Aristophanes, Lysistrata 682–84. Th e boar’s fury was recognized in the species generally, whether it was male or female, and thus the joke might very well be understood as
simply a metaphor for anger, with no play on words: “I am going to set loose the boar inside
me!” (Taillardat 1962, 207–8, 191). Th e relevance of my reading obviously depends on the
correctness of the assumption that in classical Athenian Greek, the feminine of hys was used
to designate the domesticated pig. According to Sommerstein 1990, 192, “Here the gender
of the animal simply follows that of the speaker.” It’s true that the feminine is required in
order to agree grammatically with the metaphor’s referent, but this does not mean that it
occurred “simply.” Instead, the agreement may have an insulting charge, all the more biting
for being ironically cast as a slip by the characters speaking.
114. Dog stands in relation to wolf as tamest to wildest (κυνὶ λύκος, ἀγριώτατον
ἡμερωτάτῳ: Plato, Sophist 231a6). It is worth noticing that in the passage from Plato’s Republic mentioned above (n. 96), the dogs [f.] that “get angry at the stones” instead of attacking
those who have hurled them are compared to a man with a “womanish and petty mind”
(5.469d–e) who despoils the dead body of the enemy instead of bravely confronting his
antagonist alive. Th e importance of gender categories for classifying the natural world is
confi rmed by how oft en they were used in botanical classifi cation. Greek names for plants
were almost all feminine, but that was no hindrance to almost every type of plant being
categorized as masculine or feminine depending on whether or not it was fruit bearing or
whether its wood was soft (a feminine plant) or hard and diffi cult to work (a masculine
plant). A signifi cant exception to the rule that all plant names were feminine is that the
domesticated fi g was called sykea (a feminine noun), while the wild fi g was called erineos or
olynthos (masculine nouns): Foxhall 1998.
115. See Solon, fr. 36 West2
(30 Gentili-Prato2
); see also this chapter’s earlier section “A
Dog’s Mischief.” Th e cultural polarity wolf/dog had in essence reoriented the grammatical
gender of |kyōn|, switching it from a generic masculine to a generic feminine: thus the phenomenon may be considered a result of what Umberto Eco (1976) calls the “semantic reverberation” of the gender marker (see n. 106 above).
116. In Semonides (fr. 7 Pellizer-Tedeschi), annoying idle chatter is typical of the dogwoman, but the entire race of women is given by nature to faultfi nding and insults
9780520273405_PRINT.indd 243 30/07/14 1:39 PM
244 NOTES to pages 151–152
(μεμψιμοιρότερον καὶ φιλολοίδορον): Aristotle, History of Animals 608b10. For the dog’s
aggressive chattering, see, e.g., Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1631 (νήπια ὑλάγματα), 1672 (μάταια
ὑλάγματα), but examples of canine garrulity as a symbol of empty aggression—merely verbal and thus ineff ective—and of loidoria are quite abundant: see Franco 2007a. On women’s
annoying, senseless prattling, see McClure 1999, 56–62, 170–71.
117. On curiosity and intrusiveness, see again the dog-woman in Semonides (fr. 7 PellizerTedeschi). Th e dog as thief of human food needs no further support; as for woman, however,
recall Hesiod’s description of the wife as always “lying in wait for dinner” (δειπνολόχος:
Works and Days 704). Th e topos of feminine voraciousness, a consequence of her parasitic
condition, appears again in Xenophon, who says that one of the most important things to
consider in choosing a bride is that her stomach has been well trained (Oeconomicus 7.6). On
the dog’s impulsive and fi ery nature, characteristics that almost always place it in the domain
of thrasos, or unwarranted and reckless courage, see ch. 4. As an example of feminine fi eriness, one can recall Hesiod’s woman who “burns” and parches man (Vernant 1989, 66); an
assertion of woman’s combustible nature occurs in Aristophanes, Lysistrata 1014–15.
118. In Aristophanes’s Wasps (1401–5), a bakeress comes to Philocleon to demand compensation for damages. In response, the wily old man tells her an obliquely insulting anecdote
from the life of Aesop: one day the fabulist scolded a kyōn [f.] that, “bold and drunk,” had
dared to bark at him, urging it to σωφροσύνη, saying, “Kyon, kyon! If you’d sell your wicked
tongue for a bit of grain, I’d think you’d be acting with some sense!” Th e expression reappears
in Callimachus (Aitia fr. 75.4 Pfeiff er) as a call to silence: “Kyon, kyon!” the poet says to himself
at a moment when he wants to refrain from saying something he shouldn’t. Th us, the phrase
has been interpreted as a typical idiom for situations when one must hold one’s tongue: Pontes
1995. In other words, when you needed to silence someone or yourself, you told the tongue,
“Sit! Down!” by calling it Dog! See also Sappho, fr. 158 Voigt (γλῶσσαν μαψυλάκαν).

See Chantraine 1968; Frisk 1960–70, s.v. λαίθαργος. Th e connection with λήθαργος
is uncertain and does not shed much light on the meaning, unless we suppose a sly dog trick
of feigning lethargic dozing in order to bite in treachery. Λήθαργος is the proper name of a
dog in Palatine Anthology 7.304 (see ch. 3)

Th e dog’s cunning, therefore, is an inside job. Wild animals excluded from the
human community, such as the fox or the wolf—certainly no less sneaky than the
dog—could never, despite their cunning, perform this act of betrayal: the tactic of
fl attery, for which the dog is, in fact, the symbol in most ancient sources, relies on
a grant of trust that strangers cannot receive. But since it is included in human
society, a dog can exploit its eff ective power of seduction in sainein to prepare the
fi eld and strike unexpected: it is trusted as philos and then “bites” in betrayal.41 For
confi rmation of this it suffi ces to continue on in Pindar, where the metaphor of a
fawning dog is followed by another animal metaphor:
With the rashly bold [thraseos] I have no share. A friend to friends,
But on foes as a foe I’ll pounce like a wolf,
Ranging here and there on crooked pathways.42
Against the fl atterer’s reasoning, Pindar sets his own moral code, that of confrontation: the reckless dog’s plots are answered by the savage wolf ’s assaults. But how
are we meant to construe this opposition? Aft er all, the wolf also, as the text makes
explicit, adopts a technique of trickery, “ranging here and there on crooked pathways,” confounding his tracks. Th e diff erence lies in the fact that the wolf doesn’t
wag its tail, doesn’t want to make anyone believe it’s a friend; it deceives, but not
with the particular form of deceit that confounds the distinction between friend
and enemy, familiar and stranger. Th e wolf is always the enemy, and an open,
declared one; its ruses play out in external spaces, in places designated for confl ict
with foreign foes. Th e dog’s plots are internal, domestic, woven into the social
fabric, where solidarity and true friendship, not hostility, is expected.
Th e wolf ’s morality is the famous Greek precept “Friend to friends, enemy to
enemies,” a norm dear to archaic aristocratic ethics that imposed on the nobility
the greatest transparency and clarity in determining alliances and enmities, and
9780520273405_PRINT.indd 133 30/07/14 1:39 PM
134 Return to Pandora
while this ethic required absolute loyalty to and solidarity with friends, it also
sanctioned the use of any means against declared enemies, including “crooked
pathways” of trickery and cunning. Considerate and faithful to his philoi, the
nobleman knows how instead to be brutal and perfi dious against his echthroi.43 If
the wolf does not fawn, it is because it is constitutionally unfamiliar with any logic
of bargaining with humankind; it is forever outside the system of alliances, forever
an enemy, and for it, trickery is not treachery. Th e man who trusts a wolf is a fool.44
Th e dog that deceives, on the other hand, is a dirty traitor, since its ruse is accomplished through an off er of philia, an immoral falsehood that violates the ethical
precept that wants the philoi-echthroi distinction to remain ever sharp and truthfully stated.45 Th e dog’s deceit lies within the realm of stasis, of hateful internal
strife, that arises among fellow citizens and within families, people who ought to
be allied. Th e wolf ’s cunning is instead a praiseworthy tactic of polemos, war
between foreigners, open confl ict between declared enemies.
Th is model of the wolf as a symbol of coherence and sharply delineated positions—as opposed to the dog’s faithless vacillation—reappears in iambics composed by Solon to defend his political actions. In these verses, Solon proudly
takes credit for never having changed his allegiances nor muddied the waters
with any fi ckle about-faces.46 Steadfast and incorruptible—says Solon—I was able
to prevent the city from falling into civil war; among the crowd of devious, selfinterested agitators that surrounded me, trying to enlist me in their conspiracies,
I remained a “wolf,” above and in opposition to all: “Protecting myself from
every party / I remained a wolf, looking around among many dogs [feminine in
Greek].”
We will discuss this passage again a bit later in order to explain—and perhaps
one may already start to guess—why Solon contrasts himself as a male “wolf ” with
the devious, plotting fellow-citizen female “dogs.” For now, it’s enough to observe
that the wolf-dog opposition works once again as a metaphor for the oppositions
between declared hostility and devious evildoing, open war and internecine strife,
which constituted one of the most important ethical themes in the archaic period.47
In later periods, as the aristocratic ethos declined, the wolf lost its value as a
positive model and became, like the dog, a negative fi gure. But signifi cantly, the
structural opposition between the two animals was maintained and played out in
terms of the contrast between external and internal, between the action of an enemy
of all—who is placed above and outside the scale of alliances—and the cloaked,
devious action of an enemy infi ltrator among allied friends. Let’s take an example:
when the sage Bias of Priene was asked which animals were the most frightful, he
responded, “Among wild animals, the tyrant; among domestic, the fl atterer.” Plato
provides the key to this riddle: the tyrant is the wolf, a brutal but declared enemy. It’s
fairly evident, then, that its domestic counterpart, the fl atterer, is none other than
the dog, the enemy disguised as philos, the traitor who strikes from within.48
9780520273405_PRINT.indd 134 30/07/14 1:39 PM
Return to Pandora 135
Th e traditional inclination of dogs toward covert action is also apparent in
other circumstances. For instance, the dog was oft en described with the epithet
laithargos, an adjective probably connected with the root lath-, conveying the idea
of a hidden action, of something escaping notice. Its exact derivation and thus its
precise meaning are uncertain, and so is its connection with lēthargos (with which
it tends to be confused), but the passages that defi ne the dog as laithargos leave
little doubt that the word has to do with traitorous conduct and the animal’s ability
to feign kindness in order to then strike suddenly.49 Moreover, a gloss in Hesychius
explicitly ties the adjective lēthargos to sainein and defi nes a dog with this quality
as one “that fawns and then bites without one expecting it [lathrāi].”50
Th e earliest attestations of this typically doggish epithet appear in

Lazy as a dog (Google Books)

The Idle Traveller
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Dan Kieran – 2013 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
Geography and travel.
Beast and Man in India: A Popular Sketch of Indian Animals in their …
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John Lockwood Kipling – 1891 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
To an idle girla mother will say, “Did the cat sneeze,or what?” (that youdropyour work). To her child, too … Oldfashioned Englishrustics talkofa man “as lazy as Ludlam’s dog that leanedhis head against the wall to bark.”In Kashmir, says the Rev.
Srpsko-engleski frazeološki rečnik – Page 439
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Živorad Kovačević – 2002 – ‎Snippet view
lenja buba * lezilebovic X an idler * a sluggard * a la^y bum informal * a lazy dog informal * a lazybones informal * bone idle informal * bone lazy informal X You’re an idler. Don’t forget: an idle youth, a needy age. X Every day is holiday with …
Child of the Great Depression: Growing up Poor but Proud on the …
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William Elihu Palmer – 2014 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Hunting. Dogs. All the idle farmers in Powellville gathered on the porch of Bailey’s General Foodand FeedStoreon hotafternoons. They talked … They also talked about hunting dogs. … She was lazy and never took the lead on the rabbit’s trail.
The Big Thing: How to Complete Your Creative Project Even if You’re …
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Giuseppe Marco Antonio Baretti – 1809 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Perdigon, s. rh. a yfrong partridge.— PrrengonM, pi. shot to kill birds with: Perdigueio, s. m. a setting- dog. Perdimienfo, s. m. loss … Perecear,v. n.to be idle or lazy in doing any thing. Perecedero, adj.perishable,that will perish. Perener, v. n. to …
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Hipólito San Joseph Giral del Pino – 1763 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
PERDIGOYNES, f. m. shot to kill birds with. PERDIGUEYRO, dog. PERDIMIENTO, f. m. lofs, deftruction ; alfo … PERECE’AR, v. n. to be idle or lazy in doing any thing. – PERECEDERO, RA, adj. perishable, that will perish. PERECE’R, v. n. præt.
En Dansk og Engelsk ord-bog
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The paw of a dog, bear, lion or cat, the foot of a oofe. LABER, V. To lick, to lick up. LABYRINTHE, Sub. A labyrinth, a maze or trouble. LACTUK, Sub. A lettice. LAD, Adj. Idle, flothful, lazy, fluggish, dull. LADDEN, Sub. (ladning) A lading, a …
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Giuseppe Baretti – 1800 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
PERDIGUERO, f. m. a etting-dog. PERDIMIENTO, f. m. los, detruction; alo levdnes, bafenes. PERDIZ, f. f. a … PERECEAR, v. n. to be idle or lazy in doing any thing. PERECEDERO, adj. perihable, that will perih. PE RECER, v. n. to perih.
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Joe Frankl – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Once a week there was a film show behind the small shopping centre; we paid a nominal fee for film hire and brought our own garden chairs … took their cars too – and Israel got its first drive in cinema. … Most were lazy, idle or just brought their problems with them. … Poetic justice, indeed. to neighbours and friends: gardens became walled and fenced off, protected by dogs and elaborate security devices …
The Serpent’s Eye: Shaw and the Cinema – Page 164
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=EpZBAAAAIAAJ

Donald Paul Costello, ‎Bernard Shaw – 1965 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Shaw and the Cinema Donald Paul Costello, Bernard Shaw. that he is always laughing in his sleeve at me. Quite right to send … Germain is a lazy, idle, good-for- nothing dog. Never does today what he can put off till tomorrow. But it doesn’t …
Pirate Cinema
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1429943181

Cory Doctorow – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
In the dystopian near-future Britain where Trent is growing up, this is more illegal than ever; the punishment for being caught three times is that your entire household’s access to the internet is cut off for a year, with no appeal.
The Guernsey Literary and Potato Peel Pie Society
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1408803313

Mary Ann Shaffer, ‎Annie Barrows – 2009 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
But when she receives a letter from Dawsey Adams of Guernsey – a total stranger living halfway across the Channel, who has come across her name written in a second hand book – she enters into a correspondence with him, and in time with …
Encyclopedia of Homelessness – Volume 1 – Page 293
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0761927514

David Levinson – 2004 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The tramp appears in Chaplin’s films from Kid Auto Races at Venice (1914) to Modern Times (1936). … population: “At different times he is shown living in a patchwork dwelling (A Dog’s Life [1918]), sleeping in a homeless shelter (Police! [1916], Triple Trouble [1918], and The Kid [1921]), emerging from the undercarriage of a train (The Idle Class [1921]), and … Kusmer writes, “The long-standing image of the lazy homeless person appeared less often, and the humorous tone of many …
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at the cinema – Page 170
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=4ZBaAAAAMAAJ

Scott Allen Nollen – 1996 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… Holmes, and to us (in A Study in Scarlet), as an idle toper, a self-confessed, and obviously unsuccessful, backer of racehorses (half … temperament; grants that he is lazy, and readily confirms Holmes’s allusions to his weaknesses: “I have another set of vices when I’m … to be Holmes’s butt, Holmes’s unpaid servant, even Holmes’s cringing and fawning dog.19 Harrison’s analysis may be a bit extreme, …
Films and Other Materials for Projection – Page 505
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=Y–FaFjOf2wC

Library of Congress – 1968 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0684842505

F. Scott Fitzgerald, ‎Matthew Joseph Bruccoli – 1998 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Together, these forty-three stories compose a vivid picture of a lost era, but their brilliance is timeless.
The Encyclopedia of Hollywood
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0816046239

Scott Siegel, ‎Barbara Siegel, ‎Thomas L. Erskine – 2004 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
Offers an historical overview of the American film industry, from its beginnings in Thomas Edison’s workshop to its status today as the leader of the world’s filmmaking.
Homer Simpson’s Little Book of Laziness
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0593073002

Matt Groening – 2013 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
Being lazy is great fun when you do it Homer Simpson’s way! With flaps to lift, cards to uplift and leaflets to explore you can “get the lowdown on the slow down and discover a knack for slack”–Cover.

The Anglo-American Magazine

A FEW SIMPLE FACTS FROM DOG
TRUSTY. ”
Having watched my master at his writing,
I have fortunately picked up something of
the art, and write, as you may perceive, a
very tolerable paw, by which I am enabled
lo state to the public some of the grievances
unJer which I and my brethren labour ;
heping, thereby, to awaken their compunc tion. They have become so familiar with
the, wrongs which they inflict on us that it
is not Unlikely that they never reflect on
them ! It is indeed very mortifying to me
and my fellow dogs, whe have been empha
tically called ” the friends of men,” to have
insults and affronts heaped upon ua. The
friends of man, indeed! And good reason
to be so. The usage he receives may be gathered from what our masters themselves
imply, when they speak of any one whe has
been ill-treated ! ” He has,” they say, ” been
used worse than a dog;” even their own
ideas of ill-usage cannot go beyond that.
Abuse of character, disposition, or manners,
is never considered complete unless the
epithet, dog, is added. I will not speak of
the personal injuries which we have received
at the hands of him whe has been pleased to call us his especial friends. I might,
indeed, tell of the barbarous coercion resorted
to, in what they call breaking us ; I might
advert to the cruelti,, – of lopping tails and
ears, and worming tonj, ‘a ; I might allude
to chains, and that badgo of slavery, the
collar, to whu- . . , many among ua have
teen compelled to’ submit; I might, indeed, descant on the hardships we endure, and
the confinement to which we are frequently
subjected ; but I shall restrict myself merely
to the insults and affronts which are put
upon us. Noble animals they allow us to
be—hut does this acknowledgment agree
with the derision and contempt which they
cast upon our name, a cut-throat dog, a con
founded dog, a cowardly dog, a mean dog, a
snenking dog, a dirty dog, a stupid heund ?
Their name for a spendthrift is a good-for- nothiny dog. Don’t I hear the way they go
on, if a servant neglects his business l He
js forsooth an idle dog, a lazy dog. Pray
whe takes care of the heuse when all the
family are tucked up in their warm beds ?
Whe is it then, I’d be glad to know, whe is
idle, whe is lazy then? Is it indeed we whe
take our rounds of the premises at the dead
heur of the night, to see that all is safe, and
to give warning of approaching danger? Is
that lazy? The term used to a presuming
fellow is impudent dog. Are we impudent,
then, whe are ready to do our master’s bid
ding at every turn, whe never assert a will
of our own, or consult our own comfort and
convenience? And yet we are held up as
an example of all that is vile, base, and mean
and disagreeable, from the very moment our
eyes arc opened ? Nay, I might say before-,
if an insufferable dandy appears, he is called
a conceited puppy. Even in the very chiding
of their children they have their sneer at
us; “troublesome cur” and “mischievous
whelp” are their terms of reprehension, and
they think are the worst names they can call
them. We never remember to have once
heard of them saying of one whem they
wished to commend, ” the good dog,” ” the
industrious dog,” “the gentlemanly dog,”
the unaffected puppy,” ” the intellectual
heund,” “the engaging cur,” or ” the sweet
whelp ;” no, no, they tack the word dog to
everything they wish to stamp as disagreea
ble or contemptible , a (fojmiatical man, they
say, of one whe takes on him too much in
giving his opinion ; these whe are morose or
cross they are called dogged ; to such a de
gree do they carry their wish to depreciate
us, that they add the word dog whenever
they would express worthlessness. The rose
which they think undeserving of cultivation
they have named them the dogrose ; the
lowest and most despicable rhymes they
designate doggerel. They say dog cheap of
what brings no profit in the sale; dogs’ meat
is the very refuse of the market, the offal,
which they think good enough for us—for
us whe help them to catch their game, and
furnish out their tables with the cheicest
dainties ; whe watch their flocks that they
may have their mutton. Even if the leaves
of their books are crumpled, they say they
arc dog-eared ; they tell you, that one whe
has ruined himself by misconduct has gone
to the dogs ;—hew obliging ! The dogs, I
can tell them, have other company to keep.
In fact, everything hateful or disagreeable

192 A FEW SIMPLE FACTS FROM DOG TRUSTY.
suggests the idea of a dog. As gay as a
lark, as merry as a cricket, as busy as a bee,
as gentle as a lamb, all give a pkasing idea;
and even ” you monkey,” is accompanie(
by a caress. Not one instance can be men N tioned in which we have been favourably
named. When dead sick, they will tell you
they are sick as a dog; when fainting with
fatigue, they are as tired as a dog. They
oven go out of their way to heap affronts
upon us ; their ridiculous man in the play is
called Dogberry ; and the incensed Jew
speaks in his wrath of having been called
dog, as the greatest insult which could have
been offered ; and yet they all say that we
are fine noble creatures, and pretend to love
us ; but this soft sawder is a poor setoff for
all the affronts which they put on us. They
know in their hearts that we are better than
they are, and they feel their dependence on
us. Happening to cast my eye on a book
“”\which lay open on the table at the word dog,
for it was a dictionary by one Doctor John
son, who”, it seems, is a great autherity here
in England, I read this,—”Dog, a particle added to anything tosftraiksits meanness and
degeneracy; dog-trieV., surly Op brutal treat
ment ; (fo’/-days, vulgarly repeated unwhele
some ; dog-fiy, a voracious biting fly ;” even
in sifting their grain, the loose part of the
meal is known as do’7sbolt—food only fit for
us!—”(fojgish, churlish, brutal; (fo(/-hearted,
cruel, pitiless, malicious ; dog-hole, a vile
hele, a mean habitation.” They even turn
us into a verb, for the sake of another insult, ” to dog, to follow insidiously.” I’d be glad,
after all, to know what they would do with
out us. What would they do at their cours
ings, their sheotings, their huntings, if we
were not along with them? Pray whe used
to roast their meat for them, in wlrat they
call the good old times ? What man of them
all would have worked at the spit as we did
when we were almost as much done as the
meat we turued for them ? They often bring up an old story against us, something about
a dog and a manger; a story that never was
authenticated. I would be glad to know whe
would be shewn up, if we were to tell but
the half of what we hear and see. It is said
that it is more difficult to forgive insults than
injuries ; and every one must know that
patience has its limits—I will say nothing
of open rebellion, we are too loyal for thai;
but passive opposition might be irresistible.
Now just suppose wo were to go to sleep in
our kennels at a treasonable heur every night,
and let the robbers come if they will. What
harm can they do us ? They cannot rob ua
of money or valuables. Where would be the
game if we declined to set or retrieve? Where
would be the coursing or the hunting if we
would not so much as look at a fox or a hare?
Whe would keep the sheepfolds if we walked
another way? Theugh we have been de
rided and treated with contempt, we are not
witheut power ; and if men will take from
us our good name, let them beware: they
may yet be left in the lurch ; they may find
some bright spring morning, when mounted
on their hunters, and when the huntsman’s
hern is echeed from the hills, no heund to
answer to the well-known call; instead of
the exhilarating cry of the eager dogs, a
ilence which they may deplore but cannot
break. This is a hint in time from
Dog Trustt.

Polnîi russko-angliiskii slovar

.lesnaiita, s.f. the position of what is
lying; et —iny, stretched out, lying. .i<-;k<-ook-i,. s.m. lie-a-bed, sluggard,
lazy person; out — , he is an idle dog.

Littell’s Living Age, Volume 207
edited by Eliakim Littell, Robert S. Littell
About this book

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part, too young and inexperienced to lead their countrymen with any safety along the path of political reform. No doubt the spread of knowledge is progressing rapidly throughout the land; but many years must necessarily elapse before the evils of mental slavery can be said to be non-existent, or before the free exercise of individual judgment is, in any sense, a reality; and until such time arrives it is clearly the duty of government to protect, as far as possible, the uneducated masses from the false and seditious doctrines of men who, whether from lack of intelligence to grasp the true character of England’s work in this country, or from self-interested and spiteful motives, spare no pains to throw odium on the government which has fostered them and which in return they are now doing their utmost to embarrass. “If the Indian government,” as Sir Lepel Griffin very justly remarks in his article “India in 1895,” “be too timid to protect itself from open sedition and too ungenerous to defend its servants against false and malicious misrepresentation, it has surrendered one of the elementary principles of a civilized government, popular or autocratic, and deserves the fate which attends on all rulers who do not know how to govern.”

Simla, April 22, 1895.

From The Fortnightly Review. TUDOR TRANSLATIONS.

EY PROFESSOR. RA LEIGH.

ONE of the best and most curious proofs of the supremacy of Shakespeare among English writers is to be found in the length and depth of the shadow that has been cast by his fame. There is hardly a writer in the century of his apparition but has suffered from the brightness of that neighborhood. The works of great Elizabethan and Jacobean dramatists were ransacked for a hundred years to illustrate Shakespeare’s poorest jests, before they were edited for their proper merits. Beaumont and Fletcher may thank their

mighty contemporary, and him alone, that their plays, for all the wit and romance that enlivens them, have remained a part of the scholar’s furniture; the greater British public has its Shakespeare, and will none of them. The brave array of Caroline poets, Herrick and his company, long bore a twofold burden of neglect ; they were not Shakespeare, and they were not of his age. Only recently have they been securely reprinted. Backwards the shadow lies deeper. Marlowe, Greene, Peele, and the rest, as dramatists and predecessors of Shakespeare, have had their full share of attention ; but the whole mass of literature that went to the making of Shakespeare, the output especially of the earlier half of Elizabeth’s reign, has, with this exception, been scarcely reprinted in modern days. So innocent and plenary has been the confidence of his countrymen in Shakespeare’s thievery, that they have trusted him to steal for them all that was good in English literature during the years of his upbringing. It was an age of prose; Elizabethan prose, by a commonplace of criticism, is found wanting in the qualities of lucidity, balance, and precision ; the most enthusiastic of the foragers among these forgotten works have been sworn to the service of poetry and bent on elucidating poetic origins ; and hence it has come about that a noble tradition of English prose and a long line of works that glorified it have been left to the book-fancier and the British Museum. An adventurer here and there, intent on some special interest, has earned gratitude by recovering some single book, Holinshed’s “Chronicles,” Scot’s “Discovery of Witchcraft,” Painter’s “Palace of Pleasure,” and the Shakespeare societies have trawled and dredged not in vain; but the larger task of raising a monument to the age has been left untouched. It is, therefore, with a new sense of hope and in a spirit of the deepest thankfulness, that readers and lovers of English literature have seen volume follow volume in Messrs. Nutt’s series of “The Tudor Translations,” edited by Mr. W. E. Henley. It may be accepted as a happy omen that the series makes its appeal directly to the public through the medium of no academy or body of subscribers. A nation must be very careless, as well as very rich, if it can dare to neglect such of its own masterpieces as have now once more seen the light. That these works are merely inaccurate translations of the classics of other tongues has been pleaded in excuse for the dust that lies upon them. Mr. Henley does well in proclaiming from the first that they are to be considered and judged as original works. For this is the only enduring test ; fulfilling it, the translation of a bad book will live ; failing to meet it, the translation of the Iliad will wither as it drops from the press. The ambition of English scholarship for an absolute translation, at once correct and elegant, preserving, as the saying is, the beauties of the original while avoiding locutions that are foreign to what is so often called, in this sad context, the genius of the English language; this will-o’-the wisp has kept generations of wise men dancing, gravely and fantastically, in its train, only to plunge them at last into the despondent absurdity of translating verse by prose. Yet all the while it has been known to the artist that there is no such thing as an absolute translation; that if, as a modern French critic has observed, all reading and understanding involves a fresh translation from the symbols of one mind into the symbols of another, no less does all translation involve a fresh reading and appropriation. A translator should know two languages—the proposition is easily granted; but it is hardly an extravagance to say that he may know one of them too well, so that his labor shall appear to himself a doleful violence and no transfiguration. Fitzgerald can hardly have preferred the Persian verses he found to the English verses he left; Shelley, who was no German scholar, produced the only version of the opening chorus of “Faust”

“Plutarch ** from the French. Yet of him it might be said, as was said of Shakespeare by “the friendly admirer of his endowments,” that he doth —

retrieve the fates,
Roll back the heavens, blow ope the iron
gates

Of death and Lethe, where confused lie
Great heaps of ruinous mortality.

A word dies every moment beneath the translator’s pen, and another is born ; the happiest translators are perchance those in whom the sense of guilt is least and the joy of creation greatest, who betray their victims into a new immortality without apologies. Of this kind were the great English translators who flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, from Lord Berners onwards. They made mistakes, some of them, on every page ; it is an act of justice to record a few of the mistakes they did not make. They did not, like their successors of the eighteenth century, avoid personal feeling and modern color by foregoing all feeling and color whatever, making Greek and Roman worthies talk the desiccated language of a philosophical drawing-room. They did not, like so many nineteenth-century translators, seek to retain ancient feeling and color by foregoing their own vocabulary and serving up a hodge-podge of archaisms. They wrote the language they talked, and let their own emotion and fancy color the tale they transcribed. In the vigor and versatility of the prose of Berners and of North there lay the promise, and something more than the promise, of the great poetry that was to come. The professional student of literature is prone, perhaps too prone, to treat books relatively to some wide scheme of his own, to trace in them origins and influences, and to be concerned with them for something that is not themselves. He enters a book as the bailiffs enter a house, to assess values and to claim property in the name of others. This relative, historical interest, which often attaches especially

that is indubitably English poetry; and Sir Thomas North translated his

to books that have been deservedly superseded, would hardly warrant the

sumptuous reprints that Mr. Henley has given to Florio’s “Montaigne,” Mabbe’s “Celestina,” and North’s “Plutarch.” In truth, these books deserve reprint for a much stronger reason : they have been forgotten without being superseded. They are masterpieces clean dropped out of mind in the hustle of changing fashions. And yet a very great historical interest centres — how should it not ? — in the prose, good, bad, or indifferent, of the age of Shakespeare, independently of its artistic value. Take away from Shakespeare the three books to which he owed the largest of his debts, the works respectively of Painter, Holinshed, and Sir Thomas North, and the Shakespearean canon, in its threefold division of comedies, histories, and tragedies, would have to be recast in imagination – he must perforce have found some other world to conquer. The last-mentioned and greatest of the three not only furnished Shakespeare with subjects, it possessed his imagination in and out of season. He read it, the critics have inferred, while he was writing “Macbeth.” “There is none but he,” says Macbeth of Banquo, There is none but he Whose being I do fear, and under him My genius is rebuked, as, it is said, Mark Antony’s was by Caesar.

The corresponding passage in North’s “Plutarch ’’ is reproduced later, in its due place, in the words of the soothsayer of “Antony and Cleopatra :” –

Thy daemon, that’s thy spirit which keeps thee, is Noble, courageous, high, unmatchable, Where Caesar’s is not; but near him thy angel Becomes afeard, as being o’erpowered.

It is no matter for wonder if a book that thus intruded itself on the whiteheat of the workshop where “Macbeth ” was wrought, should have defied the creator of “Macbeth ” to better all of it that he touched; and Mr. George Wyndham, in his admirable introduction to the new edition, has no difficulty in showing that, amidst much

that he heightened and much that he left unchanged, Shakespeare found also some passages in North that he rendered with a paler glory. The three books which were richest in suggestion for Shakespeare made their first appearance in English during the years of his boyhood. They are typical of a threefold interest, awakened in this country at the time of the Renaissance : an interest in the Greek and Roman classics, in the original achievements of the Renaissance spirit abroad, especially in Italy and France, and in the earlier history of England herself, now newly conscious of her greatness and rousing herself to her destiny. Of these three educators the first was of the deepest import, and has left the most voluminous evi

dences. The early translations of the classics, Ovid, Virgil, and Homer, Livy, Sallust, and Thucydides, de

lighted a people hungry for story and indifferent for the most part to style. But here an all-important distinction is to be made between verse and prose. Verse-making in the days before Spenser was almost a lost art, the translators of the poets were content to take their cue from Protestant psalmody, and Virgil and Homer were furnished, the one by Phaer and Twyne, the other by Arthur Hall, M.P., the predecessor of Chapman, with similar pairs of bagpipes, wherethrough they droned the measure that has been quaintly named “the Alexandrine of Master Sternhold.” A prolonged study of these works, or of Arthur Golding’s immensely popular Ovid, serves to chasten the reader’s intolerance for the wild experiments in metre of Drant and Stanihurst, and the excesses of the “Areopagus.” The outlandish metrical disguises that had so short a vogue were donned by men who were fearful lest a worse thing should befall them. When the new prosody arrived with Spenser, the day of the psalm-singers and of the “Dranters” alike was over, and there followed the noble metrical translations of Harington, Fairfax, and Sylvester, of Marlowe, Chapman, and Sandys. But this was later ; the fact remains that Shakespeare and his generation, all but the scholars, made their acquaintance with Greek and Latin poets through the earlier translators; Hall, not Chapman, was the new planet that swam into their ken. So that while the prose of his immediate predecessors lent Shakespeare some of his most dazzling tragic splendors, their verse, which he was loth to waste, furnished him with the grave-digger’s hobbling chant in “Hamlet,” and the “tedious brief scene of young Pyramus” in the “Midsummer Night’s Dream.” Indeed, when Bottom appears with an ass’s head on his shoulders and Quince blesses him for that he is “translated,” the dramatist was probably thinking, not without gratitude, of Master Arthur Golding and his Ovid – “a work very pleasant and delectable.” But the prose of the same age, imaginative and flexible, strong and rich, shows that Malory, Caxton, and Berners, More, and Tyndal, had not written in vain. Any one who would fain see the contrast at its most striking need only turn to North’s “Plutarch,” and note the odd patches of early Elizabethan doggerel that interrupt that wonderful texture of prose. Sophocles, Aristophanes, and the rest of the Greek poets, speak their sense with a generous expansion in the interests of rhyming. Solon mounts upon the herald’s stone in the market-place, and sings the elegy that his friends praised beyond measure, in this fashion : — I here present myself (an Heraulde) in this CaSe Which come from Salamina lande, that noble worthy place. My mind in pelting prose, shall never be exprest, But songe in verse Heroicall, for so I thincke it best.

Yet on the very next page North gives an account in prose of Solon’s stratagem in dressing the Athenian springals in woman’s apparel, and tells how, “the Megarians, being deceyved by that they sawe a farre of, as soone as ever they came to the shore side, dyd lande in heapes, one in another’s

necke, even for greedines to take these women; but not a man of them escaped, for they were slayne, every mother’s son.” A contrast like this is only to be matched by the two versions of the Psalms contained in a Scottish Bible. The passing affectations of a people and an age sensitive to all foreign fashions, have been allowed unjustly to overshadow the pure stream of English prose that ran through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The picturesque loose Saxon syntax and the wealth of homely diction that are to be found in North fought hard and long against the invasion of the more perfect mechanism of the Latin sentence and the tyranny of the Latin vocabulary. All the great artists of this period, however profound and wide their scholarship, knew the saving value of the Saxon blend. Milton himself, at whose hands English poetry became classic, knew where to go for the best wealth of his prose invective. “The superstitious man,” he says in one passage, “by his good will is an atheist, but being scared from thence by the pangs and gripes of a boiling conscience, all in a pudder shuffles up to himself such a God and such a worship as is most agreeable to remedy his fear.” When he speaks of the minatory visit of the king to the House of Commons, he alludes to the gentlemen of the royal train as “the spawn and shipwreck of taverns and dicinghouses.” And he works some of his most surprising effects by raising himself on the slow gyrations of the Latin sentence, to swoop with the greater impetus upon a blunt Saxon phraseNevertheless, the English sentence, in the prose works of Milton, is already well on its way to the technique of Gibbon; for Milton respects the laws of formal syntax as North and Shakespeare never did, and seeks finality of expression where the earlier romantics were fearless of breach or expansion and the tags of emotion and afterthought. But the question is, whetherthe prose of Shakespeare’s age or of Gibbon’s age, the two chief periods of English translation, is better fitted for the rendering of masterpieces. It is a question that admits of but one answer. The eighteenth century has made comparison easy by rehandling almost all the books that had been translated in the earlier time. It is a lesson in English prose to read North’s version of “Plutarch” by the side of Langhorne’s. And if, on the one hand, North is no ordinary Elizabethan, on the other it may be pleaded for the fairness of the comparison, that the Langhornes were good scholars and well above the average of the translators of their day. All their decayed metaphors and their foolish conventional expressions, neither good talk nor good script, may be easily matched and beaten by the verbose futilities of their contemporaries. “Some there be,” says North, “that for the death of a dogge, or their horse, are so out of harte, and take such thought, that they are ready to go into the grounde, they looke so pittiefully. Other some are cleane contrarie, who though they have lost their children, forgone their friendes, or some gentleman deare unto them, yet no sorrowfull worde hath commen from them, neither have they done any unseemely thing; but have passed the rest of their life like wise, constant, and vertuous men. For it is not love but weakness, which breedeth these extreme sorowes, and exceeding feare, in men that are not exercised, nor acquainted to fight against fortune with reason.” Langhorne renders the passage in the strain of one who has insured his child’s life. “Some have expressed a very great regret upon the death of dogs and horses; whilst others have borne the loss of valuable children, without any affliction, or at least without any indecent sorrow, and have

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yot, whereby North also breaks the continuity of the Greek sentence, to end it on some cadence of feeling or note of color, is well seen in that phrase – “they looke so pittiefully.” The barest circumstances of war act themselves over again in his imagination and vivify his style. Timoleon sent help to the Corinthians, says Langhorne, “in small fishing-boats and little skiffs, which watched the opportunity to make their way through the enemy’s fleet, when it happened to be separated by a storm.” But North sees the situation in detail, and elaborates the key of it, speaking of “the litle fisher boats and crayers, which got into the castell many times, but specially in storme and fowle weather, passing by the gallyes of the barbarous people, that laye scatteringly one from another, dispersed abroad by tempest, and great billowes of the sea.” And when he is dealing with the vicissitudes of human life and of human conduct, his words take an almost unconscious hue of sympathy and contempt. Perseus, king of Macedonia, was compelled, says Langhorne, “to escape through a narrow window, and to let himself down by the wall with his wife and children, who had little experienced such fatigue and hardship.” North’s version is : “He came down in the night by ropes, out of a litle straight windowe upon the walles, and not only him self, but his wife and litle babes, who never knewe before what flying and hardnes ment.” The pusillanimity of Perseus, says Langhorne, “deprived him even of pity, the only consolation of which fortune does not rob the distressed.” It is like the close of a charity sermon, and almost conceals the obligation that lay on Perseus to kill himself, rather than be led in a Roman triumph. North does not stitch his words by the side of the Greek, inch for inch, but he feels the disgrace of the king. By his faint heart and fear to die, he says, Perseus “deprived him self of others’ pittie and compassion towards him, being that only thing which fortune cannot denie and take from the afflicted, and

A Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary Containing… Memoirs of …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=_xk2AAAAQAAJ

Charles Hutton – 1815 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
AMORANO (RER1co), a good Spanish mathematician, in the 16th century, being the royal lecturer on that science, at Seville, … navigation, in 1585; being a treatise written clearly and with brevity, not being encumbered with such idle speculations as abound in Medina and Cortes. … if the latter set out a little before the former: for suppose the tortoise to be 100 yards before the dog, and that this runs 100 …
A Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary: Containing an …
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Charles Hutton – 1815 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
r/AMORANO (Rerico), a good Spanish mathemati- *-^ cian, in the 16th century, being the royal lecturer on that science, at Seville, … in 1585; being a treatise written clearly and with brevity, not being encumbered with such idle speculations as abound in Medina and Cortes. … to be ICO yards before the dog, and that this runs 100 times as fast as the other ; then while the dog runs the first 100 yards, the …
The Book of the Maltese – Page 17
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Joan McDonald Brearley – 1984 – ‎Snippet view
In 1650 a German physician wrote that some of the boxes and cages were lined with fleece so that the dogs would “think coat” at all times, … As a matter of fact, we know the Maltese was almost extinct on the isle of Malta before the beginning of the 16th century. … Whatever their title, these little dogs enjoyed much success sitting on the laps of the idle rich, always available for the warming of their hands …
Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins – Page 217
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Julia Cresswell – 2010 – ‎Preview
hunky dory hurlyeburly hurricane husband ichthyologist ichthyosaar idle idol igloo ignition ignorance ill illasion imitation … cultivation and care of crops and farm animals’. husky [M16th] Husky for a hoarsesounding person (one with a husky voice) and the term husky for an Arctic dog are unconnected. … Hussy developed in the mid 16th century from housewife [ME], which was the word’s first meaning.
Where There’s Life, There’s Lawsuits: Not Altogether Serious …
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Jeffrey Miller – 2003 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
(Then again, Lincoln also advises regular use of “What about the dog? … And a divot has become an idle, sodding piece of lawn whacked up by golfers, where, in the 16th century, it described generally larger slices of turf, used for roofing and …
Dog breaking: the most expeditious, certain and easy method
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1865 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
The Good Wife’s Guide (Le Ménagier de Paris): A Medieval Household Book
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2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
This edition presents the book in its entirety, as it must have existed for its earliest readers.
The Oxford English Reference Dictionary – Page 416
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Judy Pearsall, ‎Bill Trumble – 1995 – ‎No preview
Anecdotes of Dogs
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Edward Jesse – 1858 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
How to Be Idle: A Loafer’s Manifesto
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Tom Hodgkinson – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
He covers a whole spectrum of issues affecting the modern idler—sleep, work, pleasure, relationships—while reflecting on the writing of such famous apologists for it as Oscar Wilde, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Nietzsche—all of whom …

The Elizabethan Underworld – a collection of Tudor and Early Stuart …
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A. V. Judges – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The present version of The Black Dog follows the text of the copy (without date) in the British Museum. … This being done, such an idle conceit possessed the minds of the poor prisoners, that they supposed nightly to see the scholar, in the …
Collotype Facsimile & Type Transcript of an Elizabethan Manuscript …
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Frank James Burgoyne – 1904 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
The pamphlet commences:— “The straunge turning of the Ile of Dogs fro a commedie to a tragedie two summers past, with … That infortunate imperfit embrion of my idle houres, the Ile of Dogs before mentioned, breeding unto me such bitter …
Elizabethan Poetry: An Anthology – Page 154
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Bob Blaisdell – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The proverb old is verified in you, Love me and love my dog, and so ado. Both I and he that silly beast … For reason me denies This youthly idle rhyme, And, day by day, to me she cries, “Leave off these toys in time.” The wrinkles in my brow, …
Elizabethan Life: Disorder; mainly from Essex Sessions and Assize …
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Frederick George Emmison – 1973 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Weeley man called ‘Mr. Wayne (apparently the curate) his minister, knave’ ; a Messing man, admonished for being away from church, ‘railed on Mr. (John) Harris the minister, calling him damned idle dog and he had as lief hear a dog bawl as …
Machiavelli and the Elizabethan drama – Page 100
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Edward Stockton Meyer – 1897 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
… “Wherein it may be you shall flnde pleasant wittes speake to some purpose, no Machavilian pollicies, nor yet idle fables”. … to have entered into his charge as a Fox, to have carried himself therein as a Lion, and to have died like a Dog.
Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know
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Alexandra Horowitz – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
So too with the laughable Elizabethan collar, an enormous cone collar typically used to prevent a dog from chewing at stitches closing a wound: it is useful to prevent … Whatever it was, she was far from the idle creature she’d seemed to be.
John Webster and the Elizabethan Drama
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Rupert Brooke – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
®Nothing; of nothing: leave thy idle questions. I am i« the way to study a long silence: To prate were idle. I remember nothing … broken-minded. I do account this world but a dog-kennel: I will vault credit and affect high pleasures Beyond death.
Elizabethan Life: ̄Disorder; mainly from Essex Sessions and Assize …
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Frederick George Emmison – 1970 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Left in undisputed possession, Blaby preached, and in his sermon he railed on the parson, calling him, ‘Dumb dog, idle pastor, unlearned and unable minister, a murderer of their souls’, with divers other unseemly words, comparing him to …
OF ENGLISH DOGS (VINTAGE DOG BOOKS BREED HISTORY SERIES)
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Johannes Caius – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
OF ENGLISH DOGS – The diversities, the names, the natures, and the properties. Originally written and published in 1576, this is a reprint of the earliest known work on dog breeds.
Elizabethan England: from A description of England by William …
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William Harrison, ‎Lothrop Withington – 1889 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND. in their teeth, to saw and beg for meat, to take a man’s cap from his head, and sundry such properties, which they learn of their idle roguish masters, whose instruments they are to gather gain, as old apes clothed in motley and … I might here intreat of other dogs, as of those which are bred between a bitch and a wolf, also between a bitch and a fox, or a bear and a mastiff. But as …

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The Description of England: The Classic Contemporary Account of …
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William Harrison, ‎Georges Edelen – 1994 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Presents a portrait of daily life in Tudor England, including food and diet, laws, clothing, punishments for criminals, languages, lodging, and the appearance of the people.
The Elizabethan Woman – Page 157
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Carroll Camden – 1975 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… flowers, others in discourses of the excellency of the place, some in prattle with the birds, all busie, none idle. … 6 The ladies of the Elizabethan court circles had various kinds of pets, the most popular of which was the dog; although the …
The Elizabethan age – Page 140
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David Lloyd Stevenson – 1967 – ‎Snippet view
He says that idle drones have carved the roots of briony into the shapes of men and women, and that this practice > has … Witness also John Caius’ account of English dogs, which has little in it, aside from a moral tale or two, of the marvelous.
Elizabethan – Volumes 23-24 – Page 198
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1970 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Illustrating this edition most dramatically are drawings by C. Walter Hodges (an Elizabethan Silver Medallist). … The narrator of the story is a young idle London gentleman called Stephen Berkeley who, one night in July 1758. hears the strange story of Dick Par- miter, of the old dead seaman Adam … Then Lovel discovers tha he himself has the gift of healing his first patient being a dog with l broken leg.
The Countryman – Volumes 41-42 – Page 262
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John William Robertson Scott – 1950 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
E seldom hear of the pet dogs of the Elizabethans, since W such domestic pleasures were not much recorded, even in … On one distressing occasion he got lost when ‘some idle pastimers did diverte themselves with huntinge mallards in a …
Sea-dogs & Pilgrim Fathers: stories of Elizabethan and Stuart voyages
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John Hampden – 1953 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
stories of Elizabethan and Stuart voyages John Hampden. Wherewith they raised both Alexandria, … But to be short, there was no time misspent, no man idle, nor any man’s labour ill bestowed, or in vain. So that in short time, this galley was …
Tyrant: Shakespeare on Politics
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Stephen Greenblatt – 2018 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
World-renowned Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt explores the playwright’s insight into bad (and often mad) rulers.
My Dog Tulip
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Joe Randolph Ackerley – 1999 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
“First published in Great Britain by Secker & Warburg, 1956”–T.p. verso.
The sea dogs: privateers, plunder and piracy in the Elizabethan Age
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Neville Williams – 1975 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
privateers, plunder and piracy in the Elizabethan Age Neville Williams … privateering proved unrewarding many of the less law-abiding shipowners would make for Studland Bay to indulge in open piracy for a season, rather than remain idle.
Elizabethan and Jacobean tragedy: an anthology – Page 188
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Robert Ornstein, ‎Hazelton Spencer – 1964 – ‎Snippet view
60 Why stand’st thou idle on these flow’ry banks ? Oberon is dancing with his Dryades ; I ‘ll gather daisies, … You see how I awe my flock ; a [70 shepherd has not his dog at more obedience. Isa. His conscience is unquiet ; sure that was The …

Anecdotes of Dogs

e was a dog of extraordinary
sense. I once gave him some milk and water at my
breakfast, which was too hot. He afterwards was in
the habit of testing the heat by dipping one of his paws
into the basin, preferring rather to scald his foot than
to run the risk of burning his tongue. He had other
peculiarities. When I mounted my horse and wanted
him to follow me, he would come a little distance, and
then all at once pretend to be lame. The more I called
the lamer he became. He was, in fact, aware of my long
rides, and was too lazy to follow me. He played this
trick very frequently. If I called him while I had my
268 ANECDOTES OF DOGS.
snuff-box in my hand, he would come to me, pretend
ing to sneeze the whole of the time. I have said so
much about Peter, because he was a good specimen of
one of the small breed of terriers.

As two turnspits were generally kept to do the
roasting work of a family, each dog knew his own day,
and it was not an easy task to make one work two days
running. Even on his regular day a dog would fre
quently hide himself, so cordially did he hate his pre
scribed duties. A story is said to have been related to
a gentleman by the Duke de Liancourt, of two turn
spits employed in his kitchen, who had to take their
turns every other day to get into the wheel. One of
420 ANECDOTES OF DOGS.
them, in a fit of laziness, hid himself on the day he
should have worked, so that his companion was forced
to mount the wheel in his stead, who, when his employ
ment was over, began crying and wagging his tail, and
making signs for those in attendance to follow him.
This was done, and the dog conducted them into a
garret, where he dislodged his idle companion, and
killed him immediately.

OF ENGLISH DOGS (VINTAGE DOG BOOKS BREED HISTORY SERIES)
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Johannes Caius – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Johannes Caius … investigation of recondite matters; a man armed with everything that relates to natural history; the same man wrote an epitome concerning British dogs, … supposed that you would be delighted with idle and frivolous matter, occupied as you are entirely in divine lucubrations, but rather (if I may be believed) …
The Dog Book: A Popular History of the Dog, with Practical …
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James Watson – 1906 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
A Popular History of the Dog, with Practical Information as to Care and Management of House, Kennel, and Exhibition Dogs; … “I was,” wrote Luther, “lately two days sporting in the country; we killed a brace of hares and took some partridges, a very pretty employment for an idle man! … Yet it was originally written in Latin, having been. prepared by Dr. John Kays (Johannes Caius), the founder of Caius …
The Works of Mr. Thomas Otway: The atheist. The orphan. Caius …
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Thomas Otway – 1728 – ‎Read
Sirrah, it was the more nourishing, and made fuch young, idle Whoresons as you fat, fat, you Rogue, I remember the young Dog at twelve Years old had a broad, shining, puft, Bacon Face, like a Cherubim ; and now he won’t marry. Beau.
Elegant Extracts Or Useful and Entertaining Passages in Prose0
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1803 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
The Melitatus, or Fotor; the spaniel gentle or comforter of Dr.Caius (the modern lap dog) was the last of this division. The Maltese little dogs … dancing dog, or such as was taught variety of tricks, and carried about by idle people as a shew.
Elegant Extracts in Prose [and in Poetry], Selected for the …
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1816 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
The Melitasus, or Fotor; the spaniel gentle or comforter of Dr. Caius (the modern lap dog) was the last of this division. The Maltese little dogs were as much esteemed by the fine ladies of past times, as those of Bologna are among the modern. Old Hollingshed is … of tricks and carried about by idle people as a shew.
Elegant Extracts: or, Useful and entertaining passages in prose. …
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1808 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
The Melitatus, or Fotor; the spaniel gentle or comforter of Dr. Caius (the modern lap dog) was the last of this division. … and lastly the Saitator, or dancing dog, or such as was taught variety of tricks, and carried about by idle people as a shew.
The Dog Book. A Popular History of the Dog, with Practical …
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James Watson – 1906 – ‎Snippet view
“I was,” wrote Luther, “lately two days sporting in the country; we killed a brace of hares and took some partridges, a very pretty employment for an idle man! However, I could not help theologizing amidst dogs, missile weapons and nets; for I thought to myself, do not we, … Yet it was originally written in Latin, having been prepared by Dr. John Kays (Johannes Caius), the founder of Caius College, …
Everyman’s Book of the Dog – Page 147
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A. Croxton Smith – 1910 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
It is more or less idle speculation to inquire whether the Skye or the Scottish Terrier is the aboriginal variety, but it may be … There is also a suggestion that the ” Iseland Dogges ” mentioned by Dr. Caius were the forerunners of our Skyes.
Coriolanus
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William Shakespeare – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The Book of the Maltese – Page 17
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Joan McDonald Brearley – 1984 – ‎Snippet view
Dr. Caius did not share Lady Macdonald’s enthusiasm for the little dogs breeding along the craggy coast of Scotland. … Whatever their title, these little dogs enjoyed much success sitting on the laps of the idle rich, always available for the …

Elegant Extracts in Prose [and in Poetry], Selected for the Improvement of Young Persons

The first variety is the terrarius or Terrier, which takes its name from its
subterraneous employ : being a small kind of hound, used to force the fox, or
other beasts of prey, out of their holes; and (in former times) rabbits out of their
burrows into nets.
The Leverarius, or Harrier, is a species well known at present; it derives its name from its use, that of hunting the hare :
but under this head may be placed the fox-hound, which is only a stronger and fleeter variety, applicd to a different
chase.
The Sanguinarius or Blood hound, or
the Sleuthounde of the Scots, was a dog of great use, and in high esteem with our ancestors: its employ was to recover any game that had escaped wounded from the hunter; or been killed and stole out of the
forest. It was remarkable for the
acuteness of its smell, tracing the lost
beast by the blood it had spilt; from whence the name is derived : this species could with the utmost certainty, discover the thief by following his footsteps, let the distance of his flight be ever so great, and through the most secret and
of B R IT IS H
IIounds. }º D O G. S.
IIarrier –
Blood-Hound.
Gaze-hound.
Grey hound. leviner, or Lyemmer. Tumbler.
Spaniel.
Setter.
Water-spaniel, or ſinder.
Spaniel gentle, or comforter.
Shepherd’s Dog. Mastiff, or band-dog.
Wappe *
Turnspit
Dancer
thickest coverts: nor would it cease its
pursuit, till it had taken the felon. They were likewise used by Wallace and Bruce during the civil wars. The poetical his torians of the two heroes frequently re late very curious passages on this subject; of the service these dogs were of to their
masters, and the escapes they had from those of the enemy. The blood-hound was in great request on the confines of England and Scotland ; where the bor derers were continually preying on the herds and flocks of their neighbours. The true blood-hound was large, strong, mus cular, broad
APPENDIx. —NATURAL HISTORY. 951
ty; and should the beast rejoin the herd, this dog would fix unerringly on the same. This species is now lost, or at least un
known to us.
It must be observed that the Agasaeus of Dr. Caius, is a very different species from the Agasseus of Oppian, for which
it might be mistaken from the similitude of names; this he describes as a small kind
of dog, peculiar to Great Britain : and then goes on with these words:
Twº &a cºratoy, Azzº Tºxº, ‘#437,
ww3; ;
Curvum, macilentum, hispidum, oculis pigrum.
what he adds afterwards, still marks the
difference more strongly ;
Pſyras & airs tº 1:… way:z:x: rºw &y; rºad sw;
Naribus autem longe praestantissimus est
agasseus. From Oppian’s whole description, it is plain he meant our Beagle. The next kind is the Leporarius, or Grey-hound. Dr. Caius informs us, that it takes its name quod praecipui gradus sit inter canes, the first in rank among dogs: that it was formerly esteemed so, appears from the forest laws of king Canute; who
enacted, that no one under the degree of
a gentleman should presume to keep a
gre-hound : and still more strongly from an old Welsh saying, Wrth ei Walch, ei Farch, a’i Filgi, yr adwaenir Bonheddig :
which signifies, that you may know a
gentleman by his hawk, his horse and
his gre-hound. Froissart relates a fact not much to the
credit of the fidelity of this species; when that unhappy prince, Richard the Second was taken in Flint castle, his favourite
gre-hound immediately deserted him, and fawned on his rival Bolingbroke : as if he understood and foresaw the misfortunes
of the former.
The variety called the highland gre hound, and now become very scarce, is of a very great size, strong, deep-chested, and covered with long and rough hair. This kind was much esteemed in former
days, and used in great numbers by the powerful chieftains in their magnificent
hunting matches. It had as sagacious nos trils as the blood-hound, and was as fierce. This seems to be the kind Boethius styles
genus venaticum cum celerrimum tum audacissimum : nec modo in feras, sed in hostes etian latronesque ; praesertim si dominum ductorence injurian affici cer nat aut in cos concitetur,
hound.
The third species is the Levinarius or Lorarius ; The Leviner or Lycmmer: the first name is derived from the lightness of the kind, the other from the old word I./cmme, a thong; this species being used to be led in a thong, and slipped at the game. Our author says, that this dog was a kind that hunted both by scent and sight, and in the form of its body observed a me dium between the hound and the gre This probably is the kind now known to us by the name of the Irish gre-hound, a dog now extremely scarce in that kingdom, the late king of Poland having procured from them as many as possible. I have seen two or three in the
whole Island: they were of the kind called by M. de Buffon Le grand Danois, and probably imported there by the 1)anes who long possessed that kingdom. Their use seems originally to have been for the chase of wolves, with which Ireland swarmed till
the latter end of the last century. As soon as those animals were extirpated the num bers of the dogs decreased ; for from that period they were kept only for state. The Vertagus or Tumbler, is a smooth species; which took its prey hy mere sub tilty, depending neither on the sagacity of its nose, nor its swiftness: if it came into
a warren, it neither barked nor run on the
rabbits; but by a seeming neglect of them
or attention to something else, deceived the object till it got within reach, so as to take it by a sudden spring. This dog was less than the hound; more scraggy, and had prickt-up ears; and by Dr. Caius’s description seems to answer to the modern
lurcher. – –
The third division of the more generous dogs, comprehends those which were used in fowling; first the Hispaniolus, or spa niel: from the name it may be supposed that we were indebted to Spain for this breed: there were two varieties of this
kind, the first used in hawking, to spring the game, which are the same with our
Starters.
The other variety was used only for the
net, and was called Index, or the setter; a
kind well known at present. This king dom haslong been remarkableforproducing dogs of this sort, particular care having
been taken to preserve the breed in the utmost purity. They are still distinguished
by the name of English spaniels: so that notwithstanding the derivation of the name
it is probable they are natives of Great Britain. We may strengthen our sus picion by saying, that the first who broke a dog to the net was an English
1.
982 E L E G A NT E XTRA C T S IN P R O SE.
nobleman of a most distinguished charac ter, the great Robert Dudley, duke of Northumberland. The Pointer which is
a dog of a foreign extraction, was unknown
to Our ancestors.
The Aquaticus, or Fynder was another species used in fowling ; was the same as our water spaniel; and was used to find
or recover the game that was shot. The Melitasus, or Fotor; the spaniel gentle or comforter of Dr. Caius (the mo dern lap dog) was the last of this division. The Maltese little dogs were as much es teemed by the fine ladies of past times, as those of Bologna are among the modern. Old Hollingshed is ridiculously severe on the fair of his days, for their excessive passion for these little animals; which is sufficient to prove that it was in his time
a novelty. The second grand division of dogs comprehends the Rustici; or those that were used in the country. The first species is the pastoralis, or shepherd’s dog; which is the same that is used at present, either in guarding our flocks, or in driving herds of cattle. This kind is so well trained for those purposes, as to attend to every part of the herd be it ever so large; confine them to the road, and force in every straggler without doing it the least injury. The next is the Villatticus or Catena
rius: the mastiff or band dog; a species of great size and strength, and a very loud barker. Manhood says, it derives its name , from masetheſese, being supposed tofright en away robbers by its tremendous voice. Caius tells us that three of these were
reckoned a match for a bear; and four for a lion : but by an experiment made in the tower by James the First, that no
ble quadruped was found an unequal match to only three. Two of the dogs were disabled in the combat, but the third for
ced the lion to seek for safety by flight. The English bull-dog seemsto belong to this species: and probably is the dog our au
thor mentions under the title of Laniarius.
Great Britain was so noted for its mastiffs,
that the Roman emperors appointed an officer in this island with the title of
Procurator Cynegii, whose sole business was to breed and transmit from hence
to the amphitheatre, such as would prove equal to the combats of that place.
Magnaque taurorum fracturi colla Britanni.
And British dogs subdue the stoutest bulls.
Gratius speaks in high terms of the ex cellency of the British dogs;
Atque ipsos libeat penetrare Britannos ?
O quantaert merces et quantum impendia supra! Simon ad speciem mentiturosque decores Protinus ; haec una est catulis jactura Britannis. At magnum cum venit opus, promendaque virtus Et vocat extremo praeceps discrimine Mavors. Non tunc egregios tahtum admirere Molossos.
If Britain’s distant coast we dare explore,
How much beyond the coast the valued store; If shape and beauty not alone we prize, Which nature to the British bound denies.
But when the mighty toil the huntsman warms, And all the soul is rous’d by fierce alarms, When Mars calls furious to th’ ensanguin’d field, Even bold Molossians then to these must yield.
Strabo tells us that the mastiffs of Bri
tain were trained for war, and were used by the Gauls in their battles; and it is certain a well trained mastiff might be of considerable use in distressing such half armed and irregular combatants as the adversaries of the Gauls seem generally to have been before the Romans con
quered them. The last division is that of the Degene res, or Curs. The first of these was the
Wappe, a name derived from its note : its only use was to alarm the family by bark ing if any person approached the house. Of this class was the Versator, or turn
spit; and lastly the Saltator, or dancing dog, or such as was taught variety of tricks and carried about by idle people as a shew. Those Degeneres were of no certain shape, being mongrels or mixtures of all kinds of dogs. We should now, according to our plan, after enumerating the several varieties of British dogs, give its general matural his tory; but since Linnaeus has already performed it to our hand, we shall adopt his sense, translatinghis very words(where ever we may) with literal exactness. “The dogs eat flesh and farinaceous “ vegetables, but not greens: its stomach ‘ digests bones: it uses the tops of grass “ as a vomit. It voids its excrements on
“a stone: the album graecum is one of the “ greatest encouragers of putrefaction. It ‘ laps up its drink with its tongue: it “voids it urine sideways, by lifting up ‘ one of its hind legs; and is most diuretic in the company of a strange dog. Odo
grat anum alterius : its scent is most ex quisite, when its nose is foist: it treads
lightly on its toes : scarce evor sweats; but when hot lolls out its tongue. It generally walks frequently round the
– “ place
&
4.
g
tg
& 4
&
& 4
ſº
APPENDIx.—NATURAL HISTORY. 983
“ place it intends tolie down on : its sense “ of hearing is very quick when asleep :
it dreams. Procis rivantibus crudelis :
catulit cum variis : mordet illa illos :
coheret copula junctus : it goes with young sixty-three days; and commonly brings from four to eight at a time: the male puppies resemble the dog, the fe male the bitch. It is the most faithful
of all animals; is very docible : hates strangedogs : will snapata stone thrown at it: will howl at certain musical notes:
all (except the South American kind) will bark at strangers: dogs are rejected by the Mahometans.”

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
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Mark Twain, ‎Lucy Rollin – 2006 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Tom eyed it, and longed for it; but it was safe out of his reach. Other people uninterested in the sermon found relief in the beetle, and they eyed it too. Presently a vagrant poodle dog came idling along, sad at heart, lazy with the summer softness.
Maigret and the Idle Burglar
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Georges Simenon – 2007 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
In Maigret’s careful recreation of the life of this gentle and eccentric burglar, Simenon beautifully depicts Maigret’s insight, compassion, and melancholic nostalgia.
Computer Design: The Design and Application of Digital Circuits, …
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1979 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Transmission of the standard “Fox” message is followed by an end of text (Ex) character and an idle. … TfC: QUICK BR OWN FOX JUMPS OVER A LAZY DOG 01 234567e9%aaBPHMt*VV*lTt«: QUICK BROt-H FOX JUMPS OVER ft LAZY DOG …
Aesop’s Fables: With a Life of Aesop – Page 123
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John Esten Keller – Preview – ‎More editions
An idle and lazy raven perched on a sheep and was enjoying herself there. She was accustomed to do this frequently, and so she annoyed the sheep, who addressed her as follows: “If you annoyed the dog the way you do me, you would not …
English Etymology: Or, a Derivative Dictionary of the English … – Page 4
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George William Lemon – 1783 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Sieve Sei – Gr S LIVERY; idle, and lazy Sift rt-ve lSloken. Slake, or Slacken Gr. Sieze. Seize — Gr. Slocker. Sluggard — Gr SIG … SLEE7 a dog; to tarr him on Sleeve – — Sax. Sleeveless errand — Sax. Slide. Glide — Gr. Slipar – § Slip — — Gr.
London Saturday Journal… – Volume 3 – Page 191
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1840 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
As immoderate exercise offends on the one side, so doth an idle life on the other. Idleness … The lazy, lolling race of men are always miserable and uneasy. Seneca … An idle dog will be mangy; and how can an idle person expect to escape?
An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language: Illustrating …
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John Jamieson – 1808 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Lazy, idle,” Gl. Wall. Sen ye ar Scottis, yeit … According to this view, both daioch and Laird are S. words, and signify, ” lazy laird.” But a gen- tleman, … The lesser Dog-fish, Orkn. ‘* The lesser Dog-fish (Squalus catulus, Lin. Syst.) which is here …
Sirius: Brightest Diamond in the Night Sky
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Jay B. Holberg – 2007 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
This book tells two stories. The first and most obvious is why the star known as Sirius has been regarded as an important fixture of the night sky by many civilizations and cultures since the beginnings of history.
Dictionary of Newfoundland English: Second Edition
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W.J. Kirwin, ‎G. M. Story, ‎J.D.A. Widdowson – 1990 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Culled from a vast reading of books, newspapers and magazines, this book is the most sustained reading ever undertaken of the written words of this province.
The Heavenly Way: G – L – Page 213
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Michael Ross Stancato – 2001 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Any large, four-footed animal; sometimes, specifically, a domesticated animal like a dog, cat, etc. LEV. 17:13 And … Lazy. Idle. DILIGENT—Characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic application and effort. Hardworking. 213 HUNTING.

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and in an instant it was whirling in the air on the point of the spear, the weapon having passed within an inch of the point of the tail. At sunset we could see the Al Bu Mohammed marching in the distance to the left, across the Tharthar. At 9h. 30m. we reached our camp in safety, after a ride of upwards of 50 miles. From the ruins the Sinjar mountains are seen high in the N.W. “16th.-At 6 A.M. the Arabs struck their tents, and marched along the stream till 7h. 10m., then halted and pitched. To-day the Yezidis are coming in by scores, men, women, and children, flying from the Turks under Hafiz Pasha, who has already conquered nearly all the district of Sinjar. On the 15th, they came to Nejm’s camp; and he insisted upon our party and the Sheikh’s halting to feed, which we did, the Arabs all going on. Nejm, with Zeidan, is pitched to-day near a pool of rain-water, which, though horrid stuff, is delicious after the Tharthar water. Nejm’s feed was like the others; except that, to show us greater respect, he covered the whole dish over with about two stones of butter, so that I was obliged to thrust my arm up to the elbow through butter, in order to grope undermeath for rice and a bit of mutton. After all had been demolished, I went out, to the great wonder of the Arabs, to measure the dish, it being the largest I ever saw. It was made of pieces of wood fastened together by twine; and I found its diameter exactly 4 feet 94 inches, and that it contained to-day, at one time, the divided carcasses of four full-grown sheep : as to the quantities of rice, melted butter, and sour milk, I should be afraid to hazard a guess. In the evening we rode on to our own camp. “19th.-There being plenty of grass, did not move. This was about the hottest day I ever felt. “20th-Halted. I observe the valley of the Tharthar gets broader, and has lately been cultivated, the water-courses, and even the shapes of the fields, being still visible. The stream here winds more than above. At 9 A.M. a camel with two people on his back came up to the tent, and one of them was no other than Mohammed el Faris, Sheikh Shammar, ruler of upwards of 12,000 families. He was a fine-looking young man, with large eyes, a slightly aquiline nose, and wore his hair in long plaited tresses, hanging over his shoulders. He was very well dressed; but appears to have discarded the effeminate practice of wearing shoes, and even trousers. He made many excuses for being away so long, declaring that the instant he learned our being in his camp, he mounted on his return, and had been in the saddle since yesterday at noon. The news of his arrival soon spread; and in an hour the tent and the whole front of it presented a dense mass of the wildest human beings I ever saw. Every naked rascal, as he arrived, went up to the Sheikh, and, having kissed him, sat down to light his pipe without the slightest ceremony. The Pasha’s present, consisting of a full suit of clothes, was brought forward, and while the letter accompanying it was being read, every man stood up, and when finished, all called out “God lengthen Ali Pasha’s days ” The dresses were put on the Sheikh; but they did not appear to sit easy. The Kashmir turban was too heavy for the head, and was taken off and presented to the person sitting next him. The other articles were soon dispersed in a similar manner, and in 20 minutes Mohammed wore only his own Bedwin dress. “Yesterday I felt rather heavy, and to-day was seized with very strong fever and dysentery, I suppose owing to bad water and the intense heat; but the Arabs declare it is owing to having eaten some small fish shot yesterday by Sayyed Hindi in the Tharthar. “About noon old Dukheil came to visit the Sheikh, and brought the disagreeable intelligence of the Aneizah having sent three ghazas, or plundering parties, into Mesopotamia: they severally crossed the Euphrates at Hillah, Jubbah, and above Anah, and were last heard of going towards the Tarmiyah. I consequently determined to be off for Tekrit before things got worse, and there see what is to be done. The plan laid down by the Sheikh and the old men for us, was to start after dusk for Dukheil’s camp at Sultaniyah, stay there all to-morrow, then at night to go on, and hide next day in the thick wood about Kharneinah, and get into Tekrit on the third morning. I seemingly agreed to it, but, after a private consultation with Sayyed Hindi, determined upon quite an other mode of proceeding as soon as we were clear of the tents. I got several of the chiefs to point out on the compass the bearing of Sultaniyah : this was done in presence of the Arabs going with us, and they were satisfied that we could not now go wrong. After dinner, though far from well, I determined to be off, when the Sheikh brought me a present of a horse trained to plundering excursions, which he declares will, if it should come to a run, carry me off from all the Aneizah.

“Our party, nine in number, mounted, and after taking leave and having had prayers said for our safety, we at 7h. 40m. P.M. moved on in an E. by S. direction. I soon found the Arabs were going straight for Sultaniyah, but, as I declared the compass must be right, they were easily persuaded to keep to the right of the true course. At 11 h. 30m. we were going E. over sandy ground called Zobeidi.

“22nd.—At 1 A.M. kept edging to the right. At 2h, kept E. by S., and at 2h. 20m. got to the high road, when the Arabs at once discovered that I had taken them completely out of the track they intended coming by. Our object was now gained ; and, having told them it would be a disgrace for us to turn back to Sultaniyah, as well as a loss of time, we must put our trust in God and go at once straight on for Tekrit. Sayyed Hindi smoothed them down, and we went on.

At 7h. 15m. halted on the bank of the Tigris. I had now almost lost all sense of feeling in the lower limbs, and became covered with a cold clammy sweat, but I never recollect having experienced so great a pleasure as I did in drinking a draught of the Tigris water after the horrid stuff we have had for the last ten days. At 8h. 10m. A.M. went on again. At 9h. 42m. went up from the hawi at Jeberaniyah, and just as we got to the high land we found footmarks of horses not an hour old, and in another minute saw the horses themselves in the bush below. Their owners sprang upon them and fell in ; we closed up, lighted matches, and got ready : they were about half a mile off, and only eight in number. The Shammar at once knew them to be Aneizah, and we prepared for a skirmish (being only nine), keeping on the high road, daring them to come on with prime abuse, but they stood still close together. My men declared it would be in vain to charge them, their cattle being fresh, while ours were done up: moreover, some of our men being on camels, we should be obliged to divide—a thing not at all advisable. As long as we could see them they had not moved. The excitement of the affair caused a reaction in me, and I was now in a burning fever. As we went on, the day became dreadfully hot, the glare intolerable, and not a breath of wind stirring. I thought it was to be my last : my senses deserted me, and all I can recollect is that at 1 P.M. we got to Tekrit.

“About sunset I awoke and found myself in Haji Omar’s house: covered up and in a most profuse perspiration, and consequently much easier. A small thermometer, cut to 125° in the usual sort of leathern case, was burst in my pocket by to-day’s heat.

“I find the road by Mesopotamia is not to be attempted at present, so I determine to dismiss the Arabs here, and send them down by Samarrah; and, finding myself perfectly inadequate to another day’s ride, I have made up my mind to go down by water, and have ordered a kelek, or raft, to be made.”

Dr. Ross afterwards met with a friend who was going down the river in a covered boat, whom he joined, and reached Baghdad on the 26th.

HOT AND COLD IRON BLAST.

IN smelting cold-blast iron, the fuel used is coke. It is put in the furnace alternately with the iron-stone, according to a specified weight of iron and measurement of coke, together with a certain quantity of limestone, to flux the iron. A strong blast of cold air is forced into the furnace by mechanical power. The smelted iron is drawn off twice in twenty-four hours.

In the hot-blast system, coal is burnt instead of coke, which effects a considerable saving of trouble and expense, attendant on the burning coal into coke. The blast, in passing to the furnace, is forced through retorts highly heated, which raises the temperature of the air in the pipes to a very high degree—so much so, that an iron rod passed into the current of air becomes red-hot instantly. By this system double the quantity of iron is smelted in the same time that is done by the cold blast.

It is obviously greatly to the advantage of the iron-master to work with the hot-blast, but the quality of the iron is greatly inferior. Were pure, unmixed, hot-blast iron to be used for casting machinery or beams, where great strain or tension is required, it would be weaker by one-third than had cold-blast been used. For casting cylinders or rollers that require to be turned, or the skin broke, it is totally unfit. It may do for stoves, plain plates, or fancy castings; any castings where a body of iron is formed, from four to five inches in diameter, are found to be hollow on the top when cast (technically termed sunk or drawn), although the greatest precautions are taken to prevent it, and are often found drawn in the very centre. The reason of its inferiority arises from its being imperfectly smelted. Scotch coal, when burned, turns into a fine powder, through which the iron-stone, being denser, falls through before it is thoroughly melted, and lies in a dead body at the bottom of the furnace, below the blast, until it be drawn off. The limestone used for fluxing is likewise drawn off in a partially burned condition, and in some instances is used as a manure. The iron, when running off, becomes a thick coagulated mass, entirely different from that smelted by cold-blast with coke fuel.

RAMBLES OF AN AMERICAN NATURALIST.-No. III. By John D. GoDMAN.

HITHER to my rambles have been confined to the neighbourhood of a single spot, with a view of showing how perfectly accessible to all are numerous and various interesting natural objects. This habit of observing in the manner indicated began many years anterior to my visit to the spots heretofore mentioned, and have extended through many parts of our own and another country. Henceforward my observations shall be presented without reference to particular places, or even of one place exclusively, but with a view to illustrate whatever may be the subject of description, by giving all I have observed of it under various circumstances.

A certain time of my life was spent in that part of Anne Arundel county, Maryland, which is washed by the river Patapsco on the north, the great Chesapeake bay on the west, and the Severn river on the south. It is in every direction cut up by creeks, or arms of the rivers and bay, into long flat strips of land, called necks, the greater part of which is covered by dense pine forests, or thickets of small shrubs and saplings, rendered impervious to human footsteps by the growth of vines, whose inextricable mazes nothing but a fox, wild cat, or weasel, could thread. The soil cleared for cultivation is very generally poor, light, and sandy, though readily susceptible of improvement, and yielding a considerable produce in Indian corn, and most of the early garden vegetables, by the raising of which for the Baltimore market the inhabitants obtain all their ready money. The blight of slavery has long extended its influence over this region, where all its usual effects are but too obviously visible. The white inhabitants are few in number, widely distant from each other, and manifest, in their mismanagement and half indigent circumstances, how trifling an advantage they derive from the thraldom of their dozen or more of sturdy blacks, of different sexes and ages. The number of marshes formed at the heads of the creeks render this country frightfully unhealthy in autumn, at which time the life of a resident physician is one of incessant toil and severe privation. Riding from morning till night, to get round to visit a few patients, his road leads generally through pine forests, whose aged and lofty trees, encircled by a dense undergrowth, impart an air of sombre and unbroken solitude. Rarely or never does he encounter a white person on his way, and only once in a while will he see a miserably-tattered negro, seated on a sack of corn, carried by a starveling horse or mule, which seems poorly able to bear the weight to the nearest mill. The red-head woodpecker, and the flicker or yellowhammer, a kindred species, occasionally glance across his path ; sometimes when he turns his horse to drink at the dark-coloured branch (as such streams are locally called), he disturbs a solitary rufous-thrush engaged in washing its plumes : or as he moves steadily along, he is slightly startled by a sudden appearance of the towhé-bunting close to the side of the path. Except these creatures, and these by no means frequently seen, he rarely meets with animated objects; at a distance the harsh voice of the crow is often heard, or flocks of them are observed in the cleared fields, while now and then the buzzard, or Turkey-vulture, may be seen wheeling in graceful circles in the higher regions of the air, sustained by his broadly-expanded wings, which apparently remain in a state of permanent and motionless extension. At other seasons of the year, the physician must be content to live in the most positive seclusion; the white people are all busily employed in going to and from market; and even were they at home they are

poorly suited for companionship. I here spent month after month, and, except the patients I visited, saw no one but the blacks; the house in which I boarded was kept by a widower, who, with myself, was the only white man within the distance of a mile or two. My only compensation was this : the house was pleasantly situated on the bank of Curtis’s creek, a considerable arm of the Patapsco, which extended for a mile or two beyond us, and immediately in front of the door, expanded so as to form a beautiful little bay. Of books I possessed very few, and those exclusively professional; but in this beautiful expanse of sparkling water, I had a book opened before me, which a lifetime would scarcely suffice me to read through. With the advantage of a small but neatly made and easily manageable skiff, I was always independent of the service of the blacks, which was ever repugnant to my feelings and principles. I could convey myself in whatever direction the objects of inquiry might present, and as my little bark was visible for a mile in either direction from the house, a handkerchief waved, or the loud shout of a negro, was sufficient to recall me in case my services were required. During the spring months, and while the garden vegetables are yet too young to need a great deal of attention, the proprietors frequently employ their blacks in hauling the seine, and this in these creeks, is productive of an ample supply of yellow perch, which affords a very valuable addition to the diet of all. The blacks in an especial manner profit by this period of plenty, since they are permitted to eat of them without restraint, which cannot be said of any other sort of provision allowed them. Even the pigs and crows obtain their share of the abundance, as the fishermen, after picking out the best fish, throw the smaller ones on the beach. But as the summer months approach, the aquatic grass begins to grow, and this fishing can no longer be continued, because the grass rolls the seine up in a wisp, so that it can contain nothing. At this time the spawning season of the different species of sun-fish begins, and to me this was a time of much gratification. Along the edge of the river, where the depth of water was not greater than from four feet to as shallow as twelve inches, an observer would discover a succession of circular spots cleared of the surrounding grass, and showing a clear sandy bed. These spots, or cleared spaces, we may regard as the nest of this beautiful fish. There, balanced in the transparent wave, at the distance of six or eight inches from the bottom, the sun-fish is suspended in the glittering sunshine, gently swaying its beautiful tail and fins; or, wheeling around in the limits of its little circle, appears to be engaged in keeping it clear of all incumbrances. Here the mother deposits her eggs or spawn, and never did hen guard her callow brood with more eager vigilance than the sun-fish the little circle within which her promised offspring are deposited. If another individual approach too closely to her borders, with a fierce and angry air she darts against it, and forces it to retreat. Should any small and not too heavy object be dropped in the nest, it is examined with jealous attention, and displaced if the owner be not satisfied of its harmlessness. At the approach of man she flies with great velocity into deep water, as if willing to conceal that her presence was more than accidental where first seen. She may, after a few minutes, be seen cautiously venturing to return, which is at length done with velocity; then she would take a hurried turn or two around, and scud back again to the shady bowers formed by the river grass, which grows up from the bottom to within a few feet of the surface, and attains to twelve, fifteen, or more feet in length. Again she ventures forth from the depths; and if no further cause of fear presented, would gently sail into the placid circle of her home, and with obvious satisfaction explore it in every part. Besides the absolute pleasure I derived from visiting the habitations of these glittering tenants of the river, hanging over them from my little skiff, and watching their every action, they frequently furnished me with a very acceptable addition to my frugal table. Situated as my boarding-house was, and all the inmates of the house busily occupied in raising vegetables to be sent to market, our bill of fare offered little other change than could be produced by varying the mode of cookery. It was either broiled bacon and potatoes, or fried bacon and potatoes, or cold bacon and potatoes, and so on at least six days out of seven. But, as soon as I became acquainted with the habits of the sun-fish, I procured a neat circular iron hoop for a net; secured to it a piece of an old seine, and whenever I desired to dine on fresh fish, it was only necessary to take my skiff, and push hergently along from one sun-fish nest to another, myriads of which might be seen along all the shore. The fish, of course, darted off as soon as the boat first drew near, and during this absence the met was placed so as to cover the nest, of the bottom of which the meshes but slightly intercepted the view. Finding all things quiet, and not being disturbed by the net, the fish would resume its central station, the net was suddenly raised, and the captive placed in the boat. In a quarter of an hour I could generally take as many in this way as would serve two men for dinner; and when an acquaintance accidentally called to see me during the season of sun-fish, it was always in my power to lessen our dependence on the endless bacon. I could also always select the finest and largest of these fish, as while standing up in the boat one could see a considerable number at once, and thus choose the best. Such was their abundance, that the next day would find all thc nests re-occupied. Another circumstance connected with this matter gave me no small satisfaction; the poor blacks, who could rarely get time for angling, soon learned how to use my net with dexterity; and thus, in the ordinary time allowed them for dinner, would borrow it, run down to the shore, and catch some fish to add to their very moderate allowance.

IDLENESS. IDLENEss, which is the opposite extreme to immoderate exercise, is the badge of gentry, the bane of body and mind, the nurse of naughtiness, the stepmother of discipline, the chief author of all mischief, one of the seven deadly sins, the cushion upon which the devil chiefly reposes, and a great cause, not only of melancholy, but of many other diseases; for the mind is naturally active, and if it be not occupied about some honest business, it rushes into mischief, or sinks into melancholy. As immoderate exercise offends on the one side, so doth an idle life on the other. Idleness, as Rasis and Montaltus affirm, begets melancholy more than any other disposition; and Plutarch says, that it is not only the sole cause of the sickness of the soul, but that nothing begets it sooner, increases it more, or continues it so long. Melancholy is certainly a familiar disease to all idle persons; an inseparable companion to such as live indolent and luxurious lives. Any pleasant company, discourse, business, sport, recreation, or amusement, suspends “the pains and penalties of idleness; ” but the moment these engagements cease, the mind is again inflicted with the torments of this disease. The lazy, lolling race of men are always miserable and uneasy. Seneca well says, “Malo mihi male quam molliter esse” (I had rather be sick than idle). This disposition is either of body or of mind. Idleness of body is the improper intermission of necessary exercise, which causes crudities, obstructions, excrementitious humours, quenches the natural heat, dulls the spirits, and renders the mind unfit for employment. As ground that is untilled runs to weeds, so indolence produces nothing but gros; humours. A horse unexercised, and a hawk unflown, contract diseases from which, if left at their natural liberty, they would be entirely free. An idle dog will be mangy; and how can an idle person expect to escape? But mental idleness is infinitely more prejudicial than idleness of body: wit, without employment, is a disease. “AErugo animi, rubigo ingenii” (the rust of the soul, a plague, a very hell itself) : “maximum animi nocumentum.” “As in a standing pool,” says Seneca, “worms and filthy creepers increase; so do evil and corrupt thoughts in the mind of an idle person.” The whole soul is contaminated by it. As in a commonwealth that has no common enemy to contend with, civil wars generally ensue, and the members of it rage against each other; so is this body natural, when it is idle, macerated, and vexed with cares, griefs, false fears, discontents, suspicions, and restless anxiety, for want of proper employment. Vulture-like, it preys upon the bowels of its victims, and allows them no respite from their sufferings. For he’s the Tityus, here, that lies opprest With idleness, or whom fierce cares molest; These are the eagles that still tear his breast.

Idle persons, whatever be their age, sex, or condition—however rich, well allied, or fortunate—can never be well, either in body or mind. Wearied, vexed, loathing, weeping, sighing, grieving, and suspecting, they are continually offended with the world and its concerns, and disgusted with every object in it. Their lives are painful to themselves, and burthensome to others; for their bodies are doomed to endure the miseries of ill-health, and their minds to be tortured by every foolish fancy. This is the true

cause why the rich and great generally labour under this disease : for idleness is an appendix to nobility, who, counting business a disgrace, sanction every whim in search of, and spend all their time in, dissipated pleasures, idle sports, and useless recreations; and Their conduct, like a sick man’s dreams, Is formed of vanity and whims.

-Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy.

LIGHT READING.

Ah, this word “light” is the cause of much heaviness. A pound of feathers, it must be remembered, weighs as heavily as a pound of lead. It is a mistake to suppose, that the nearer we approach a vacuum, the more agreeable is the atmosphere. To be “light,” in the opinion of most people, is to be idealess. It is most true that the more common the ideas of a composition are, the more numerous will be the audience by whom it will be understood; and this principle seems to guide the advocates of “light” reading and writing. Write that, say they, which shall require the least education and the t experience to understand it, and you will write that which must be popular. Compare the merits of Tacitus and Clarendon, and very few know or care anything about the matter. Discuss Pope and Dryden, and your audience is a little more enlarged. Talk of Lord Byron, and your auditors are multiplied by a hundred. Criticise the manners of a dinner-table, and the vulgarities of half-bred pretenders or low-bred Cockneys, and the very housekeepers and ladies’-maids can relish your discourse. This is the modern meaning of the term “light,” and the principle of the management of more than one popular periodical.-London Magazine.

OUR LITERARY LETTER_BOX.

INTERspersed amongst the more agreeable compliments and “flatteries ” of the majority of our correspondents, occurs an occasional remonstrance for our neglect of certain communications. Now, as we rather “pique” ourselves on attention to our friends of the “Letter-Box,” we must confess that we dislike being taken roundly to task for supposed delinquencies. In all instances where letters are not answered, our correspondents may rest assured it is for what we consider a sufficient reason; or else the communication is held over, to be better answered than we could do on the instant. Let our impatient correspondents, then, not be too selfish ; the “Letter-Box” is the property of all our readers, and we would rather “shut” it, than keep it “open” for the mere gratification of individuals.

“Sin,-In the 61st Number of your Journal, there are a few remarks made on Novel-reading, by one of your Letter-Box correspondents, which has induced me to relate a circumstance which may not only convince the writer that novel-reading may be advantageous, but may likewise be useful to parents and guardians of children, in reclaiming their wayward charges.

“When about eighteen years old, I was an associate of a few youths a little my seniors, whose chief pleasures were cock-fighting, dog-fighting, and poaching. My parents were respectable, but not wealthy; they could not, in justice to my other brothers and sisters, keep me idle, and they grieved to think of the consequences likely to result from the course I was pursuing. Every means they could think of were tried to reclaim me, but in vain. No argument they could use, no reward they could offer, no punishment they could inflict, would induce me to give up my pursuits and attend to my occupation. Things went on in this way for some years, and I was rather getting worse than better. But at last a noble thought struck my mother, who from her education knew the power of reading on the young mind. She got from a library a few good novels, which she pressed me to read. At first I refused—I would not do it. Still she persisted; and as she knew there were a number of little favours which could only be got through her intercession with my father, she perceived that I would be forced, in order to obtain her assistance and gain my purpose, to make the experiment upon which she placed her last hope: and it succeeded. At first I read only a few chapters; but through time I got interested in the tale, and she paid strict attention to the kind that pleased me best. As I finished one work, she had another ready ; till at last I gave up my associates, and with them my former pursuits, for such works as she was pleased to lay before me; and my reading, I am happy to say, was not confined to novels.

“At the time to which these remarks refer, I was a hand-loom cottonweaver. Some years ago, I dropped that occupation, and have since then gone on gradually bettering my worldly condition; and that parent is still alive, happy in the affection of her reclaimed son, Nor do I ever look back upon that period of my life without blessing her, and the first hour in which I took up a novel. “ J. P.”

A LADY.—The word “Normal,” which has in recent years been applied to schools established as models for the management of other schools by the pupils—in a word, to schools for schoolmasters—is derived from the Italian word “norma,” literally a carpenter’s rule; and thence, as the word rule in our own language, metaphorically used as a model or pattern. For example, “La sua vita serva a norma a tutti,”—his life was a pattern to all.

A correspondent, who’dates from Dundee, and who assumes the cognomen of M“Vulcan, inquires what chemical preparation is used for cleaning marine shells. The best reply we can give is the transcription of the following directions for cleaning shells, given by the well-known naturalist Donovan, in his “Instructions for collecting and preserving Subjects of Natural History.” We have altered and condensed the original, but we have preserved the substance, which, as the experience of a well-informed practical man, may be relied upon. Many shells, such as the cypraea, or cowrie, possess such a natural polish as to need no cleaning, except the removal of any dirt which may adhere to them ; and in cleaning others much care is needed, as, by the partial removal of the inferior layers, the appearance of the shell may often be entirely changed; a process too frequently practised by “curiosity dealers,” who have various means of “n.anufacturing ” very extraordinary specimens. Shells encrusted with extraneous matter should be allowed to steep for some time in warm water, both for the sake of moistening those substances, and of extracting as much as possible of the marine salts. They may be suffered to remain in water two or three minutes without any injury. After this, brush them well, observing only that the brush be not too hard. If that prove insufficient to clean them, rub or brush them again with tripoli or emery, or put them into a mixture of from one-sixth to one-tenth part of nitrous acid to five-sixths or nine-tenths of water, according to the exigency of the case ; which process may be repeated as often as will be necessary to remove the extraneous matter. Strong soap may also be used, with a rag of woollen or linen cloth to rub them, or a ley of pearlashes; and when cleansed, finish them with a soft brush and fine emery. In some cases it may be necessary to use the acid undiluted, but this must be done with great care; the mouth of the shell should be covered with soft wax, and a careful examination should be made with a magnifying glass every time the shell is taken out of the acid, which should be every minute; and if the enamel appears in any spot, it should be coated with wax, to prevent injury when the shell is again submitted to corrosion. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that great caution should be observed in the management of the acid; for it is within our personal experience that permanent injury has been done to the nails of persons cleaning shells carelessly. In some cases, where the epidermis is very thick, it is necessary to make use of files, or pumice-stone, to get rid of it; and Mr. Donovan says, that even the aid of a grindstone is occasionally needsul. When the shell is quite clean, polish it with fine emery, and pass a camel’s-hair pencil with gum arabic over it, to heighten the colours; the white of egg is sometimes used, but is very apt to turn yellow with age, though at first it appears glaring; and varnish communicates a disagreeable smell. Shells which have a natural polish may be rubbed by the hand with chamois leather, which will give them a bright glossy appearance. Avoid, when possible, the use of emery powder, as it is apt to injure the beautiful workings on the shells: it cannot, however, be often dispensed with. Scientific collectors endeavour to preserve one specimen at least of every shell with the epidermis on, to exhibit its natural appearance.

INQUIRER, Penth-The dimensions, tonnage, &c. of an 18-gun brig are as fellow :

Feet. In. Length of deck – – – – … 100 0 Of keel for tonnage – – – . 77 33 Breadth for ditto – – – – , 30 6 Extreme breadth – – – . 30 9 Depth in hold – – – – . 12 9 Burthen in tons, No. . – – . .382 Feet. In. Forward – . 6 6 Draught of Light { Aft . – . 11 4 ter Load Forward – . 11 4 Ast . – . 14 7 Height Fore — – – – . 5 5 of Midship – – – . 4 9 Ports. Aft – – – – . 5 10

J. C., Gloucester.—The authorship of the Letters of Junius is usually affixed to Sir Philip Francis, though he denied it to the last. Those who have

considered the subject think that the circumstantial evidence is strong enough, however, to rebut his denial. He was a schoolfellow of Woodfall’s, who printed the “Letters; ” during his political life he was placed in circumstances which enabled him to obtain some of the peculiar information which “Junius” exhibited; and his acknowledged productions are considered as having a resemblance in style to that of the “Letters.” The “interest” of this literary puzzle has nearly altogether died away.

R. S.–Nitrate of soda is found in layers on the surface of the earth in the western part of South America, and is brought on mules to the coast, where it undergoes a process of refining, so that it never contains more than 5 per cent. of alloy in the original packages in the docks of London, while saltpetre, or nitrate of potash, is brought from the East Indies and Turkey with from 30 to 50 per cent. of alloy. Let our correspondent consult the last number of the Journal of the English Agricultural Society.

Ed. S. Wilts, Salisbury.—The Mosaic account of the creation is the only document referring to the origin of the present world which has any trustworthy pretence to antiquity and authenticity; and all who receive the bible as a revelation, are utterly precluded from the idea that human beings existed on our globe before the creation of Adam. True, learned men have supposed that there might have been “Pre-Adamites;” even in our own day, a book was published by a very clever and extraordinary young man, the late Mr. O’Brien, called “An Essay on the Round Towers of Ireland,” in which, amongst other startling things, he affirms that the Saviour had been repeatedly incarnate, and had suffered repeatedly in the flesh, ages before Adam was created ; and, moreover, he contends, in his book, that the earth was very populous when Adam was born 1 There is much in the early history of our world of which we are ignorant, and on which it is possible light may be thrown, especially from the literature of Hindustan, just as the tombs of Egypt have, in these modern days, revealed to us much of which no other record remains. But it is not wise to abandon the known upon a mere speculation on the unknown. The “giants” of the antediluvian time are supposed to be so termed, not from their physical but their moral characteristics—great hunters, great warriors, “men of renown “for violence and blood, rather than remarkable for extraordinary size and strength.

In reply to “A Smatterer,” who, in reference to the account of Nicolas Flamel in No. 50 of the Lond. Sat. Journal, suggests that “if it be true, as the experiments of Sir Humphrey Davy and Berzelius appear to prove, that ammonia has a metallic base, and if ammonia can be produced from hydrogen and nitrogen, may it not be inferred that gold may be produced from other known or unknown gases, and that the labours of the old celestials were not so utterly absurd P” we can only reply, that although the wonderful discoveries of later years seem to promise ultimately to lead us so deep into the arcana of nature as to render it not improbable that the exact process by which metals are formed may at some future period be ascertained, yet it does not appear that the facts already known are sufficient to warrant our correspondent’s supposition.

The “old celestials “do not appear to have made any approaches to the right path. “ The theory avowed by the more recent alchemists is as follows: They believe that the metals were composed of two substances–metallic earth and an inflammable substance called sulphur. Gold possesses three principles in nearly a pure state; in other metals they are more or less corrupted and intermixed with other ingredients. Hence it is only necessary to purify them from these debasements to convert them into gold; and this is the precise object of all the different alchemical processes.”

Although at various periods, and even in comparatively recent times, there have been multitudes who have pretended to be in possession of the secret, yet one circumstance seems to give the lie to all their pretensions—none of these gentlemen ever got rich.

All Letters intended to be answered in the LITERARY LETTER-Box are to be addressed to “The Editor of the LoNDoN SATURDAY Journal,” and delivered free, at 113, Fleet-street.

The Volumes of the London SATURDAY Journal may be had as follows:Volume I., containing Nos. 1 to 26, price 5s. 6d. in cloth. VolcME II., containing Nos. 27 to 52, price 5s. 6d. in cloth. Volumes I. and II. bound together, containing the Numbers for 1839, price 10s. 6d. in cloth. Back NcMBERs and PARts, to complete Sets, may always be obtained.

London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRAsen and Co. Dublin: CURRY and Co.—Printed and Stereotyped by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

THE

LONDON SATURDAY JOURNAL

PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM SMITH, 113, FLEET STREET.

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THE PRIvy Council, as a department of state, is a most

ancient and important institution, and enters essentially into the machinery of government. It is emphatically called “ The Council;” the “noble, honourable, and reverend assembly” of the king, and such as he wills to summon together to be his advisers. Its numbers have varied from time to time, sometimes they were limited by special enactment; at present they are, and have becn since the Revolution, indefinite. No inconvenience arises in this respect, inasmuch as those only attend who are specially summoned. Upon extraordinary occasions, such as the accession of a new sovereign, all the members are summoned, and all, of whatever political party they may be, obey the mandate, unless they are prevented by indisposition or by absence from the country. Usually those only are summoned who coincide with Ministers in their general policy. No person can be a member of the Privy Council, who has been born out of the dominions of the crown, unless born of English parents. No act even of naturalization can qualify a foreigner to sit in this assembly, a fact which it is interesting to know at this moment, looking to the recent event of her Majesty’s marriage. The oath of a privy councillor still retains much of the old English, baronial, magna-charta sort of expression of loyalty to the sovereign; it consists of seven articles,—to advise the king to the best of his cunning and discretion—to advise for the king’s honour and good of the public without partiality through affection, love, meed, (i.e. hope of reward,) doubt or dread—to keep the king’s counsel secret—to avoid corruption—to help and strengthen the execution of what shall be there resolved—to withstand all persons who would attempt the contrary—and in general to observe, keep, and do all that a good and true councillor ought to do to his sovereign lord. There are many acts, such as the issuing and signing of proclamations, ordering new coinage, new seals of office, the granting of charters to colonies or corporations, which must be performed by the sovereign “in council.” As a court of justice it exercises authority, both original and in appeal, with reference to cases from the colonies, as well as from the ecclesiastical and other tribunals at home. There has been established for some years a judicial committee of this assembly, consisting exclusively of law lords, before which all such cases are argued and decided. But they are supposed to be argued in the presence of the sovereign, and are formally referred to the crown before judgment is considered final. This is a great improvement upon the former system, which allowed cases to be decided by a single judge and any lay members who chose to attend—a mode of administering justice which was attended with the most injurious consequences, inasmuch as the principles upon which judgments were founded varied with almost every new judge, precedents having been then altogether passed over, as having, and indeed often deserving of, no authority. The change has been highly beneficial to the country, and especially to our foreign dependencies. By recent regulations the Privy Council has cognisance of all matters relating to patent rights, thus securing to genius the fair reward of its noble occupation in inventing new machinery for the use of mankind. The keeper of the privy seal is generally a member of the cabinet. The duties of the office are very limited. The seal is the privy signet of the sovereign, as distinguished from the great seal WOL. III.

SATURDAY, MARCH 28, 1840.

[PRICE TwoPENCE. which is in the custody of the lord high-chancellor, or of a keeper, or, at occasional intervals, when the office of chancellor is vacant, of a commission especially appointed for that purpose. There are several species of warrants which must, according to law or prescription, be signed (the royal signature is always at the top of the document) by the sovereign, and sealed with his privy signet. Some warrants so signed and sealed pass at once under the great seal, as a matter of course; in other cases a document having been previously signed by the king, is sent to the keeper of the privy seal, who makes out a writ or warrant thereupon to the chancery, where the great seal is affixed to it. The difference between the two modes of proceeding only causes a difference in the title of the warrant, the warrant or patent in the former case being said to be “By the king himself,” in the latter “By writ of privy seal.” It must be confessed that this is one of our old state “mysteries,” the retention of which may not seem in the eyes of unlearned persons absolutely essential to our national safety in these reforming days. The office is in fact a sinecure, but one which perhaps it has been found convenient to continue, as it frequently furnishes a seat in the cabinet for an individual who, though unequal to the duties of an office requiring much active exertion, may be possessed of experience or character capable of giving weight to a government. It is also often given to young statesmen of distinguished talent, who are introduced into the ministry with a view to prepare them for higher appointments. The duties of the commission of land revenue are principally to manage the income arising out of the crown lands. This income has been for many years dedicated to the construction of public works, and in lieu of it, a settled annuity, called the civil list, has been granted by parliament to the reigning sovereign for life. This grant of course expires with the demise of the crown, and is subject to revision upon the accession of the successor. The expenditure of the land revenue is under the control of the board of public works, to whose enterprise we are indebted for many great improvements in the metropolis. It must be admitted that several of the buildings executed under their superintendence are by no means distinguished for refinement of architectural taste. Buckingham Palace, the National Gallery, and the new offices at Whitehall, are certainly not calculated to raise our character for the arts very high in the estimation of foreigners. A better order of things is however arising amongst us. The new houses of parliament, designed in a great measure by Barry, promise to be a truly splendid pile. His Reform Club House in Pall Mall is certainly the most beautiful edifice in the metropolis. It would be superfluous to make many remarks upon the functions of the admiralty, or of the home, foreign, and colonial departments. The duties assigned to each of those branches of the government are too well known to require explanation in this journal. A few miscellaneous observations, however, may not be uninteresting, especially as to the foreign department. The chief of this office has under him two secretaries, one of whom is considered a permanent officer; the other is his personal confidential friend, and of course goes out of office with him whenever he resigns. The business of this department, which extends to all parts of the world where governments are established and in communication with England, is divided as nearly as possible between the two under-secretaries, who have again under them a number of clerks and writers to assist them in carrying on the voluminous correspondence of the establishment. o

Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars.

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A Sea of Words: A Lexicon and Companion to the Complete Seafaring …
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Dean King, ‎John B. Hattendorf – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
… of unknown composition used sometimes as a stool softener and sometimes as a sleeping medicine. sling-dog An iron … as tobacco and soap. slow-belly A lazy, idle person; a laggard. slow-match A fuse that burned very slowly, used to ignite.
Sorrowful Sam, etc. [Signed: S.] – Page 7
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1810 – ‎Read
Mr. Stephens here seeing Susan \V’aters. who was sittingbver the fire, withher hands idling before her, told her he. Wished her husband would call, and look at … our Sam about work, a lazy drunken dog’.” “”l’is a sad thing, to be sure,” said Mr.
Heaven and Hell: The Psychology of the Emotions
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Neel Burton – 2015 – ‎No preview
This book proposes to do just that, examining over 30 emotions ranging from lust to love and humility to humiliation, and drawing some useful and surprising conclusions along the way.
Flush: A Biography
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Virginia Woolf – 2015 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The figure of Elizabeth Barrett Browning in the text is often read as an analogue for other female intellectuals, like Woolf herself, who suffered from illness, feigned or real, as a part of their status as female writers.
Kenkyusha’s New Japanese-English Dictionary – Page 1181
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1954 – ‎No preview – ‎More editions
Telegraph Operator: Students Manual for All Arms
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United States. Army. Signal Corps – 1927 – ‎Snippet view
Feeling heartily ashamed of myself, I resolved to be a lazy dog no longer, but to be always on the lookout for any quick brown fox … Do not join in their conversation, for it encourages them in being idle and takes your attention from your work.
Training Manual – Issue 28 – Page 59
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United States. Army. Signal Corps – 1927 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Feeling heartily ashamed of myself, I resolved to be a lazy dog no longer, but to be always on the lookout for any quick brown fox … Do not join in their conversation, for it encourages them in being idle and takes your attention from your work.
United States Army Training Manual – Issue 29 – Page 125
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U.S. Adjutant-general’s office – 1926 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Feeling heart^Jy ashamed of myself, I resolved to be a lazy dog no longer, but to be always on the lookout for any quick brown fox … Do not join in their conversation, for it encourages them in being idle and takes your attention from your work.
United States Army Training Manual – Page 125
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United States. Adjutant-General’s Office – 1926 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
My dear Arthur: When I was a little lad I was often very idle. One day … Feeling heartily ashamed of myself, I resolved to be a lazy dog no longer, but to be always on the lookout for any quick brown fox which might be jumping in my direction.
Training Manual – Issue 28 – Page 59
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United States. War Dept – 1927 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Feeling heartily ashamed of myself, I resolved to be a lazy dog no longer, but to be always on the lookout for any quick brown fox … Do not join in their conversation, for it encourages them in being idle and takes your attention from your work.

Sorrowful Sam, etc. [Signed: S.]
About this book

Terms of Service

3 – 7

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MR STEPHENS, a very worthy_ gentleman, having bought a considerable estate in Devon’shire’, had no sooner taken possession of the manor-house, than he began toturnin his mind, how he mighe-prove-useful to his indua». trious neighbours. He thought the surest means to find out the most deserving. was to observe what-families were most regular ‘at church on Sundays. The wife and childrcnof One John Parker, a Blacksmith, drew his notice-above all the.

‘I’mtwhe resolved to go and see them, which he did the first

Olmuttunity : he found Mary Parker in’the best situation inwhidh .a. good mother can be found, that is to say, talking flare ofrlueriamily’; an infant lay asleep across hen lap at the same time shemasvputtinga patch on ,her husband’s waistcoat, her-eldest girlfiwas spinning, the second was learning to knit,

– a’third was getting by heart her catechism, whilst a -fine boy

wasunbinding a aggot to heat the oven; at. Lord’s house could not be neater, the tables were rubbed as bright as a: looking-glass and the pewter dishes on the shelf, shone like

– silver

– .Mrw-Stephens sat down and kindly taking the children by» the-hand, gave each of them a shilling, telling them’it was a

little reward for their good behaviour at church, and he warso obhging as to’add, he never heard little folks say their-w

catechism better. –
.“ Blessed be God, sir,” said Mary, ” we have both an

excellent Sunday and weekly School in the parish. where

every poor family mayhave their children instmcted tor_no— ‘‘ thing, _would- they but be at the trouble to send them-1n a»: ‘ Flinn ‘decent manner ; yet there is many a mother, I am sot’

rytvsay, iO’little thankful for it they won’t even’be at-tbe pains to do that. A small matter of education, sir, asl take it,” quite a little portion to apoor child if their parents knew-how

to,valllc it; My Betty there can make a shirt-as well ashcr

mistmssfan’d Sallyywho ‘is but seven ycmwld’ has. made

-__ ….s _,,.- _

~ “Hi–m

4 i

enough by spinning at odd hours after school to bu ‘ her a frork : ‘Bringifigq’ip children hihiziiflé’sfilgétfibt ‘vil; be§ldésf’$ir,! éontinhed shé, “efiery {te r cfc’iaf g a irewards given at the school to all children who are regular in their hours and behave well ; my git Is have an handkerchief or white apt on given them, ah’d‘my boy gets a hat 0| a pair of shoes, besides Bihles and many other good books proper tobehad in aN‘Christian famit’ici ywhich they? n’r’od to me’ nightxénd w hich are’a great c’om’f‘hrt to my poo!’ heart”. uhaiét very tryiitg afllicsiona.”–Mr. Stephens lsaidhe was’eorvy-ior find chtrw- !8 not happy, and asked-hen what was die-‘mandrel

“ 5M? ldt, .Sir’Y-repiied MaryI- ’‘ ié mil harderthti thar’oftmany others, thercis an alehoude on the Gonimon calledtbo Tennis-Court, which causes morcpoverty in the- parish-, thaneither daamcasof provisions or wa’ntoflaber. But’cbildremlyou may go to play on the green ;” theyhwere nn’kooner one‘ than she went on. – “I do’n’t like, Sir,” saidyshe, “thamn ‘ innocent babes shouhhcw’er “hua’r’iné talk of the’v’icos’ of (him father, as’it may harden their little hc’al’ts and make them-1&4″ dutiful-to him : but, as I said’beiore,; mv lot, aftenailflk not harder than that iof many of my neighbors. T’hel’e il’Bt’zsan walflrs, the other biacksmithx’s wife, whose’h’ushand is inore’ drunken than mine, if possible. Sam coqlgfeamhisdm 05+” neasa week as well–as my husband if-hmwould but w rk‘f” but n-rsooner docs tither Oflhcrn rarn‘a’ Fmwlhl‘mligflgnh,lfl-‘: ofi they are grmc tippling, nor do they think ofreturning’totheir families till every ‘flrt’hihk’itt speln-l .”As ‘tmthimi’isuun YVKFWEJ0ves work as liItle 115281111, ‘she|i8 B]a_z_’.’,1difl.y’,ughs\sippingflbod-yrand won’: eé’cn-‘také thqtmdbledqékan send her children to school, onlv -became me~~we|c pioiiacrly porlected for Coming and swearing. and for seldom-gaunt “no 1 sdlool Qfr’? morning‘ ‘tilhoeher t;itild’:‘€1i \véIt-Zgoing home to dmm’r”_$” 3″te 13″ them go stroiiin’g’ like ‘vagabnntls élhaht‘nxt. ‘ the papah, stealing‘ apple’s,‘ ,hl‘eafkingedgwss, and committing” a multitude ufotherMala-“$515,355” on 11),: Mjgnbbrs. mm?

P 5“ humbly thank .Qsld- Sir, no‘onewcan. say; nt’yisculflmg

‘l’fimPer-firiwsmv husbmgMothe ‘uie-hbuge, because .hemn-it

-i8146 no-neace- at home, which -I am Sorry-Ad say is -fobtdmni

ihfl-fiase or mam that vrmkfi hard-ail day,_,S’gr,(~ oughtytfl,bpai

‘ .1951‘? .i-ccetv-ed by ‘I’m ‘wifeltyiign hisJabpnjs’i-dou’c ; mjyll‘flmw I

)‘” 5″ W7 auwenatmwf – ygg‘tfle mginrgndi“ mhme’m ‘ _ :- ” “‘~~ I

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5i

‘1 1’ im- i, it‘, -l’_i” J “l “: ,Jh‘ I – ‘
. if iw’fI llakl_pmvpked IH’S temper
o , -t

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.1

-21’

spirits oblige nre to H , as’ my dear wile (lied suddenly it, my eldest son is turn out‘in spite of all so are anlf inns,‘

pnc of‘ the – most profli’gate ybdng -n1en of’his fil’he; hasl

three fine daughters‘, who all’ died in the space of three years ; I should havesunk under this severe stroke, had ‘not God’s gootln’e’ss’supported me, the shock of it destroyed tn ‘

1

health, though it did not shake my belief, thil this-grcat 4_~

fiiction wasi-ne’ant’in mercy to my soul. ‘ ‘ .

– “’ I- have heils of down, Mary, but my physiciilns order‘ me to lie on’a straw mattress, and though my bedf-chambéf is crowded with the most costly furniture, I seldom gfl’ if”, hours sleep in‘ a night.- My table every day iseoyiirfld Wlth themost klaint dishes, yet I can only eat a (whip 01′ a Po’ ‘ tatoe; my cel ars are filled with the best wines, yet 1 can drink onlywvater. I have a coach, a post chaise, -and a variety of saddle-horses, yet I have an inward cou’iplaint, \llhl‘lly prevems’m)” making use of either without sufi’cring gm“ pain ; thus you seé, Mary, how wrong’it is to- em PCOPIG lor their great wealth; do you shew me I; misera 1: poor man, and [“11 sl’ie’v’v you ten miserable rich ones.” ‘ ‘ “What you‘ have been saving to me, Wm d9 mt nlore‘ good than- a set-than, and l’hopc it will teach me for thetrmc, to-comc, -to be quite satisfied with- any station.” – ‘ . .

At this moment john Parlter came in ; “ you‘h’ave some of \ the loveliest childrenJohn, lever saw in my life,” Sam Mr‘ §tephens. “ What a- pleasure it must be to you 05111 6/6?” mg, whfll your work is done, to sit here in your great chair, with your little prattlcrs on your knees, to hear thc.m “a the” Pretty books, and sa their prayers before theygo to, bed.” Here John’s conscience flashed in -his face, which’ became as red as fire, so-sorely did it smite him. _- – . ‘,

“True enough, sir,” however stammered he, “bill, 14 SQPPQSC your -worship must have heard, I am not -quite- atkind a hushmtl and father as I ought to be, though I have the best wife _2rld’C}tlldliC!l inthe world , I know my huh: fir: and hope in time I shall mend it.” ‘ ‘

_‘_I ho!” you will, Iohn,” said Mr. Stephens, “ is your 37”” eyeiqnust convince you what poverty and di$”‘?5§.9

runkentradesman -la,’-ingg)”on his’family; that mm has a, 53:1 1181111, 1 91m, _who livesupon ale, whilst his poor W”? W o sucklcs his clnldrm,- ‘thinks nothing but watcc; 5i Pint

[graphic]
(_ 1

of good beer, Iohii, makes an Englishman strong and hearty, bur drunkenness makes him both a beggar and a beast. “-vn “ May God’s blessing for ever attend vou, sir,” cried Mary, “for giving my dear husband such good advice_;_ I should he the happiest’ woman in the world, were he to turn from his present evil courses.”

Soon after this Mr. Stephens went away, and on his road

home, called on Sam Waters, and though it was the middle ,

-of the day, he found him stretched at his length and fast asleep in- his shop, though his yard was full of’ waggons, ploughs, 25cc. Waiting to be repaired ; but not a spark of fire was there in the forge, nor a bit ofiron to work upon if there had. Several of his children all rags and tatters, lay baskin‘ in the sun, and kicking up their heels on a bankof cindets. When Mr. Ste hens peeped into the house, it stunk with filth, it shocke him to think ‘how people couldconsent to live like pigs, rather than to take the smallest pains to keep themselves f1 esh and clean, for though folks may he ever so poor, ’tis nothing but their own laziness need li’fcp themditty. The furniture of the kitchen he observed, had all been very good, but for want of_ the smith’s driving an occasional nail, every thing was gone to rack and ruin; a large oak ta. ble was without a flap ; the clock had no pendulum -. the bel

– lows was without a nose; the skimmer withouta handle; the

brass pot without a hanger ; the gridiron had hardly anv ribs; the frying.-pan was burnt through; the stairs’ ,loor hung Without an hinge ; the window- bench was full of the paringe of potatoes, and on a round table in -he middle of the house, stood a parcel of broken t’ea dishes, and saucers, some bits of Cake lying in the slopot’ a pewter dish, with the brim melted off-. Mr. Stephens here seeing Susan \V’aters. who was sittingbver the fire, withher hands idling before her, told her he. Wished her husband would call, and look at one of his coachhotses that was sick—“Ah, sir,”said she,“ you may as well preach to a man without ears, as to talk to our Sam about work, a lazy drunken dog‘.” “”l‘is a sad thing, to be sure,” said Mr. Stephens, “’ for a poor woman ta have a drunken husbénd,- hut’thar need not hinder you From discharging your

‘ duties- as a wife: what a pity it is you keep your house so

filthy, and your children so ragged ; clean water costs nothing

“lei-ills tel-slanis” its-rashes: a <ss” whit-Wis .

[graphic][graphic]

The Dog’s Book
of Verse

IN CINEAM
Thou dogged Cineas, hated like a dog,
For still thou grumblest like a masty dog,
Compar’st thyself to nothing but a dog;
Thou say’st thou art as weary as a dog,
As angry, sick, and hungry as a dog,
As dull and melancholy as a dog,
As lazy, sleepy, idle as a dog.
But why dost thou compare thee to a dog
In that for which all men despise a dog?
I will compare thee better to a dog;
Thou art as fair and comely as a dog,
Thou art as true and honest as a dog,
Thou art as kind and liberal as a dog,
Thou art as wise and valiant as a dog,
But, Cineas, I have often heard thee tell
Thou art as like thy father as may be:
‘Tis like enough; and, faith, I like it well;
But I am glad thou art not like to me.
Sir John Davies

THE VAGABONDS
We are two travellers, Roger and I.
Roger’s my dog.—Come here, you scamp!
Jump for the gentleman,—mind your eye!
Over the table,—look out for the lamp!
The rogue is growing a little old;
Five years we’ve tramped through wind and weather,
And slept out-doors when nights were cold,
And ate and drank—and starved—together.
We’ve learned what comfort is, I tell you!
A bed on the floor, a bit of rosin,
A fire to thaw our thumbs (poor fellow!
The paw he holds up there’s been frozen),
Plenty of catgut for my fiddle
(This out-door business is bad for strings),
Then a few nice buckwheats hot from the griddle,
And Roger and I set up for kings!
No, thank ye, Sir,—I never drink;
Roger and I are exceedingly moral,—
Aren’t we, Roger?—See him wink!—
Well, something hot, then,—we won’t quarrel.
He’s thirsty, too,—see him nod his head?
What a pity, Sir, that dogs can’t talk!
He understands every word that’s said,—
And he knows good milk from water-and-chalk.[Pg 58]
The truth is, Sir, now I reflect,
I’ve been so sadly given to grog,
I wonder I’ve not lost the respect
(Here’s to you, Sir!) even of my dog.
But he sticks by, through thick and thin;
And this old coat with its empty pockets,
And rags that smell of tobacco and gin,
He’ll follow while he has eyes in his sockets.
There isn’t another creature living
Would do it, and prove, through every disaster,
So fond, so faithful, and so forgiving,
To such a miserable, thankless master!
No, Sir!—see him wag his tail and grin!
By George! it makes my old eyes water!
That is, there’s something in this gin
That chokes a fellow. But no matter!
We’ll have some music, if you’re willing,
And Roger (hem! what a plague a cough is, Sir!)
Shall march a little—Start, you villain!
Paws up! Eyes front! Salute your officer!
‘Bout face! Attention! Take your rifle!
(Some dogs have arms, you see!) Now hold your
Cap while the gentlemen give a trifle,
To aid a poor old patriot soldier!
March! Halt! Now show how the rebel shakes
When he stands up to hear his sentence.
Now tell us how many drams it takes
To honor a jolly new acquaintance.
Five yelps,—that’s five; he’s mighty knowing!
The night’s before us, fill the glasses!—
Quick, Sir! I’m ill,—my brain is going!—
Some brandy,—thank you,—there!—it passes![Pg 59]
Why not reform? That’s easily said;
But I’ve gone through such wretched treatment,
Sometimes forgetting the taste of bread,
And scarce remembering what meat meant,
That my poor stomach’s past reform;
And there are times when, mad with thinking,
I’d sell out heaven for something warm
To prop a horrible inward sinking.
Is there a way to forget to think?
At your age, Sir, home, fortune, friends,
A dear girl’s love,—but I took to drink,—
The same old story; you know how it ends.
If you could have seen these classic features,—
You needn’t laugh, Sir; they were not then
Such a burning libel on God’s creatures:
I was one of your handsome men![Pg 60]
If you had seen her, so fair and young,
Whose head was happy on this breast!
If you could have heard the songs I sung
When the wine went round, you wouldn’t have guessed
That ever I, Sir, should be straying
From door to door, with fiddle and dog,
Ragged and penniless, and playing
To you to-night for a glass of grog!
She’s married since,—a parson’s wife:
‘Twas better for her that we should part,—
Better the soberest, prosiest life
Than a blasted home and a broken heart.
I have seen her? Once: I was weak and spent
On the dusty road: a carriage stopped:
But little she dreamed, as on she went,
Who kissed the coin that her fingers dropped!
You’ve set me talking, Sir; I’m sorry:
It makes me wild to think of the change!
What do you care for a beggar’s story?
Is it amusing? You find it strange?
I had a mother so proud of me!
‘Twas well she died before.—Do you know
If the happy spirits in heaven can see
The ruin and wretchedness here below?[Pg 61]
Another glass, and strong, to deaden
This pain; then Roger and I will start.
I wonder, has he such a lumpish, leaden,
Aching thing in place of a heart?
He is sad sometimes, and would weep, if he could,
No doubt remembering things that were,—
A virtuous kennel, with plenty of food,
And himself a sober, respectable cur.
I’m better now; that glass was warming.—
You rascal! limber your lazy feet!
We must be fiddling and performing
For supper and bed, or starve in the street.—
Not a very gay life to lead, you think?
But soon we shall go where lodgings are free,
And the sleepers need neither victuals nor drink:—
The sooner, the better for Roger and me!
J.T. Trowbridge.

JUST OUR DOG
He was just a dog, mister—that’s all;
And all of us boys called him Bub;
He was curly and not very tall
And he hadn’t a tail—just a stub.
His tail froze one cold night, you see;
We just pulled the rest of him through.
No—he didn’t have much pedigree—
Perhaps that was frozen off, too.
He always seemed quite well behaved,
And he never had many bad fights;
In summer he used to be shaved
And he slept in the woodshed o’ nights.
Sometimes he would wake up too soon
And cry, if his tail got a chill;
Some nights he would bark at the moon,
But some nights he would sleep very still.
He knew how to play hide-and-seek
And he always would come when you’d call;
He would play dead, roll over and speak,
And learned it in no time at all.
Sometimes he would growl, just in play,
But he never would bite, and his worst
Was to bark at the postman one day,
But the postman, he barked at him first.[Pg 77]
He used to chase cats up a tree,
But that was just only in fun;
And a cat was as safe as could be—
Unless it should start out to run;
Sometimes he’d chase children and throw
Them down, just while running along,
And then lick their faces to show
He didn’t mean anything wrong.
He was chasing an automobile
When the wheel hit him right in the side,
So he just gave a queer little squeal
And curled up and stretched out and died.
His tail it was not very long,
He was curly and not very tall;
But he never did anything wrong—
He was just our dog, mister—that’s all.
Anonymous.

TO FLUSH, MY DOG
I
Loving friend, the gift of one
Who her own true faith has run
Through thy lower nature,
Be my benediction said
With my hand upon thy head,
Gentle fellow-creature!
II
Like a lady’s ringlets brown,
Flow thy silken ears adown
Either side demurely
Of thy silver-suited breast,
Shining out from all the rest
Of thy body purely.
III
Darkly brown thy body is,
Till the sunshine striking this
Alchemize its dulness,
When the sleek curls manifold
Flash all over into gold
With a burnished fulness.[Pg 81]
IV
Underneath my stroking hand.
Startled eyes of hazel bland
Kindling, growing larger,
Up thou leanest with a spring,
Full of prank and curvetting,
Leaping like a charger.
V
Leap! thy broad tail waves a light,
Leap! thy slender feet are bright,
Canopied in fringes;
Leap! those tasselled ears of thine
Flicker strangely, fair and fine
Down their gold inches.
VI
Yet, my pretty sportive friend,
Little is’t to such an end
That I praise thy rareness:
Other dogs may be thy peers
Happy in these drooping ears
And this glossy fairness.
VII
But of thee it shall be said,
This dog watched beside a bed
Day and night unweary,—
Watched within a curtained room
Where no sunbeam brake the gloom,
Round the sick and dreary.[Pg 82]
VIII
Roses, gathered for a vase,
In that chamber died space,
Beam and breeze resigning:
This dog only waited on,
Knowing, that, when light is gone,
Love remains for shining.
IX
Other dogs in thymy dew
Tracked the hares, and followed through
Sunny moor or meadow:
This dog only crept and crept
Next a languid cheek that slept,
Sharing in the shadow.
X
Other dogs of loyal cheer
Bounded at the whistle clear,
Up the woodside hieing:
This dog only watched in reach
Of a faintly uttered speech,
Or a louder sighing.[Pg 83]
XI
And if one or two quick tears
Dropped upon his glossy ears,
Or a sigh came double,
Up he sprang in eager haste,
Fawning, fondling, breathing fast,
In a tender trouble.
XII
And this dog was satisfied
If a pale, thin hand would glide
Down his dewlaps sloping,—
Which he pushed his nose within,
After,—platforming his chin
On the palm left open.
XIII
This dog, if a friendly voice
Call him now to blither choice
Than such chamber-keeping,
“Come out!” praying from the door,
Presseth backward as before,
Up against me leaping.
XIV
Therefore to this dog will I,
Tenderly, not scornfully,
Render praise and favor:
With my hand upon his head,
Is my benediction said
Therefore and forever.[Pg 84]
XV
And because he loves me so,
Better than his kind will do
Often man or woman,
Give I back more love again
Than dogs often take of men,
Leaning from my human.
XVI
Blessings on thee, dog of mine,
Pretty collars make thee fine,
Sugared milk may fat thee!
Pleasures wag on in thy tail,
Hands of gentle motion fail
Nevermore to pat thee!
XVII
Downy pillow take thy head,
Silken coverlet bestead,
Sunshine help thy sleeping!
No fly’s buzzing wake thee up,
No man break thy purple cup
Set for drinking deep in![Pg 85]
XVIII
Whiskered cats aroynted flee,
Sturdy stoppers keep from thee
Cologne distillations;
Nuts lie in thy path for stones,
And thy feast-day macaroons
Turn to daily rations!
XIX
Mock I thee, in wishing weal?
Tears are in my eyes to feel
Thou art made so straitly:
Blessings need must straiten too,—
Little canst thou joy or do
Thou who lovest greatly.
XX
Yet be blessed to the height
Of all good and all delight
Pervious to thy nature;
Only loved beyond that line,
With a love that answers thine,
Loving fellow-creature!
Elizabeth Barrett Browning

FRANCES
You were a friend, Frances, a friend,
With feeling and regard and capable of woe.
Oh, yes, I know you were a dog, but I was just a man.
I did not buy you; no, you simply came,
Lost, and squatted on my doorstep.
The place was strange—you quivered, but stayed on,
And I had need of you.
No other fellow could make you follow him,
For you had chosen me to be your pal.
My whistle was your law,
You put your paw
Upon my palm,
And in your calm, deep eyes was writ
The promise of long comradeship.
When I came home from work,
Late and ill-tempered,
Always I heard the patter of your feet upon the oaken stairs;
Your nose was at the door-crack;
And whether I’d been bad or good that day
You fawned, and loved me just the same.
It was your way to understand.[Pg 87]
And if I struck you, my harsh hand
Was met with your caresses.
You took my leavings, crumb and bone,
And stuck by me through thick and thin—
You were my kin.
And then one day you died
And were put deep.
But though you sleep, and ever sleep,
I sense you at my heels.
Richard Wightman.

Alte Jungfer (Google Books)

Hagestolz and old maid – Page 120
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Katrin Baumgarten – Preview
However, the old maid constantly offering himself to men does not want to accept this fact . … her desire for love through exaggerated attention to a pet, the notorious lapdog , who surmises her …
The American Agriculturist – Volumes 22-23 – Page 111
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1863 – Read – More editions
cries the owner of a Pied Piper, “but think twice before shooting or poisoning.” “Vile,” said the old maiden indignantly as she caresses her pet dog . “Capital idea!” Shouts the sheep breeder.
The presence – Volume 33 – Page 43
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1888 – Read – More editions
Stephan Trofimovich Verkhovensky is a liberal of the old school, an ideologue who occasionally finds himself in the … like only an old maiden and her pet dog – ever enjoying a sprout from a previous marriage.
Memories of strange objects and events, connected …
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1855 – Read – More editions
Isidor, with all the powers of Lottchen, took on handing the certificate of surrender to the old … me, whether I want to quit smoking – and what the old maid , the old Aktrice, the Prussian, the pet dog , the .. ,
Bd. Literary heart things – Page 487
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Ferdinand Kürnberger , Otto Erich German – 1911 – Snippet view
What an old maid or Wittib can do for a pet dog is one of those border relations between mankind and the animal kingdom, where the intimate intercourse of two neighboring peoples already abolishes the frontier. But is the pet dog …
Home garden – Volume 3 – Page 376
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1879 – Read – More editions
The Hagestolz could have marry, but he did not want to; the old maid wanted to marry, but she was denied. How cheap is our ridicule about the tenderness, with which old maids on a small pet dog , a …
Morning sheet for educated readers – Volume 57, Issues 1-2 – Page 62
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1863 – Read – More editions
Finally, a submissive old maid , who knows all bad inclinations of man all too accurately, and has only a heart for her pet dog . Will this gallery of incompatible origins also in an unlikely …
The animal kingdom: in two volumes – Volume 2 – Page 1224
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1897 – Read – More editions
… even less, as it has been described from earlier times, an old maiden of today should be able to stand … The old-fashioned pug must have been a very different animal, much smaller and a real lap dog ; …
The animal kingdom – Volume 2 – Page 1224
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Dr. Ludwig Heck – 1897 – Read – More editions
… even less likely, as is described but to the earlier times, a spinster of today stands in his … So the old-Pug has a very different animal, much smaller NND a real lapdog been fine; …
From the tree of knowledge: fragments of ethics and psychology from …
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Paul von Gizycki – 1897 – Read – More editions
The poor old maid ! How much is sneered at her, and one completely forgets how much pain and heartache and how much deceived hope helped to draw these ruts in her face. But we have to glorify it …

Hagestolz und Alte Jungfer – Page 120
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Katrin Baumgarten – Preview
Mit dieser Tatsache will sich die sich ständig den Männern anbietende Alte Jungfer jedoch nicht abfinden. … ihr Liebesverlangen durch übertriebene Zuwendung zu einem Haustier, dem berühmt-berüchtigten Schoßhund, der ihr, so mutmaßt …
Der Amerikanischer Agriculturist – Volumes 22-23 – Page 111
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1863 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
ruft der Besitzer eines Rattenfängers, „aber überlegt’s Euch doch noch ein Mal, ehe Ihr schießt oder Gift legt.“ „Abscheulich,“ spricht entrüstet die alte Jungfer, während sie ihren Schoßhund streichelt. „Capitale Idee!“ ruft der Schafzüchter.
Die Gegenwart – Volume 33 – Page 43
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1888 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Stephan Trofimowitsch Werchowenßki ist ein Liberaler der alten Schule, ein Ideologe, der sich gelegentlich in die … wie nur eine alte Jungfer und ihr Schoßhund – erfreut sich je eines aus einer früheren Ehe hervorgegangenen Sprossen.
Erinnerungen an merkwürdige Gegenstände und Begebenheiten, verbunden …
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1855 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Isidor, mit allen Vollmachten von Lottchen versehen, nahm gegen Aushändigung der Verzichtsurkunde an den alten … mich, ob ich fein zu rauchen aufhören will – und was Dir die alte Jungfer, die alte Aktrice, der Preuße, der Schoßhund, der …
Bd. Literarische Herzenssachen – Page 487
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Ferdinand Kürnberger, ‎Otto Erich Deutsch – 1911 – ‎Snippet view
as eine alte Jungfer oder Wittib für einen Schoßhund zu tun imstande ist, gehört zu jenen Grenzbeziehungen zwischen Menschheit und Tierreich, wo der intime Verkehr zweier Nachbarvölker die Grenze schon aufhebt. Ist aber der Schoßhund …
Heimgarten – Volume 3 – Page 376
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1879 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Der Hagestolz hätte heiraten können, er wollte aber nicht ; die alte Jungfer wollte heiraten, aber es war ihr versagt. … Wie wohlfeil ist doch unser Spott über die Zärtlichkeit, mit welcher alte Jungfern an einem kleinen Schoßhund, einer …
Morgenblatt für gebildete leser – Volume 57, Issues 1-2 – Page 62
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Endlich eine devote alte Jungfer, welche alle schlechten Neigungen des Menschen allzugenau kennt, und nur für ihren Schoßhund ein Herz hat. Wird diese Gallerie von unverträglichen Origimalen auch in einer etwas unwahrscheinlichen …
Das Tierreich: in zwei Bänden – Volume 2 – Page 1224
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1897 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
… noch weniger dürfte, wie dies doch aus früheren Zeiten geschildert wird, eine alte Jungfer von heutzutage im stande sein, … Der Mops alten Schlages muß also ein ganz anderes Tier, viel kleiner und ein wirklicher Schoßhund gewesen sein; …
Das Tierreich – Volume 2 – Page 1224
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Dr. Ludwig Heck – 1897 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
… noch weniger dürfte, wie dies doch ans früheren Zeiten geschildert wird, eine alte Jungfer von heutzutage im stände sein, … Der Mops alten Schlages muß also ein ganz anderes Tier, viel kleiner nnd ein wirklicher Schoßhund gewesen fein; …
Vom Baume der Erkenntnis: Fragmente zue Ethik und Psychologie aus …
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Paul von Gizycki – 1897 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Die arme alte Jungfer! Wieviel wird über sie gespöttelt, und man vergißt dabei vollständig, wieviel Schmerz und Herzeleid und wieviel getäuschte Hoffnung diese Furchen in ihrem Antlitze ziehen halfen. Aber wir müssen es zum Ruhme des …

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Die Provinz und ihre Philister.

Nach Renan stammen die Philister von der Insel Kreta ab; nach dem Lustspieldichter V. Sardou sind es die französischen oder besser gallischen Urprovinzler. Nachdem sämmtliche gelehrte und ungelehrte Verfaffer und Abschreiber von französisch-deutschen und umgekehrten Wörterbüchern vergeblich nach einer französischen Uebersetzung des Wortes Philister im deutschen Universitätssinne gestrebt, ist der Genannte auf den guten Gedanken gekommen, demselben das gleichfalls in seiner Art unübersetzbare französische Wortganache anzupaffen, welches ursprünglich Kinnbacken bedeutet, dann einen Menschen mit hängendem Kiefer, den wir etwa ein Schlappmaul nennen würden, mithin einen Schafskopf bezeichnet, und endlich auch den verwandten Begriff eines Ruhesessels erweckt. Sardou nun hat diese fehlerhafte Terminologie verbessert und, mit gerechtfertigter Umgehung des Schafskopfs, den Philister ganache und die ganaches Philister genannt. Obwohl Ihnen Ihre Pariser Correspondenz schon über den neuesten Erfolg des Verfassers von nos intim es und les pattes de mouche berichtet haben wird, so dürfte sich doch aus der Provinz selbst noch Einiges über diese Verhöhnung der verrosteten Provinzler nachtragen laffen.

Trotz seiner bis zur Erbärmlichkeit matten und schwachen Handlung ist jenes Lustspiel ein treffliches, in der Provinz selbst verlaufendes Charakterstück. Nur Balzac, bei dem freilich auch die ganze gegenwärtige Realistenschule im Roman und auf der Bühne ihre Stoffe und Ideen holt, kennt die Provinzler so gut und beschreibt sie so genau, wie Sardou. Die gelungenten Charaktere in einer Comödie sind folgende: Ein bretagnischer Marquis aus der Claffe derer, die von 1789–1815 nichts gelernt und nichts vergessen haben, den der Stoß der Julirevolution aus einer glänzenden Laufbahn in ein altes Herrenhaus zurückgeschleudert, wo er nun, bei den trefflichsten Anlagen des Geistes und Herzens, verfitzt und im Laufe von dreißig Jahren seine Ideen und Vorurtheile zu ebenso vielen Gewohnheiten versteinern läßt.–Ferner der „Bürger Leonidas,“ ein Arzt aus der Schule der Encyclopädisten, für welchen die Menschheit in den Ereigniffen des Jahres 1793 der Gipfel ihrer Bestimmung erreicht hat, von einer fanatischen Intoleranz in der Discussion, der abgesagte Feind Gottes und seiner Vertreter, aber von hoher Wissenschaft und der edelsten Gefühle fähig. – Weiter ein Bourgeois vom reinsten Egoismus, verknöchert in

der pessimistischen Ansicht, daß zur Zeit der Juliregierung, seiner Jugend, Alles vollkommen gewesen, daß kein Wind gegangen, daß er nicht gehustet, daß man im März junge Erbsen, freilich eingemachte, gegessen. – Sodann dessen Sohn, ein jugendlicher Tagedieb, Taugenichts und Wirthshauslümmel von einer schlaffen Liederlichkeit, der, wenn er vom Rheine wäre, nach Amerika oder „unter die Oesterreicher“ ginge. – Ferner ein Lokalclassiker, der das Domino in vier Gesängen befungen hat. – Ein „Vieh“ von einem alten Bedienten, der die Gleichheit der Menschen nicht begreift, aber sich ein Feuer von einem seiner Herrn anmachen läßt. – Endlich eine devote alte Jungfer, welche alle schlechten Neigungen des Menschen allzugenau kennt, und nur für ihren Schoßhund ein Herz hat. Wird diese Gallerie von unverträglichen Origimalen auch in einer etwas unwahrscheinlichen Weise zujammen geführt, so hat doch die Thatsache ihres Zusammenlebens auf dem Boden einer gemüthlichen Gewohnheit, trotz ewiger Reibereien, große psychologische Wahrheit. Und nicht minder treffend ist es, daß die beiden edleren Naturen, der Marquis und der

Arzt, ihren Gefühlen, da wo dieselben zur Sprache

kommen, alle ihre Vorurtheile, all ihren Eigensinn

unterzuordnen wissen.

Weit weniger gelungen sind die beiden, für die Handlung wichtigsten Charaktere, das weinerliche und leidende junge Mädchen, welches aus einer Ohnmacht in die andere fällt, und ihr Liebhaber, der Ingenieur, deffen Gespräche zwischen den seichten Civilisations- und Fortschrittsleitartikeln der Presse und des Constitutionnel die Mitte halten. Auch der uralte Großvater Herzog, der nur erfunden wurde, um am Ende eine ebenso unwahrscheinliche als wohlthuende Rolle, als deus ex machina spielen zu können, hat wenig Wahrheit und ist am Anfang lächerlich, um am Ende ehrwürdig zu werden.

Das Hauptverdienst und der Grundcharakter des Stücks besteht demnach in einem geistreichen Dialog, deffen unerbittlich logische Satire die Programme und die Praxis aller Parteien und der von ihnen hervorgerufenen Zustände zu nichte macht. Wenn der Dichter auch der materiellen Fortschrittstheorie des Ingenieurs Recht geben zu wollen scheint, so geschieht dieß nur, um sein Publikum nicht in eine allgemeine Verzweiflung zu stürzen, wie sie ihn sein eigener Scepticismus empfinden läßt.

Das neue Paris, der Dampf, das Gas und die Electricität bestehen vor der Kritik des Marquis ebenso wenig, als vor der Kritik seines Gegners das ancien régime mit seinen Mißbräuchen des Despotismus und den Unarten des Adels vorhalten kann. Wenn freilich am Ende geheirathet werden soll, da müssen sich auch die unversöhnlichsten Gegensätze zusammenbiegen und aus ihrer Diffonanz eine Harmonie erzeugen, die man

wohl von den Brettern, keineswegs aber aus den Tönen der Wirklichkeit hören kann. Aber die Handlung ist am Ende Nebensache in einer Sitten- und Charaktercomödie, und da Sardou seine Provinzphilister treffend zeichnet und gut verhöhnt, so darf man ihm das Verdienst, ein gutes Stück gemacht zu haben, nicht bestreiten.

Gedichte von Adolf Bekk.

Wie denk’ ich gern der Stunde.

Wie denk’ ich gern der Stunde,
Da ich zuerst dich sah,
Da mir von deinem Anblick
So wundersam geschah!

Mir war’s, als hätt’ ich geträumet, Gelitten ein langes Leid;

Nun aber war’s vorüber

Und goldene Wirklichkeit.

Durch meine Seele rauschte
Frisch morgendliche Lust,
Das war der Hauch deines Lebens,
Der Athem deiner Brust. –

Ich nahm dich bei den Händen,
Du fahft mich an erschreckt,
Von einer flammenden Röthe
Dein Antlitz war bedeckt.

Wie warst du so schön, so herrlich,
Der jungen Freiheit Bild,
Mit dem schlanken geschmeidigen Leibe,
Mit den Augen groß und wild!

Als hätte der Wald dich erzogen Und der stille, verborgene See, Dich und die klugen Waldvöglein, Dich und das schüchterne Reh!

Oft wenn ich schönheitstrunken.

Oft wenn ich schönheitstrunken Mein Liebchen wollt’ verklären

In hoher Dichtung Glanz,
Da las ich in Entzückung,
Mit stolzem Pomp der Rede,
Aus einem goldbeschnittnen
Modernen Liederbuche
Ein Klangeswogen werfend,
In Wahnsinnsgluth geschmolzen
Erzströmendes Gedicht.
Sie lächelte im Anfang,
Dann schloß sie ihre Aeuglein
Und rümpfte gar das Näschen,
Und seufzte endlich mürrisch:
„Ach geh doch! – dummes Zeug!“
Doch wenn ich ihr ein Liedchen,
Ein schlichtes altes Liedchen,
Womit kein Dichter prahlte,
Ein Lied von Lieb und Scheiden;
Ein deutsches Volkslied fang –
Dann glänzten ihre Augen
Und schwammen bald in Thränen;
Sie lernt’ es und sie fang es,
Und jangs oft wie im Traume,
Und sprach, wenn ich sie fragte:
„Es ist so wahr, so wahr!“

Zwei Lieder der Sehnsucht. Volksthümlich.

Sie: Ich wollt, ich wär’ ein Vögelein, Ich wollt, ich hätte Flügel, Dann flöge ich zu dir, zu dir, Wohl über Thal und Hügel, Dann flöge ich zu dir.

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In ihre gefalteten Hände Muß in der Fremd’ ich sterben,
Verbirgt sie das Gesicht, Dieß fey mir noch gewährt:
Ein Strom von hellen Thränen Laßt meine Leiche ruhen
Aus ihren Augen bricht. In heimathlicher Erd”!
So tröst’ dich Gott im Himmel, „Und bin ich dann begraben,
Du gutes, treues Herz – Ich brauch’ kein Weihbrunnfaß,
Mich aber laß er finden Von meines Liebchens Thränen
Die Wege heimathwärts! Wird ja mein Hügel naß.“

Literatur.

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Ein ganzer Band Briefwechsel mit Goethe von 1810 bis 1831 und daneben in Boifferées Aufzeichnungen die Erinnerung an die Gespräche mit ihm werden als schätzbarer Beitrag zur Kenntniß des Altmeisters in Deutschland willkommen feyn, wenn auch jetzt das literarische Intereffe lange nicht mehr so wie viele Jahre in früherer Zeit das vorwaltende ist. Und wir können abermal sagen, daß Goethe immer gewinnt, je mehr von ihm und von wahrhaften Zeitgenoffen über ihn veröffentlicht wird, daß immer klarer zu Tage kommt, wie feine dichterische Größe auf der menschlichen ruht. Daß er zu einer Zeit wo er auf der Höhe des Ruhmes und Einfluffes fand, seine Existenz gegen außen abschließen mußte, wenn er dem unberufenen Andringen von außen nicht erliegen, den an ihn gestellten Ansprüchen gegenüber noch etwas für sich selbst seyn und thun wollte, das sollte am Ende. Niemand mehr verkennen oder tadeln; die kühle, vornehm ablehnende Haltung wird in solcher Lage geradezu zur Lebensbedingung. Wer aber mit redlichem Sinn zu ihm herantrat und ihm etwas bieten konnte, der sah die steife Hülle finken und fand den offenen Geist, das theilnehmende, wohlwollende Herz zu preisen, der sah sich durch Rath und That gefördert. So ging es Sulpiz Boifferée. Er besuchte Goethe, um ihm die Zeichnungen zum Kölner Domwerk vorzulegen, sein Intereffe für die Herausgabe anzuregen. Da klagt er denn nach dem ersten Empfang über die kalte Vornehmheit des alten Herrn, der seine Stummheit nur mit „so, so, merkwürdig, schön“ unterbrochen, als ihm das Anliegen vorgetragen, von altdeutscher Kunst berichtet ward; auch hatte Boifferée Zeichnungen von Cornelius zum Faust mitgebracht. Aber am andern Tag hat er sich über keine Hoffahrt mehr zu ärgern, da Morgenblatt. 1863, Nr, 3,

hat er nur Freundlichkeit, Hingebung, freien Sinn zu bewundern. Da erkannte Goethe sogleich das Gediegene und Treffliche in den Zeichnungen von Cornelius, während sein Kunstmeyer sich an das Fehlerhafte stößt, da wandelt ihn vor den Bildern des Kölner Doms die jugendliche Begeisterung wieder an, die er einst vor dem Straßburger Münster empfunden, und er brummte zuweilen wie ein angeschossener Bär ; man sah, wie er in sich kämpfte und mit sich zu Gericht ging, so Großes je verkannt zu haben. „Ich fühlte die uns im Leben so selten beschiedene Freude, einen der ersten Geister von einem Irrthum zurückkehren zu sehen, wodurch er an sich selber untreu geworden war; es konnte keinen wohlthätigeren Beifall für mich geben; ich sagte ihm, wie hoch ich das von ihm schätze, der diese Kunst gewissermaßen ein für allemal abgefertigt gehabt, wie sehr mich eine so ernste, wahrhafte Erkenntniß meines Strebens in der Sache entschädige für den oft schmerzhaften, nie aber das Herz erfreuenden, leider unentbehrlichen Beifall der großen Welt, die gewöhnlich jedem Hanswurst und Schauspieler denselben schenkt. Der Alte wurde ganz gerührt davon, drückte mir die Hand und fiel mir um den Hals, das Waffer stand ihm in den Augen.“ So wird denn für Boifferée die Bekanntschaft mit Goethe über alle Maßen schätzbar, und gibt ihm einen Beitrag zur Kenntniß der menschlichen Natur und des Lebens überhaupt, den ein Dutzend Bücher und Geschichten großer Männer nicht so verschaffen können. Wie dann Goethe einige Jahre später die Boifferée’sche Bildersammlung in Heidelberg sieht, da geht eine freudige Theilnahme sogleich zu dem Gedanken fort, hier thätig und hilfreich einzugreifen. „Ei der Teufel, sagte er mehrmals, die Welt weiß noch nicht, was Ihr habt und was

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Ihr wollt; wir wollen’s ihr sagen, und wir wollen ihr, weil sie es doch nun einmal nicht anders verlangt, die goldenen Aepfel in silbernen Schalen bringen. Wenn ich nach Haus komme, mache ich ein Schema, das schicke ich Euch, damit Ihr Eure Bemerkungen dazu machen könnt; die Redaktion behalte ich, und es müßte seltsam zugehen, wenn wir nicht etwas recht. Schönes zu Stande brächten. Es ist schwer, so was zu schreiben, aber ich weiß den Weg in’s Holz, laßt mich nur machen; um Ostern komme ich wieder, dann bringe ich es mit und wir laffen’s drucken.“ So find denn die köstlichen Hefte der Reise am Rhein und Main in den Jahren 1814 und 1815 entstanden und haben das Ihre zur richtigen Würdigung der deutschen Kunst beigetragen, während Goethe auch sonst in verschiedenen Zeitschriften die Unternehmungen des Freundes besprach, wobei er denn eine Bemerkung machte, die sich auch uns manchmal aufgedrängt hat: „Die Tagesblätter haben die böse Art, daß sie sehr oft die höchsten Worte, mit denen nur das Beste bezeichnet werden sollte, als Phrasen anwenden, um das Mittelmäßige oder wohl gar Geringe zu maskieren. In solcher Gesellschaft thut ein bestimmtes, vernünftiges Wort nicht seine rechte Wirkung.“

Boifferée seinerseits sieht sich durch Goethe auf’s Befe gefördert. Zur Erhebung eines ganzen Treibens und Thuns wirkt die Freundschaft des Dichters wie ein alter Wein; er preist den treuen ruhigen Sinn für Maß und Wahrheit, die stete Forderung dessen, was wirklich und leibhaftig ist, bei allem Suchen und Erkennen eines höhern geistigen Lebens, bei allem Spiel einer freien schöpferischen Einbildungskraft, bei aller Innerlichkeit eines tiefen Gefühls. Goethes erste ernste Liebe leuchtet ihm freundlich und ermunternd im dunkel wogenden Strom der Zeit wie ein unverlöschbares Licht aus ferner höherer Heimath. Goethe allein hat nach ihm die Gabe, auch das Schwerte und Geheimnißvollste, was in den engen Kreis der Gelehrten und Frommen gebannt schien, zur allgemeinen Betrachtung und Erkenntniß zu bringen. – Er regt in Frankfurt die Errichtung eines Goethe denkmals an. Sie dachten an einen antikifirenden Bau auf einer Maininfel, der dann die Statue des Dichters umschließen sollte. Auf eine vertrauliche Mittheilung antwortet Goethe: „Nach meinem Bedünken wäre die Theilnahme meiner lieben Vaterfadt und des übrigen guten Deutschlands an meinem Geburtstage (1819) wohl hinreichend gewesen, den Verdientesten zu begnügen und eine bescheidene Betrachtung der Resultate meines Lebens zu erleichtern. Gedenkt man aber noch weiter zu gehen, so ist es räthlich mit bescheidener Sorgfalt, damit Nemesis nicht aufgerufen werde, dabei zu Werke zu gehen.“ Der theure Bau ist nicht nach seinem Sinn, er denkt an eine Verbindung des Denkmals mit der Bibliothek, und da hat denn bekanntlich auch seine Marmorstatue in der Vorhalle ihre Stelle gefunden. Ein andermal schreibt er: „Unter den plastischen Zierden jenes Monuments gedenken Sie einer Lampe, welche als herkömmliches Zeichen eines geistigen Fleißes allerdings zu

billigen ist. Nun mache ich aber die Bemerkung, daß ich weder Abends noch in der Nacht jemals gearbeitet habe, sondern bloß des Morgens, wo ich den Rahm des Tages abschöpfte, da denn die übrige Zeit zu Käse gerinnen mochte.“ Boifferée seinerseits schreibt besonders interessante Berichte während seines Aufenthalts in München über das hier aufblühende Leben in Kunst und Wissenschaft oder über das Paffionsspiel zu Oberammergau. Auch sucht er Goethe in Bezug auf die Romantiker milder zu stimmen, aber ohne Erfolg. Boifferée berichtet einmal an Bertram: „Goethe behauptete, die Schlegel hätten ihn mehr aus Klugheit als aus Achtung – den Einzigen von den Alten – noch bestehen laffen; Alles sey Absicht. Er sagte, wenn er ganz in meine Ansicht einginge, die sich bei Friedrich mit allem Schein von Unredlichkeit vertrüge, fey das Einzige, was er sagen könne, doch immer: wer zu viel unternimmt, muß am Ende ein Schelm werden, mag er sonst so redlich feyn als er will, und damit ließ er es eben gut seyn.“ Ein andermal äußerte Goethe: „In den höchsten Dingen verfiren und daneben Absichten haben und gemein seyn, das ist schändlich. Schiller war ein ganz Anderer, ein Edelmann unter den Schriftstellern, sans tâche et sans reproche.“ In fittlicher Beziehung lesen wir die Goethe’schen Aussprüche: „Die Selbstthätigkeit ist des Menschen Seligkeit. – Man soll wenig thun, aber Tüchtiges, und es wirken laffen nach Zeit und Umständen. Wie Manches, was wir vor zehn und fünfzehn Jahren unter uns mit einiger Scheu kaum auszusprechen wagten, ist jetzt trivial geworden, und kaum weiß die Welt, was sie gewonnen hat. – In den hohen Jahren werden mir alle halben Verhältniffe ganz unmöglich durchzuführen. Das famose „leben und leben laffen,“ wodurch wir unsere Tage zu Grunde richten, geht nicht mehr.“ – Mit Bezug auf Leonardo da Vinci heißt es: „Das Vortreffliche ist denn doch das erste und einzige Labsal, es löst alle Räthel des Gefühls, des Urtheils und der Meinung.“ – Daß die Welt sich zufällig aus schwirrenden Elementen zusammensetze, will dem Dichter nicht einleuchten; die Natur nennt er eine Orgel, auf der unser Herrgott spielt, und der Teufel tritt die Bälge dazu. Eine Hauptgrundlage wahrer Weisheit ist ihm die Ehrfurcht vor der uns umgebenden geheimnißvollen Macht in Allem. Ein Jahr vor seinem Tod schreibt Goethe einmal: „Des religiösen Gefühls wird sich kein Mensch erwehren; dabei aber ist es ihm unmöglich, solches in sich allein zu verarbeiten, deswegen sucht er oder macht sich Proselyten. Das letztere ist meine Art nicht, das erstere aber hab’ ich treulich durchgeführt, und von Erschaffung der Welt an keine Confeffion gefunden, zu der ich mich völlig hätte bekennen mögen. Nun erfahre ich aber in meinen alten Tagen von einer Sekte der Hypfistarier, welche, zwischen Heiden, Juden und Christen geklemmt, sich erklärten, das Beste, Vollkommenste, was zu ihrer Kenntniß käme, zu

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The province and its philistines.

After Renan, the Philistines descend from the island of Crete; according to the comedian V. Sardou, it is the French or, better, Gaulish primal provinces. After all the learned and unlettered editors and copyists of French-German and reverse dictionaries sought in vain for a French translation of the word Philister in the German university sense, the man has come up with the good idea to the same the same in his way untranslatable French word gnome, which originally Jawbone means, then, a man with a hanging jaw, which we would call a lame mouth, hence a sheep’s head, and finally awakens the related notion of a reclining chair. Sardou has now improved this erroneous terminology and, with justified evasion of the sheep’s head, called the Philistine ganache and the ganaches Philistines. Although your Parisian correspondence has already told you about the recent success of the author of nos intim es and les pattes de mouche, a lot of the mischief provoked by the province itself could still be found in this mockery of the rusted provincials.

In spite of his miserable and feeble action, this comedy is an excellent character-piece in the province itself. Only Balzac, in whom, of course, the entire contemporary realist school in the novel and on the stage brings their materials and ideas, knows the provincials so well and describes them as accurately as Sardou. The successful characters in a comedy are the following: A Brittany Marquis from the Claffes of those who learned nothing from 1789-1815 and did not forget anything that the thrust of the July Revolution threw back from a brilliant career into an old mansion, where he now, among the in the course of thirty years his ideas and prejudices are petrified to just as many habits.-Further, the citizen of Leonidas, “A doctor from the school of the Encyclopaedists, for whom mankind in the events of the year 1793 reached the pinnacle of their destiny, of a fanatical intolerance in the discussion, the canceled enemy of God and his representatives, but of high science and the noblest feelings able to. – Next a bourgeois of the purest egoism, ossified in

the pessimistic view that at the time of the July government, his youth, everything had been perfect, that no wind had gone, that he had not coughed, that young peas were consumed in March, admittedly canned. – Then his son, a youthful daydreader, a good-for-nothing and an amateur lout, from a flabby dissatisfaction, who, if he were from the Rhine, would go to America or “among the Austrians.” – Also a local class who has the Domino in four songs. – A “cattle” of an old servant, who does not understand the equality of men, but lets himself be put on fire by one of his masters. – Finally a submissive old maid,which knows all bad inclinations of man all too well, and only has a heart for her pet dog. If this gallery of intolerable origins is also performed in a somewhat improbable manner, the fact of its coexistence on the basis of a comfortable habit, despite eternal friction, has great psychological truth. And it is no less correct that the two nobler natures, the Marquis and the

Doctor, their feelings, where to the same language

come, all their prejudices, all their stubbornness

to subordinate know.

Far less successful are the two characters most important to the plot, the weeping and suffering young girl falling from impotence to the other, and her lover, the engineer, having conversations between the shallow civilization and progress directives of the press and Constitutionnel hold the middle. Even the ancient grandfather Herzog, who was only invented to play an equally unlikely as well as beneficial role, as deus ex machina, has little truth and is ridiculous in the beginning to become venerable in the end.

The main merit and the basic character of the piece consists in a witty dialogue, in which relentless logical satire refutes the programs and practices of all parties and the states they evoke. If the poet also seems to want to prove the engineer’s theory of material progress, this only happens so as not to plunge his audience into a general despair, as his own skepticism makes him feel.

The new Paris, the steam, the gas and the electricity, do not exist before the criticism of the marquis, nor can the ancien régime with its abuses of despotism and the bad manners of the nobility hold its own against the criticism of his adversary. If, of course, at the end one is to be married, then the most irreconcilable opposites must bend together and create from their diffonance a harmony that one can create

probably from the boards, but by no means from the sounds of reality. But the plot ends up being secondary to a moral and character comedy, and since Sardou accurately draws and ridicules his provincial philistines, he can not be denied the merit of having made a good deal.

Poems by Adolf Bekk.

How do I like the hour?

How I like to think of the hour, when
I first saw you, when I was so wondrous
about your sight
!

It seemed to me as if I had dreamed, suffered a long suffering;

But it was over now

And golden reality.
Fresh breathed through my soul in the morning,
That was the breath of your life,
The breath of your breast. –

I took you by the hands,
You startled me with fright,
From a flaming redness
Your face was covered.

How beautiful were you, so beautiful,
The young freedom picture,
With the slender lithe body,
With eyes big and wild!

As if the forest had educated you And the silent, hidden lake, You and the wise forest birds, You and the shy deer!

Often when I drink beauty.

Often when I drink beauty my sweetheart want to transfigure

In lofty poetry glittering,
I read in rapture,
With proud pomp of speech, Throwing
out a clang, out of a gold- clad
modern song-book,
Melting
into madness of
fire Flowing poem.
She smiled in the beginning,
Then she closed her eyes
And even wrinkled her nose ,
And sighed finally grumpy:
“Oh go! – stupid stuff! ”
But if I give her a song,
A simple old song,
What no poet boasted,
A song of love and sheaths;
A German folk song began –
then their eyes
glittered and soon they were swimming in tears;
She learns it and she catch it,
And often as in a dream,
And when I asked her,
“It is so true, so true!”

Two songs of yearning. Volksthümlich.

She: I want, I would be a bird, I want, I have wings, Then I fly to you, to you, Well over valley and hills, Then I fly to you.

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In her folded hands I must die in the
stranger, She hides her face , Which still gives me:
A stream of bright tears Let my corpse rest
From her eyes breaks. In a homeland earth!
“God so comforts you in heaven,” And then I am buried,
you good, faithful heart – I do not need a baptismal cask ,
But let me find it From my love’s tears
The ways home: Yes, my hill gets wet . ”

Literature.

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A whole volume of correspondence with Goethe from 1810 to 1831 and, next to it, in Boifferée’s memoirs the recollection of the conversations with him will be welcome as a valuable contribution to the knowledge of the old master in Germany, though now the literary Intereffe is no longer as many years ago as in the past Time is the supreme. And once again we can say that Goethe always wins, the more he is published about him and the true contemporaries about him, that it becomes ever clearer how his poetic greatness rests upon the human. That at a time when he found himself on the height of fame and inspiration, he had to conclude his existence against the outside, if he did not succumb to the unrestrained intrusion from the outside, if he wanted to do something for himself and do something about himself should end up. No longer misjudge or blame anyone; the cool, noble rejecting attitude becomes in such a situation almost a living condition. But whoever approached him with an honest mind and could offer him something, saw the stiff cover of his coat, and found the open mind to praise the sympathetic, benevolent heart, who saw himself promoted by counsel and deed. So it was Sulpiz Boifferée. He visited Goethe to present to him the drawings for the Cologne cathedral work, to stimulate his Intereffe for the publication. Then, after the first reception, he complains of the cold nobility of the old gentleman, who interrupted his muteness only with “so, so, strangely, beautifully,” when the concern was presented to him by Old German art; Boifferée had also brought drawings from Cornelius to Faust. But on the next day he has no more annoying about going on a journey, since Morgenblatt. 1863, No, 3,

He has only kindness, devotion, free mind to admire. At the same time Goethe recognized the solidness and splendor of Cornelius’ drawings, while his art critic came across the flawed thing, before the pictures of Cologne Cathedral he rekindled the youthful enthusiasm which he once felt before the cathedral in Strasbourg, and he grunted sometimes like a wounded bear; you could see him fighting himself and going to court with him, never having misjudged something so great. “I felt the joy so rare in life of seeing one of the first spirits return from a mistake that made him unfaithful to himself; there could be no more benevolent applause for me; I told him how much I appreciated him, who had, so to speak, disposed of this art once and for all. how much such a serious, true knowledge of my endeavor in the cause makes up for the often painful, but never heart-pleasing, and unfortunately indispensable applause of the great world, which usually gives it to every buffoon and actor. TheAlte was moved by it, shook my hand and fell on my neck, the waffle stood in his eyes. “So Boifferée’s acquaintance with Goethe is beyond measure, and gives him a contribution to the knowledge of human nature and of life in general, which a dozen books and stories of great men can not provide. As Goethe sees the Boifferée collection of pictures in Heidelberg a few years later, a joyous interest immediately goes on to the idea of ​​intervening in an active and helpful manner. “The devil,” he said several times, the world does not yet know what you have and what

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You want; Let’s tell her, and we want her, because she does not ask otherwise, bring the golden apples in silver bowls. When I get home, I make a scheme, I’ll send it to you, so that you can make your comments on it; I keep the editorship, and it would be strange if we were not right. Beautiful things would bring. It’s hard to write such a thing, but I know the way to the wood, let me do it; I’ll come back at Easter, then bring it with me and we’ll print it. “That’s how the delicious notebooks of the Journey on the Rhine and Main came to be in 1814 and 1815 and contributed to the proper appreciation of German art, while Goethe otherwise in various magazines discussed the activities of the friend, in which he made a remark which sometimes also forced itself on us: “The daily papers have the evil way that they very often use the highest words, which should only be described as the best, as phrases, for the mediocre, or perhaps even Little to mask. In such society a certain, reasonable word does not have its rightful effect. ”

Boifferée, for his part, sees himself promoted by Goethe. For the elevation of a whole activity and action, the friendship of the poet seems like an old wine; He praises the faithful quiet sense of measure and truth, the constant demand of what is real and bodily, in all seeking and knowing a higher spiritual life, in all the play of a free creative imagination, in all the inwardness of a deep feeling. Goethe’s first serious love illuminates him friendly and encouraging in the dark, surging current of time like an indelible light from a far higher home. Goethe alone has after him the gift of bringing to general consideration and knowledge even the sword and the most mysterious thing which seemed banished to the narrow circle of scholars and pious. – He encourages the construction of a Goethe monument in Frankfurt. They were thinking of an antiquing building on a Maininfel, which would then enclose the statue of the poet. To a confidential communication Goethe answered: “In my opinion the participation of my dear Fatherfadt and the rest of good Germany on my birthday (1819) would have been sufficient to satisfy the most deserving and to facilitate a modest consideration of the results of my life. But if one intends to go further, it is advisable to do so with modest care, so that Nemesis is not called upon to go about it. “The dear construction is not according to its meaning, it thinks of a connection of the monument with the library, and As you know, his marble statue also found its place in the porch.

is cheap. But now I make the remark that I have never worked either in the evening or at night, but only in the morning, where I skim the cream of the day, because the rest of the time would turn into cheese. “Boifferée, for his part, writes particularly interesting reports during His stay in Munich on the blossoming of life in art and science or on the Paffionsspiel to Oberammergau. He also seeks to soften Goethe in relation to the Romantics, but without success. Boifferée once reported to Bertram: “Goethe claimed that the Schlegel had managed to persuade him more out of prudence than out of respect – the only one of the ancients! Everything is intentional. He said that if he completely agreed with my opinion, which in Frederick’s case was the result of dishonesty, the only thing he could say was but always: whoever undertakes too much must in the end become a rogue, otherwise he may be as honest as he pleases, and with that he would be well. “At another time Goethe expressed:” To work in the highest matters and to have intentions besides them and be mean, that’s shameful. Schiller was a completely different man, a nobleman among the writers, sans tche et sans reproche. “We read Goethe’s pronouncements in a fictional relationship:” Self-activity is man’s salvation. – One should do little, but efficient, and work according to time and circumstances. Like many things we scarcely dared to say among ourselves ten and fifteen years ago, it has now become trivial, and little does the world know what it has gained. In the high years all half-ratios will be quite impossible for me to carry out. The famous “to live and to liberate life,” by which we destroy our days, is no longer possible. “- With reference to Leonardo da Vinci it says:” The excellent is the first and only refreshment, it resolves all the advice of feeling , the judgment and the opinion. “- The poet does not want to understand that the world is made up of random elements. he calls nature an organ on which our Lord God plays, and the devil steps on the bellows. One of the main foundations of true wisdom is the reverence for the mysterious power surrounding us in everything. A year before his death, Goethe once wrote: “Nobody will resist religious feeling; but it is impossible for him to process this in himself, that is why he seeks or makes proselytes. The latter is not my style but the former I faithfully performed, and from the creation of the world I found no confession to which I should have confessed myself completely. Now, in my old days, I learn of a sect of Hypfistarians, who, wedged between heathens, Jews, and Christians, declared themselves the best, most perfect thing that came to their knowledge

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… und sprach, sich zum Scherzen zwingend, mit einem Lächeln: „Nun Kind, Du willst ja doch nicht ledig bleiben – oder wünschest Du Dir, eine alte Jungfer zu werden, wie Miß Nelly mit ihrem Papagei und ihren beiden Schoßhunden?
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Stories and Rhymes; a Book for the Fireside. By the Author of “Uncle Owdem’s …
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BLACK HEADS OF HAIR, AND LIGHT ONES:

on,

LETTING IN THE NEW YEAR.

I wish you a merry Christmas, and a happy new year,

A pocketful of money, and a cellar full of beer,

A cupboard full of mince pies, I wi.~h I had one here!
Old Rhyme.

Let me endeavour, reader, to tell you a story; but I must first ask you—have you a black head of hair? You have—good! Then I trust you have made it useful at this season. How ‘? I hear you say. Why, by letting in the new year, of course.

0, ye possessors of dark hair l how shall I apostrophise you ‘? Would I could dip my pen in the colours of the rainbow, and paint your varied charms to all. The peacock may open its plumage, and display the unrivalled beauty of its feathers in the sunshine ; the sweet little nightingale may tune its melodious notes to the gentle sounds of the summer breezes ; but, with all their gifts, none so fortunate as ye! Ye! who, says the superstition, can be the means of bringin joy and good luck to the inmates of the household who may be so fortunate as to gain your services to open the door of their dwelling, and, with the first puff of the new year, to wish them a blessing—to unlock the stream of happiness, which, through your influence,

must flow calmly on, in uninterrupted serenity, throughout the whole year.

Now, last year, I let in, by accident, the new year at a friend’s house, and I hear, from reliable authority, that the household have been very much afflicted with toothache. Something must be wrong in the working of the superstition. I have dark hair, and that ought to have been sufficient to keep “ all the ills that flesh is heir to” away from the door. Toothache, you may say in defence, is but a minor evil; one of daily, hourly, occurrence. Is it a minor evil? Oh! let it keep you awake for a single night, that’s all. We will not discuss the point further. However it may be, whether or no a black-haired person, letting in the new year, brings ill-luck or good fortune, is not of ‘ much importance to the short tale I purpose telling. Only, if the point were properly settled, it might add to the weight, and show at once the validity of the arguments of my dear maiden aunt Superior. “ Superior, what a name!” Nevertheless, it is a very correct one, for, in truth, she was a very superior sort of an old maid; a name which, by-the-by, some people associate with a thin, haggard-looking visage, a vinegar temper, with a great fondness for lapdogs, cats. at: other domesticated animals. ‘1’; not mean t6 gay thatI aunt SEPLYI-ior was without her failings, and if ; led them to you, it is done so that you may see her in her true light; and I hope, while you appreciate her good qualities, you will look with a merciful eye upon her short-comings. To begin, she had a small lapdog, of which she was extremely fond. The quantlty of lump sugar consumed by this small specimen of the canine species was enormous, for an

animal of its dimensions, and I am only sorry that my

memory fails me when I endeavour to remember the exact quantity which it devoured weekly. She was very nervous, and, withal, a slan’sh follower of super-stitious fancies. But she was a thoroughly goodtempered and good-hearted creature. I see her now, a stout, healthy lady, rocking herself in the chair, talking to her pet dog, kindness enthroned on her face, darting its sunbeams through a pair of piercing black eyes, in a framework of a snowy muslin cap. I wonder again, as I have often wondered, how it was she escaped entering into the blessed state of matrimony. Any allusion to this subject was always met unapprovingly by her, so it was seldom that I dared to venture on this circumstance. She was justified in looking vexed. What right had I to be so inquisitive ‘?

One evening, a few days before the close of 185—, when H and I were paying one of our periodical visits, the conversation happened to turn on the subject of the new year—who ought or who ought not to let it in. She expressed a pretty strong opinion. “ Yes, gentlemen,” she said, “letting in the new year is a matter for serious consideration, and I feel convinced that the person undertaking it should have black hair, when so $13}: happiness depends on the right performance of this mated,» Li Bcfh,” interrupted my friend, who was a very incredulous sort or pel‘fii‘ll; “ {ile £21), black or light hair have anything to do mm In . Aunt looked at me, as good as to intimate that her opinions were badly used, and that I ought to take her side. I kept aloof from the little discussion which followed, thinking it wiser to do so, lest I might offend my aunt, and I was always loath to annoy or lose my female friends. When we took our departure, aunt once more reminded me to come as soon as possible

[graphic][graphic]
after the clock had struck the last hour of the old year, lest some one with light hair should forestall me.

It was midnight. The last farewell chime of the clock, which denoted the final departure of the old year, 185—, still lingered on the ear, as if unwilling to leave us till it had awakened with its sound the first echo of the new one, when an individual might have been seen walking towards the residence of Aunt Superior. In the silvery light of the moon one could see that he had long, flowing, light hair, hanging loosely over his shoulders, with an extremely bushy pair of whiskers, and large moustache of the same colour, which almost hid his countenance from view. He wore a thick light overcoat, which reached ahnost to his heels, and on his head was a small turban ca . The singularity of his appearance would not have faileg, even at any time, to have attracted the attention of the passer by, and I took particular notice of the individual, though this is not the reason which enables me to give so minute a description of him. With a daring familiarity he opened the gate leading to Aunt’s house, and, proceeding to the door, bestowed a loud knock, which echoed through the solemn stillness of the air, and awoke the pet dog, disturbing its feelings to a great extent, for it barked so inveterater that the man could scarcely hear a voice from within, of “\Vho’s there?” Answered by, “All right 1” in a familiar tone.

A turn of the key, a back-thrust of the bolt, and the stranger disappears into the lobby.

“ I wish you von merry Christmas, and von happy new year,” said he, in an assumed voice, in imitation of a foreigner.

“Who are you, sir?” screamed my aunt, as his form became visible to her in the light from the chandelier. “ How dare you come into my house, and at this time ‘2 Go out, sir! go out l” and, suiting the action to the word, she pushed him out of the room.

The stranger, looking rather abashed at the turn things had taken, said, “Beg pardon, madame, very soory;” when he took advantage of the door, which had been left ajar, politely wishing her “ Gut mornin !”

The year was exactly half an hour old when I set out to let in the new year at aunt’s, according to promise.

We duly arrived at her residence. H , who was with me, was not to come in until I had let the “ new year in properly,” as my aunt said; and, as I left him a few yards from the door, he nudged me, and said, “ Wonder if she’s been previously disturbed ‘2”

“Hush! wait and see,” said I, as the door was opened, in answer to my Rap, tap, tap! and, as I uttered “ Iwish you ahappy new year ! ” I was greeted with the most excited sounds from the lips of Ithe servant, as she closed the door behind me.

“ O ! please, sir, Missus an’ me’s bin hawfully frightened l”

“ Indeed, what with, pray?”

“ Why, sir, a man’s bin an’ gone an’ let in the new year, sir, an’ Missus says ther’s no knowin’ what ill may come on it, for he’d light hair! sir!” “O! is that all ? ” “ Yes, sir,” continued the girl, ushering me into the room, where I found my aunt reclining on a sofa, and presenting a scene of indescribable misery. She was applying a smelling bottle to her nostrils; her beautiful cap, which she always wore on special occasions, was thrown carelessly 0n the table ; and I could see that she had, as she expressed it, been

The Smugglers of the Swedish Coast: Or, The Rose of Thistle Island. …
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Emilie Flygare-Carlén – 1841 – ‎Snippet view
That is Comic Actress through Love, of a family of Lizette I hear a pair of great jack boots on the stairs. the real old school, which has got one … hat? royal lap-dogs. … mothers go to in club old maid, a very natural character, who saves os o os.
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There stood for many years on the bank of the Delaware a large old buttonwood-tree, which was said to have been at one time the witches’ … The cows their milk shall fail, The old maid’s cat shall be rode to death, And her lapdog lose his taile.
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An old maid comes from church, to the poor no lady kinder, A lufty dog her footman, with prayer book behind her; A poor boy begs a farthing, and gets a handfome kicking, But little Shock, her lap dog, mult have a roafted chicken. Bow, wow …
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For the last 30 years she had kept no servant, except an old female, who died ten years ago: she was succeeded by the old … butler, cook, and house-maid, and, with the exception of two old lap-dogs and a cat, he was her only companion.
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AN OLD MAID’S WILL. A maiden lady, who died in London in ] 786, left the following singular legacies in her will. * Item. I leave … To Shock and Tib (a lapdog and a cat), £5 each for their annual subsistence during life ; but should it so happen …
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“Uncle John brought him because he knew I needed a dog. Didn’t you, Uncle John? Down, Captain, down.” Captain, “part black-and-tan and partjust dog,” aged four weeks, had not yet learned English. … In the course of the forenoon the Old Maid came down to the laundry to do a bit of … lap, and whispered, “Instead of buying me Christmas presents, take the money and pay a doctor to cure Captain.
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The state of an old lady running to catch the last omnibus.-Costeran. The young ladies … A maiden lady’s discovery that she has lived half a century.-S. D. A fish out of … An old maid feeding her lap-dog with a silver spoon.-J. D. The feelings of …
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The drawing-room floor was occupied bv a very perjink old maid, her lap-dog, and maid, so Walter and I had bedrooms on th” top flat. My room was a good big one, with two windows to the front of the house, and Walter had a small room in line …

Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle, Volumes 1-2
By Jane Welsh Carlyle
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right, and it was he that was out of his wits to fancy himself making a stupid lecture, when the fact is he really cannot be stupid if it were to save his life. The short and long of it was, he had neglected to take a pill the day before, had neglected to get himself a ride, and was out of spirits at the beginning: even I, who consider myself an unprejudiced judge, did not think he was talking his best, or anything like his best; the ‘splendids,’ ‘devilish lines,’ ‘moat trues,’ and all that, which I heard heartily ejaculated on all sides, showed that it was a sort of mercy in him to come with bowels in a state of derangement, since, if his faculties had had full play, the people must have been all sent home in a state of excitement bordering on frenzy. The most practical good feature in the business was a considerable increase of hearers—even since last day; the audience seems to me much larger than last year, and even more distinguished. The whole street was blocked up with ‘fine yellow’ (and all other imaginable coloured) ‘deliveries;” and this ia more than merely a dangerous flattery to one’s vanity, the fashionable people here being (unlike our Scotch gigmen and gigwomen), the moat open to light (above all to his light) of any sorts of people one has to do with. Even John Knox, though they must have been very angry at him for demolishing so much beautiful architecture, which is quite a passion with the English, they were quite willing to let good be said of, so that it were indisputably true. Nay, it was in reference to Knox that they first applauded yesterday. Perhaps his being a countryman of their favourite lecturer’s might have something to do with it! But we will hope better things, though we thus speak.’

You will And nothing about us in the Examiner of this week; Leigh Hunt, who writes the notices there, did not arrive at the first lecture in time to make any report of it, having come in an omnibus which took it in its head to run a race with another omnibus, after a rather novel fashion, that is to say, each trying which should be hindmost. We go to lecture this year very commodiously in what ia called a fly (a little chaise with one horse), furnished us from a livery-stable hard by, at a very moderate rate. Yesterday the woman who keeps these stables sent us a flunkey more than bargain, in consideration that I was ‘such a very nice lady ‘—showing therein a spirit above slavery and even above livery. Indeed,

■ * fine Tallow deliveries and a’ I’ exclaimed a goosey maidservant at MainbiU, arailns; a carriage pan In the distance once (In little Craw Jean’s hearing). * Common preachers’ phrase In Scotland.

as a foolish old woman at Dumfries used to say, ‘everybody is kind to me;’ and I take their kindness and am grateful for it, without inquiring too closely into their motives. Perhaps I am a genius too, as well as my husband? Indeed, I really begin to think so— especially since yesterday that I wrote down a parrot! which was driving us quite desperate with its screeching. Some new neighbours, that came a month or two ago, brought with them an accumulation of all the things to be guarded against in a London neighbourhood, viz., a pianoforte, a lap-dog, and a parrot. The two first can be borne with, as they carry on the glory within doors; but the parrot, since the fine weather, has been holding forth in the garden under our open windows. Yesterday it was more than usually obstreperous—so that Carlyle at last fairly sprang to his feet, declaring he could ‘neither think nor live.’ Now it was absolutely necessary that he should do both. So forthwith, on the inspiration of conjugal sympathy, I wrote a note to the parrot’s mistress (name unknown), and in five minutes after Pretty Polly was carried within, and is now screeching from some subterranean depth whence she is hardly audible. Now if you will please recollect that, at Comely Bank, I also wrote down an old maid’s housedog, and an only son’s pet bantam-cock,1 you will admit, I think, that my writings have not been in vain.

We have been very comfortable in our household this long while. My little Fifeshire maid grows always the longer the better; and never seems to have a thought of leaving us, any more than we have of parting with her. My kindest love to all the ‘great nation’ into which you are grown.

Affectionately yours,

Jaxe Carlyle.

LETTER 34.

Lectures finished, with again a hint of notice. This was not my last course of lectures; but I infinitely dislike the operation—’a mixture of prophecy and play-acting,’ in which I could not adjust myself at all, and deeply longed to see the end of.—T. C.

To Mrs. Carlyle, Scotsbrig, Ecdeftehan.

Chelsea: May 30,1839. My dear Mother.—The last lecture was indeed the most splendid he ever delivered, and the people were all in a heart-fever over it;

1 True instances both; the first of many hundreds, which lasted till the very end.

on all sides of me people who did not know me, and might therefore be believed, were expressing their raptures audibly. One man (a person of originally large fortune, which he got through in an uncommon way, namely, in acts of benevolence) was saying, ‘He’s a glorious fellow; I love the fellow’s very faults,’ &c., &c.; while another answered, ‘Aye, faith, is he; a fine, wild, chaotic, noble chap,’ and so on over the whole room. In short we left the concern in a sort of whirlwind of ‘glory’ not without ‘bread’; one of the dashing facts of the day being a Queen’s carriage at the door, which had come with some of the household. Another thing I noticed, of a counter tendency to one’s vanity, was poor Mrs. Edward Irving sitting opposite me, in her weeds, with sorrowful heart enough, I dare say. And when I thought of her lot and all the things that must be passing through her heart, to see her husband’s old friend there, carrying on the glory in his turn, while here—What was it all come to! She seemed to me set there expressly to keep me in mind ‘that I was but a woman;’1 like the skeleton which the old Egyptiaus placed at table, in their feasts, to be a memorial of their latter end.

My love to them all—and surely I will write a long letter to Jane before long; who is very foolish to imagine I ever had, or could have, any reason for silence towards her, other than my natural dislike to letter-writing.

Ever your affectionate

Jane Carlyle.

‘After lectures.’ Carlyle writes, ‘and considerable reading for “Cromwell,” talking about scheme of London library, struggling and concocting towards what proved “Chartism,” and more of the like, we set out together for Scotland by Liverpool about July 2 or 3, for Scotsbrig both of us in the first place, then she to Templand as headquarters, and, after leaving here, then to return to Scotsbrig, all which took effect, my remembrance of it now very indistinct.’

While absent from him, Mrs. Carlyle paid a visit to Ayr. As she was returning in the coach, Carlyle says in a note: ‘a fellowpassenger got talking—”So you are from London, ma’am, and know literary people? Leigh Hunt? ah, so,” &c., “and do you

1 The Corporate Weavers at Dumfries elected n deacon, or chief of weaTers, who was excessively flattered by the honour. In the course of the installation dinner, at some high point of the hep-hep hurrahing, he exclaimed, with sweet pain,’ Oh, gentlemen, remember I am but a man!’—T. C. Mrs. Carlyle tells the story of a Bailie at Annan, see p. 44. .1. A. F.

know anything of Thomas Carlyle?” “Him; right well—I am his wife,” which had evidently pleased her little heart.’

The winter which followed, she had a violent chronic cold, sad accompaniment of many winters thenceforth, fiercely torturing nervous headache, continuous sometimes for three days and nights. ‘Never,’ says her husband, ‘did I see such suffering from ill-health borne so patiently as by this most sensitive of delicate creatures all her life long.’

She had an extraordinary power of attaching to her everyone with whom she came in contact. In a letter to her sister-iu-law, Mrs. Aitken, written in the midst of her illness, she says: ‘My maid1 is very kind when I am laid up; she has no suggestions or voluntary help in her, but she does my bidding quietly and accurately, and when I am very bad she bends over me in my bed as if I were a little child, and rubs her cheek on mine—once I found it wet with tears—one might think one’s maid’s tears could do little for a tearing headache, but they do comfort a little.’

During this suffering time she wrote little and briefly. Carlyle was preparing his last course of lectures, the six on Heroes and Hero Worship, which were delivered in the coming season. He had a horse now, which had been presented to him by Mr. Marshall, of Leeds. The riding improved his spirits, but his nerves were always in a state of irritation when he was writing. ‘Why do women marry?’ she says in a little note to John Forster; ‘Gou knows, unless it be that, like the great Wallenstein, they do not find scope enough for their genius and qualities in an easy life.

Night it must be, ere Friedland’a star shall burn i’

In the summer matters were made worse by what to him was a most serious trial, described in the letter which follows. He asked Charles Buller if there were no means by which he could be extricated. Buller said he knew of but one. ‘He could register himself as a Dissenting preacher.’—J. A. F.

LETTER 25.

This ‘trial by jury’ was a Manchester case of patents: patent first, for an improvement on cot ton-wool carding machines; patent second, an imitation of that, query theft of it or not? Trial fell in two terms (same unfortunate jury), and lasted three or four days in each. Madder thing I never saw;—clear to myself in the first halfhour (‘ essential theft’), no advocate doing the least good to it farther, doing harm rather;—and trial costing in money, they said, 1,0007. a day. Recalcitrant juryman (one of the ‘ Tales ‘ sort), stupidest-looking fellow I ever saw—it was I that coaxed him round and saved a new trial at 1,0002. a day. Intolerable suffering, rage, almost despair (and resolution to quit London), were, on my part, the consequence of these jury-summonses, which, after this, hap

1 Kirkcaldy Helen, one of the notabilities, and also blessings, of our existence here.—T. O.

pened to abate or almost cease. On hers, corresponding pity, and at length no end of amusement over my adventure with that stupidest of jurymen, &c., which she used to narrate in an incomparable manner. Ah me! Ah me!

‘Poor fellow, after all!’ was very often finish of my brother in summing up his censures of men—so often that we had grown to expect it, and banter it.—T. C.

To the Reverend John Sterling, Clifton.

Chel»e»: Oct. 6,1840.

My dear John ‘after all,’—In God’s name, be ‘a hurdy-gurdy,’ or whatever else you like! You are a good man, anyhow, aud there needs not your ‘dying’ to make me know this at the bottom of my heart, and love you accordingly. No, my excellent Sir, you arc a blessing which one knows the value of even before one has lost it. And it is just because I love you better than most people that I persecute you as”I do; that I flare up when you touch a hair of my head (I mean my moral head). So now we are friends again, are we not? If, indeed, through all our mutual impertinences, we have ever been anything else!

Yuu see, I am very lamb-like to-day; indeed, I could neither ‘quiz,’ nor be ‘polite’ to you to-day for the whole world. The fact is, I also have had a fit of illness, which has softened my mood, even as yours has been softened by the same cause. These fits of illness are not without their good uses, for us people of too poetic temperaments. For my part, I find them what the touching of their mother earth was for the giants of old. I arise from them with new heart in me for the battle of existence; and you know, or ought to know, what a woman means by new heart—not new brute force, as you men understand by it, but new power of loving and enduring.

We have been in really a rather deplorable plight here for a good while brick, ever since a certain trial about a patent, so strangely nre things linked together in this remarkable world! My poor man of genius had to sit on a jury two days, to the ruin of his whole being, physical, moral, and intellectual. And ever since, he has been reacting against the administration of British justice, to a degree that has finally mounted into influenza While I, porerina, have been reacting against his reaction, till that malady called by the cockneys ‘mental worry’ fairly took mc by the throat, and threw me on my bed for u good many days. And now I am but recovering, as white as the paper I write upon, and carrying my head as

The Gentleman’s Mathematical Companion – Volume 4 – Page 554
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The Lap Dog: by Mr. P. Wolviers, jun, ofton, Nottinghamshire. Not far from our village there lives an old maid, Who a very blá footman employs; with a little pug dog she’s as pleased, ’tis said, As children are with their new toys. Poor puggy got …
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4 Maiden anifcst. Machod . . . . . . . . 16 Mainspring. … 12 Marchioness’s Lap Dog. Gautier . . . . . . . . . 11 Marcus …. Alcott . . . . . . . 1 Old Franciscan Missions of California. James . . . 14 Old Indian Days. Eastman . . . . . . . 9 Old Maid. An. Balzac .
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Anatole France, ‎V. F. Boyson – 1925 – ‎Snippet view
… to torment, vex. tourner, to turn. tout à fait, altogether. toutefois, nevertheless. tou-tou, m., bow-wow, lap- dog. tradition, f., … (mal), vêtu, -e, ill-dressed. viande, f., meat, food. vie, f., life. vieillards, m. pl., old people. vieille demoiselle, f., old maid.
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… black was the eldest of the Belokonskaya daughters, an old maid of around 35. Everybody knows how close Madame Yepanchina is to the Belokonskaya family. All the princesses swooning, tears of mourning for the pet lap-dog, shrieks from …
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Crammed full of passengers — three fat fusty old men — a young mother and sick child — a cross old maid — a poll parrot — a bag of red herrings — double-barrelled gun (which you are afraid is loaded) — and a snarling lapdog, in addition …
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In the matrimonial life this want is naturally supplied by children; but the maiden lady is under the necessity of providing … an old maid without a score or two of pets, naturally presenting themselves in the shape of monkeys, parrots, lap- dogs, …

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Der Mann ist gescheidter, als das Weib; das Weib ist besser, als der Mann. — Wem gefällt das nicht? Das gefällt der Frau nicht, denn die Leute wollen lieber gescheit»! sein, als gut. Der englische Schriftsteller Stuart Mill war Einer, der hat dem Kopf des Weibes geschmeichelt, aber das Herz des Weibes vergessen — er hat an dem Weibe nur das anerkannt,

was nicht Weib ist und ist

sohin der Prophet der „Emancipirten” geworden. Das ändert aber nichts an der Sache; die Frau muß es sich einmal gefallen lassen, daß sie das edelste Wesen der Schöpfung ist. Vorderhand aber wird Manche vielleicht das Buch verdammen, das einer ihrer größten Verehrer über sie geschrieben hat — ein Buch, wie über das Weib kaum je eines mit solcher Wärme und mit solchem Tacte geschrieben morden ist. Es betitelt sich: „Das Weib.” Philosophische Briefe über dessen Wesen und Verhältniß zum Manne. Von Emerich du Mont. (Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, 1879)

Der Verfasser bekennt sich zu den Pessimisten; aber gesegnet sei sein Pessimismus, wenn derselbe sich nur über die Schattengeftalten der Welt erstreckt, und wenn er sich an den wenigen Lichtgebilden aufzurichten vermag zu jener Anschauung, die eine Gnade Gottes ist, weil in ihr das Menscheicherz gedeiht, und weil aus ihr die besten unserer Thaten entsprießen.

Daß er sich aufzurichten vermag zu dem Glauben, daß es doch noch etwas Liebens- und Begehrenswerthes auf dieser Erde gebe, das beweist sein

schönes, interessantes Buch über das Weib.

Freilich wohl kommen in dieser Schrift Dinge vor, die manch’ eine Frau trotz der Duldungsfähigkeit des Weibes kaum wird verwinden können. Vor Allem muß sie nach diesem Buche verzichten auf die Idee der gesellschaftlichen Gleichheit mit dem Manne. Ja noch weit mehr, sogar ihr Nuf als das schöne Geschlecht wird in Frage gestellt.

Wer wird schöner sein, der Mann oder das Weib?

„Die rohe Kraft”, heißt es, „kann gemessen werden, mährend ein Schönheitsmesser ein Unding wäre. Die Männer führen das Wort, und haben wohl auch darum das weibliche Geschlecht das schöne genannt, weil es ihnen subjectiv unstreitig besser gefällt. Aesthetiker hingegen, welche bei ihrem objectiven Urtheile von aller männlichen Sinnlichkeit abftrahiren, sind nicht selten anderer Meinung, und nehmen für das unstreitig stärkere Geschlecht auch noch den zweifelhaften Ruhm der Schönheit in Anspruch.”

Ich hätte dergleichen vielleicht gedacht, aber ich hätte es nicht geschrieben. Jene Frauen, die das Buch lesen — und das sind allerdings solche, die im Buche nicht gemeint sind — werden ihrer Entrüstung kein Ende wissen. Und mit Recht! Allerdings gibt es immer noch Solche, die auf die weibliche Schönheit bereits verzichtet haben, hingegen ihre Seele thätig der Schönheit in der Kunst zuwenden. Denen sagt unser ungalanter Mann Folgendes: „Ich behaupte, daß quantitativ und qualitativ das männliche Geschlecht unendlich mehr in der Kunst geleistet hat, obgleich die Hindernisse auf diesem Felde sich dem Weibe, wie wir gesehen haben, kaum mehr als dem Manne entgegenstellen. Hier entscheidet ja zumeist das angeborene Talent oder Genie, und wenn ich auch nicht mit dem lieben Gemeinplatz annehmen mag, daß sich dieselben immer Bahn brechen müßten, so behaupte ich doch, daß, wenn das Weib dem Manne in dieser Hinsicht auch nur annähernd gleichkäme, Zahl und Werth der männlichen Kunstwerke die weiblichen nicht so weit hinter sich lassen könnten. Ich glaube sogar, daß die Frauen zur Ausübung ihrer Talente im allgemeinen mehr Zeit erübrigen, als die Männer, welche meistens einen Erwerb suchen müssen, den ihnen die „brotlosen” Künste nicht bieten, um sich und die Ihrigen zu ernähren. Es müßte sich wohl statistisch nachweisen lassen, daß z. B. mehr Musik und vielleicht auch mehr Malerei von Frauen betrieben, daß indeß unstreitig von Männern unvergleichlich mehr darin geleistet wird. Bekanntlich sind die Frauen um vieles schreibsüchtiger als die Männer, schreiben doppelt so lange Briefe, führen häusiger Tagebücher, Memoiren, und wagen sich nicht selten daran, den Roman ihres Lebens belletristisch zu verwerthen. Aus allem diesen Dilettiren spricht jedoch nur äußerst selten wahres Talent.”

Dann vergleicht er das Weib mit der unergründlichen Blume, die wohl fühlen, leben, aber nicht denken und sprechen kann. Wie die Blume entzücken kann nur das Unvernünftige. Verletzt das Wort, so sagen wir: das Unbegreisliche. Daß die Frauen nicht zu ergründen, darüber ist man längst einig. In der schönen Frau nimmt die Holdseligkeit des Unverstandes, des Räthsels, des Wunders sinnliche Gestalt an. Wenn dieses letzte Glück selber zu raisonniren anfängt, so ist sein Reiz dahin. Zu einem Raisonnement über die letzten Dinge führt

aber, wenn auch nur mittelbar, jede Poesie, die überhaupt einen Inhalt hat. Die denkende und sprechende Blume, die dichtende Frau, verläßt den Zauberkreis ihres Geschlechtes, mögen ihre Verse auch die frömmsten und tugendhastesten von der Welt sein. Die Dichterin werfen wir zu allem übrigen unleidlich verständigen Trug dieser Erde.

Als Gelehrter kann unser Autor die Frau auch nicht brauchen.

Er, der nebenbei bemerkt, die Behauptung aufstellt, daß das Lernen für das eigene Denken, das Wissen für den Verstand nur ein Surrogat ist, hält nicht eben viel von der weiblichen Denkmethode. „Manche Frau”, meint er, „die eben zweimal so alt ist, als ihre Tochter, wäre vielleicht im Stande, zu behaupten, daß Mütter immer das doppelte Alter ihrer Töchter hätten — einen einzigen Fall durch mangelhaste Induction zum allgemeinen Gesetze erhebend.” Das Weib ist stets religiös und ist einmal eine Gottesläugnerin darunter, so ist es eine solche, welche „Gott täglich auf den Knieen dankt, daß er sie eine Atheistin werden ließ.” Uebrigens sei es weibliche Herzenslogik, in demjenigen Manne, welcher dem Weibe Liebe oder Vertrauen einflößt, auch den meisten Geist, den unfehlbarsten Verstand vorauszusetzen. „Kinder mögen in ihren reiseren Iahren aufhören, des Vaters Rede als heiliges Evangelium zu betrachten, niemals vielleicht das Weib, so lange sie den Gatten nur — liebt. Das Weib nimmt meist nur jene Ansicht an, welche ihm zusagt.” Es urtheilt nur nach dem Gefühle. Patriotismus kennt das Weib nicht in jener Gestalt, als der Mann; der „Staat” ist ihr ein zu abstraktes Ding, viel leichter wird sie sich für die Person des Monarchen begeistern. Kosmopolitismus ist ihr völlig fremd, nur das Naheliegende, was auf ihre Sinne einwirkt, ist für sie da. — Und so fährt dieser Mann fort, all die schönen Sachen, auf welche sonst das Weib eitel zu sein pflegt, zu vernichten, bis man glaubt, daß nichts mehr übrig sei.

‘Dann aber wendet sich das Vlatt. „Der Mann ist in theoretischem, die Frau in praktischem Besitze der Tugend.” Der Mann als Lehrender hat die Werthpapiere; die Frau als Ausübende hat die Deckung. Das Weib ist selbstloser, aufopferungsfähiger, als er, und der moralische Werth des Menschen besteht in dem relatio geringeren Maße seines Egoismus. Wenn das Weib manche Fehler aufweist, die am Manne nicht zu sehen sind, so sind es zumeist Fehler, die aus der Inferiorität des weiblichen Intellectes entspringen, oder es kommt daher, weil das Weib zu wenig Intellect besitzt, seine Fehler zu verdecken, oder sie gar für Tugenden auszugeben. Bevor der Mann das gefallene Weib verurtheilt, möge er wohl bedenken, daß er selbst die erste Ursache ihres Falles mar.

Wir find gewohnt, grausige verbrecherische Thaten eines Weibes als unweiblich zu bezeichnen; wer sagt aber, daß die Verbrechen eines Ingo, eines Richard III., eines Nero, eines Massenmörders vom Bremerhafen unmännlich wären? Wir trauen also der weiblichen Natur weniger Schlechtigkeit zu, als der männlichen.

Und endlich die Liebe!

Das ist der Brennpunkt im Leben, und das ist der Brennpunkt im Buche. Dieser Abschnitt steht oben an, er hält sich kein Blatt vor den Mund im Bekenntnisse der Wahrheit, aber er ist keusch, wie der Gedanke.

In der Freundschaft gesellt sich Gleiches zu Gleichem, in der Liebe Ungleiches zu Ungleichem. Will die Frau dem Manne gleichgestellt sein, dann muß sie auf die Liebe verzichten. Der werbende Mann fragt nicht nach Geist und Gelehrsamkeit, sondern nach Gemiith und Herz. Er sucht das, was er nicht hat. Der Mann ist in der Liebe der Egoist, wie immer und über

all, seine Liebe heißt Amor; das Weib ist die sich dem Glücke des Mannes opfernde, und ihre Liebe heißt Caritas.

In der Liebe schleudert der Mann alle Vernunft von sich, steigt so tief herab, daß das Weib ihn mit ihrem geringeren Intellecte überragt und ihn beherrscht.

„Die Zeit der männlichen Liebe ist die Epoche der weiblichen Herrschaft.”

Ist sein Egoismus befriedigt, so ist er plötzlich wieder der Vernünftige, seine Liebe ist gekühlt, er geht wieder seiner Welt nach; während das Weib aus der Liebe nur noch mehr Liebe schöpft, nur noch inniger an ihrem Manne hängt.

„Das Weib liebt nur in seiner ersten Liebe den Geliebten, in der folgenden aber nur die Liebe.”

In der Natur des Mannes liegt die Flatterhaftigkeit, in der des Weibes die Treue. Für den ewigen Bund der Ehe eignet sich also der Mann weit weniger, als das Weib.

Auch in der Liebe zum Kinde bleibt der Mann dem Weibe weit zurück. Und wie verschieden sind die Einflüsse der Eltern auf das Kind! Die Mutter in ihrer Güte lehrt es: Unrecht leiden ist besser, als Unrecht thun. Der Vater, der seinen Egoismus in dem Kinde fortpflanzt, möchte es für den Kampf um’s Dasein lieber lehren: Unrecht thun fei besser, als Unrecht leiden.

Ueber die Ehe sagt unser Autor: „Es ist mit der Ehe, wie mit anderen Institutionen, z. N. mit dem Communismus, die mehr oder weniger angegriffen und verurtheilt werden, nicht, weil sie an sich schlecht sind, sondern weil die Menschen nicht gut genug für dieselben sind.” — „Wenn dein Charakter”, so spricht er zum Manne”, darnach ist, daß dein Egoismus sich niederkämpfen läßt, wenn deine Liebe nicht blos Amor ist, sondern l ‘ein gut Theil Caritas enthält und sich mithin der Eigenart weiblicher Liebe nähert, wenn du trotz aller Ueberlegenheit deiner physischen und geistigen Kräfte immer eingedenl bist, um wie viel dir das Weib in andern, mahrlich nicht geringern Dingen überlegen bleibt: dann, mein Freund, schreite getrost zur Ehe mit einem Weibe, das deiner würdig und dessen du würdig bist!” Wo sich aber die rechten Zwei gefunden haben, „dort findet sich nicht nur das vergängliche, natürliche, sondern auch das unvergängliche ethische Glück”.

Zum Schlüsse wollen mir noch missen, wie unser Autor nach seinem Prinzip«: Das Weib ist gut! über Hagestolze und alte Jungfern benlt.

Der Egoismus des Mannes erfährt in der Ehe einerseits eine Enttäuschung, mährend er anderseits doch wieder seine Rechnung darin findet. Und so ist der Hagestolz, „der zwar die Freuden der Ehe in der Regel schwer vermißt, aber auch die aus jenem Besitz erwachsenden Sorgen ängstlich scheut. Der alte Junggeselle wird manchmal Freude darüber empfinden, daß er lein Ehejoch zu tragen hat, noch öfter aber sich nach demselben sehnen, namentlich dann, wenn er vorgerückten Alters wegen kaum mehr zur Ehe schreiten kann. Das eigentliche Uebel des Menschen — aus welchem allein und «, priori die Berechtigung des Pessimismus erhellt, der sonst nur immer Erfahrungssache sein wird — besteht in jenem Zwiespalt des Willens, demzufolge derselbe in keiner Lage des Lebens zufrieden sein kann und nicht nur stets neue, sondern geradezu einander entgegengesetzte, unvereinbare Wünsche faßt. Solchermaßen gleicht der Mensch dem Kranken, der fortmährend auf seinem Bette die Lage wechselt, in leiner aber Erleichterung seiner Qualen findet, weil der Sitz der Krankheit im Innern liegt und die Schmerzen nicht von der Härte des Lagers herstammen. So

lange mir also einen Zustand, eine Einrichtung suchen, in welcher sich der menschliche Egoismus glücklich fühlen könne, werden mir immer vergebens suchen, da der Wille nicht nur immer wünscht und begehrt, sorgt und fürchtet, sondern auch zu gleicher Zeit Unvereinbares begehrt, d. h. dasselbe will und doch auch nicht will.

Der Hagestolz und die alte Jungfer sind, wegen des fundamentalen Unterschiedes zwischen männlicher und weiblicher Psyche, ganz verschieden geartet und werden auch verschieben beurtheilt; die beiden scheinen mir deshalb noch einer vergleichenden Betrachtung werth.

Ich halte den Junggesellen, der in seinen alten Tagen über die ihm versagt gebliebenen Freuden der Ehe jammert, weit weniger zu solchen Klagen berechtigt, als die alte Jungfer. Diese verdient in viel höherem Grade unser Bedauern. Weshalb? Ich will es Dir erklären.

Kommt auch über den Hagestolz wohl endlich die Reue, so kommt sie doch meiftentheils nur aus ganz selbstsüchtigen Motiven: weil er sich unge» liebt und verlassen sieht, im Alter einsam und ohne Stütze, ohne Pflege in Siechthum und Krankheit. Früher aber, als es noch Zeit für ihn gewesen, in die Ehe zu treten, war sein Raisonnement gegen dieselbe in der Mehrzahl der Fälle wohl folgendes: Ich liebe zwar dieses weibliche Wesen und muß es achten — allein heiraten? Nein! Die Ehe ist eine Last; was soll ich Frau und Kinder ernähren? Frei will ich sein und bleiben. Weib und Kinder besitzen wäre wohl ganz schön; aber daß Weib und Kinder mich besitzen sollen — nein, das ertrüge ich nicht! Bleiben wir ledig! So wird in hundert Fällen wohl neunundneunzigmal der Hagestolz aus Egoismus nicht zur Ehe schreiten, zufolge einer Selbstsucht, die sich sogar stärker erweist, als die Götter und Menschen bezwingende Macht des Eros. Deshalb sehen wir auch so oft im Hagestolzen, der niemals in die moralisirende Schule des Weibes gegangen ober doch nur kurze Zeit darin zugebracht hat, den Egoismus sich nach und nach immer mehr verknöchern. Nur ausnahmsweise geschieht es, daß ein Mann aus treuer Anhänglichkeit an eine vor der Zeit durch den Tod hinweggerasste Geliebte oder Braut, aus Liebe zu einem ihm unerreichbaren weiblichen Wesen, oder daß einer aus ascetischer Moral auf die Freuden der Ehe verzichtet.

Welch anderes Bild zeigt uns hingegen die alte Jungfer! In neunundneunzig von hundert Fällen würde sie freudig ihr ganzes Leben einem Manne geweiht haben, wenn ein ihrer Liebe würdiger Bewerber sie zum Weibe begehrt hätte. Der Hagestolz hätte heiraten können, er wollte aber nicht; die alte Jungfer wollte heiraten, aber es war ihr versagt. Nun mögen allerdings auch die alten Jungfern der Mehrzahl nach verbitterten, herben Charakters sein, allein die Enttäuschung, aus welcher die Gemüthsftimmung bei ihnen entsteht, ist doch ganz anderer Art, als jene, welche den Hagestolz im Laufe der Zeit oft zu einem wahren Petrefact des Egoismus macht.

Das alte Mädchen hatte wohl einst einen reichen Schatz an Liebe zu vergeben; ist sie dafür verantwortlich zu machen, daß nie ein Mann aus diesem Schatze zu schöpfen Begehren trug? Verbittert, verbittert! Hat sich die alte Jungfer denn selbst verbittert? Die Welt kargt niemals mit ihrem Spott, wo sie ein unverschuldetes Leiden antrifft. Wie das junge Mädchen, welches verführt worden ist, mit Schande

überhäuft wird, indeß den Verführer kaum mehr als ein Vorwurf trifft, den er obendrein sehr oft als ein Mittelding zwischen Neid und Bewunderung ansehen darf; so verspottet man die alte Jungfer, obgleich sie in der Regel doch nichts dafür kann, daß sie eine solche geworden ist, mährend der Hagestolz, der fast immer sein Cölibat selbst gewollt hat, das Urtheil der hämischen Welt nicht zu fürchten braucht. Und diese Ungerechtigkeit sollte das erst verschmähte und dann verspottete Weib nicht verbittern? Noch mehr. Der Mann bleibt Mann, wenn er auch lein Ehemann ist; ihm steht die Welt immer offen, er mag Thaten thun oder Werke schassen; was aber ist das Weib, daß seinen einzigen wahren Beruf nicht erfüllen kann, dem die Welt daher keinerlei Ersatz für den Mangel eines eigenen häuslichen Herdes zu bieten vermag? Wie wohlfeil ist doch unser Spott über die Zärtlichkeit, mit welcher alte Jungfern an einem kleinen Schoßhund, einer Lieblingskatze, einem Papagei oder einem Canarienvogel zu hängen pflegen! Diese Liebe zum Thiere ist doch nichts anderes als ein Sicherheitsventil des Frauenherzens, ohne welches das Herz, das so voll von unverbrauchter Liebe ist, zerspringen müßte. Was die Menschen verschmähten, das kommt dem Thiere zugute.” So hätten wir nun den Geist des Buches citirt. Entsetzen sich die Frauen vor ihm? Jenen, die sich davor entsetzen, sei gesagt: Sie sind die Ausnahmen von der Regel, denn sie sind geistreich, vielleicht sogar genial, jedenfalls aber absolut schöner, als der Mann.

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Heimgarten, Volume 3
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The man is more clever than the woman; the woman is better than the man. – Who does not like that? The woman does not like, because people prefer to clever »! be as good. The English writer Stuart Mill was one who flattered the head of the woman, but forgot the heart of the woman – he recognized in the woman only that

which is not and is not woman

But that does not change anything: the woman must indulge in being the noblest creature of creation, but for the time being, some may condemn the book, which is one of her greatest admirers she has written-a book about which scarcely ever has one been written with such warmth and with such tact. “It is the woman.” Philosophical letters about its nature and relation to the man. By Emerich du Mont. (Leipzig, FA Brockhaus, 1879)

The author confesses to the pessimists; but blessed be his pessimism, if he extends himself only to the shadowy creatures of the world, and if he is able to stand up to the few light-forms to that intuition, which is a grace of God, because in it man’s fidelity thrives, and because of it the best spring from our deeds.

That he can raise himself up to the belief that there is still something dear and desirous on this earth, proves his

nice, interesting book about the woman.

Admittedly, in this writing there are things that many a woman can scarcely overcome, in spite of the female’s ability to tolerate. Above all, according to this book, she must renounce the idea of ​​social equality with the man. Yes, even more, even her nub as the fair sex is questioned.

Who will be more beautiful, the man or the woman?

“The raw power,” it is said, “can be measured while a beauty’s knife is an absurdity.” The men lead the word, and probably have called the feminine the beautiful, because they disagree more pleasingly, subjectively. which, in their objective judgment, are ridiculed by all male sensuality, not infrequently disagree, and claim for the indisputably stronger sex also the dubious glory of beauty. ”

I might have thought that, but I would not have written it. Those women who read the book – and these are, however, those who are not meant in the book – will know no end to their indignation. And rightly! However, there are still those who have already renounced feminine beauty, while turning their soul actively to beauty in art. To them our unfortunate husband says the following: “I assert that quantitatively and qualitatively the male Gender has performed infinitely more in the arts, although the obstacles in this field, as we have seen, no more oppose the woman than the husband. Innate talent or genius is the decisive factor here, and though I may not assume with my beloved commonplace that they must always be on the same track, I maintain that if the woman were anything like the man in this respect, The number and value of male artworks that women could not leave so far behind. In fact, I believe that women generally spend more time practicing their talents than men, who usually have to seek an acquisition that the “unemployed” arts do not offer them to feed themselves and theirs statistically prove that, for example, more music and perhaps more painting by women, but that indisputably more is done by men. As is generally known, women are much more addicted to writing than men, they write letters twice as long, they write diaries, memoirs, and often dare to use the novel of their lives as belletrist. From all these dilettas, however, seldom does true talent speak. ”

Then he compares the woman with the unfathomable flower, who feels good, but can not think and speak. How the flower can delight only the unreasonable. Hurt the word, we say: the incomprehensible. It has long since been agreed that the women do not fathom. In the beautiful woman, the loveliness of the absurd, the riddle, the miracle, takes on a sensual form. If this last happiness itself begins to rise, then its charm is gone. To a Raisonnement about the last things leads

but, if only indirectly, any poetry that has any content at all. The thinking and speaking flower, the woman who sighs, abandons the magic circle of her sex, though her verses may be the most pious and virtuous of the world. We cast the poetess to the rest of the insufferably intelligent deceit of this earth.

As a scholar, our author can not use the woman either.

He, by the way, makes the assertion that learning for one’s own thinking, knowledge for the mind is only a surrogate, does not hold much of the feminine thinking. “Some woman,” he says, “who is twice as old as her daughter, may be able to assert that mothers are always twice their daughters-elevating a single case to the common law by inadequate induction.” The woman is always religious, and once she is a godfearing one, it is one that “thankes God daily on his knees, that he let her become an atheist.” By the same token, it is feminine logic of heart, in that man who loves the woman or inspire confidence, even the most mind, to presuppose the most infallible mind. “Children may, in their later years, cease to regard the father’s speech as the holy gospel, never, perhaps, the woman as long as she only loves her husband. Woman usually only accepts the view which appeals to her. “It judges only according to the feeling, patriotism does not know the woman in that form, as the man, the” state “is too abstract an object to her, she becomes much easier for the person of the monarch. Cosmopolitanism is completely alien to her, only the obvious, what affects her senses, is there for her. – And so this man goes on, all The woman does not know patriotism in that form, as the man; the “state” is too abstract an object to her, she will be much more enthusiastic about the person of the monarch, cosmopolitanism is completely alien to her, only the obvious, which affects her senses, is there for her – and so does this man away, all The woman does not know patriotism in that form, as the man; the “state” is too abstract an object to her, she will be much more enthusiastic about the person of the monarch, cosmopolitanism is completely alien to her, only the obvious, which affects her senses, is there for her – and so does this man away, all to annihilate the beautiful things which otherwise the wife is vain to believe, that there is nothing left.

But then the Vlatt turns. “The man is in theoretical, the woman in practical possession of virtue.” The man as a teacher has the securities, the woman as the practitioner has the cover, the woman is more selfless, more self-sacrificing than he, and the moral worth of man consists in If the woman has many defects which are not to be seen in a man, then it is mostly errors that spring from the inferiority of the feminine intellect, or it is because the wife has too little intellect, To conceal his faults, or even to spend them for virtues, before he condemns the fallen woman, let him bear in mind that he himself was the first cause of her fall.

We are used to describing the horrible criminal acts of a woman as unfeminine; But who says that the crimes of an Ingo, a Richard III, a Nero, a mass murderer from Bremerhaven are unmanly? So we are less likely to trust feminine nature than the male.

And finally the love!

That’s the focal point in life, and that’s the focus in the book. This passage is at the top, he does not mince his words in the confession of truth, but he is chaste, like the thought.

In friendship, like is joined to like, in love unequal to unequal. If a wife wants to be equal to a man, then she must renounce love. The advertising man does not ask for spirit and erudition, but for Gemiith and Herz. He is looking for what he does not have. The man is in love the egoist, as always and over

all, his love is called Cupid; Woman is sacrificing herself to the happiness of man, and her love is called Caritas.

In love the man throws away all reason, descends so deeply that the woman surmounts him with her lesser intellect and dominates him.

“The time of male love is the epoch of female rule.”

When his egoism is satisfied, he is suddenly the rational again, his love is cooled, he goes back to his world; while the woman draws from love only more love, only more intimately hangs from her husband.

“The woman only loves the beloved in his first love, but in the following only love.”

In the nature of man lies the flightiness, in the woman’s fidelity. For the eternal bond of marriage, therefore, the man is far less suitable than the woman.

Even in love for the child, the man remains far behind the woman. And how different are the influences of the parents on the child! The mother in her goodness teaches that to suffer wrong is better than to do wrong. The father, who propagates his selfishness in the child, would rather teach it for the struggle for existence: injustice does better than suffering injustice.

About marriage, our author says: “It is with marriage, as with other institutions, eg. N. with Communism, who are more or less attacked and condemned, not because they are bad in themselves, but because men are not good enough for them. “-” If your character, “he says to the man,” according to this, your egoism can be fought down, if your love is not only Cupid, but is a good part of Caritasand thus approaches the peculiarity of female love, when, despite all the superiority of your physical and mental powers, you are always attuned to how much the woman will be superior to you in other, no less important matters: then, my friend, confidently marry to marriage a woman who is worthy of you and worthy of you! “But when the two right ones have found each other,” there is not only the transient, natural but also the eternal ethical happiness. ”

To conclude I still want to miss, as our author on his principle «: The woman is good! about Hagestolze and old maidens benlt.

The egoism of the man experiences a disappointment in marriage on the one hand, while on the other hand he finds his own account in it. And so is Hagestolz, “who, although he often misses the joys of marriage, is afraid to fear the joys of that estate. The old oneA bachelor will sometimes find pleasure in having to wear his wife’s yoke, and more often, but longing for it, especially when he can barely marry for advancing years. The real evil of man-from which alone and, in advance, illuminates the justification of pessimism, which otherwise will always be a matter of experience-consists in the conflict of the will, according to which the soul can never be satisfied in any situation of life, and not just new ones. but almost contrary, incompatible wishes. In this way man resembles the patient, who continually changes the situation on his bed, but finds no relief in his torments, because the seat of the disease lies within, and the pain does not stem from the hardness of the camp. So

For a long time I will search for a state, an institution in which human egoism can feel happy, I will always seek in vain, since the will not only always desires and desires, cares and fears, but at the same time desires incompatible, ie the same wants and yet does not want.

The Hagestolz and the Jungfrau are very different because of the fundamental difference between male and female psyche, and are also judged to be postponing; The two, therefore, seem worthy of a comparative analysis.

I regard the bachelor, who laments in his old days the joys of marriage which have been denied to him, as far less entitled to such complaints than the old maid. It earns our regrets to a much greater degree. Why? I want to explain it to you.

If repentance at last comes to fruition over the beating of the wood, then it comes for the most part only out of selfish motives: because he sees himself as unloved and abandoned, lonely in old age and without support, without care in sorrow and illness. Earlier, however, when there was still time for him to enter into marriage, his reasoning against it was in the majority of cases the following: I love this feminine being and must respect it – marry on my own? No! Marriage is a burden; what should I feed my wife and children? I want to be free and stay. To own a wife and children would be quite nice; but that woman and children should own me – no, I can not endure that! Let’s stay single! Thus, in a hundred cases, ninety-nine times the agonistic pride of egoism will not marry, according to an egotism, That is why we see so often in the hag-stud, who has never gone into the moralizing school of women, but has spent only a short time in it, and egoism gradually becomes more and more ossified. Only by way of exception does it happen that a man of faithful attachment to a mistress or bride dragged away by death, out of love for a female inaccessible to him, or one of ascetic morality renounces the pleasures of marriage.

What other picture, however, shows us the old maid! In ninety-nine out of a hundred cases, she would gladly have consecrated her whole life to a man, if a suitor worthy of her love had desired her for a wife. The Hagestolz could have marry, but he did not want to; the old maid wanted to marry, but she was denied. Now, however, the old maidens, too, may be of a bitter, harsh character; but the disappointment with which the mood of their feelings arises, is quite different from that which often turns the whipping pride over time into a true petrefact Makes egoism.

The old girl once had a rich treasure of love to forgive; is she to blame for the fact that never a man wished to draw from this treasure desire? Bitter, bitter! Did the old maiden embitter herself? The world never mines with its mockery, where it encounters an innocent suffering. Like the young girl who has been seduced, with shame

while the seducer encounters little more than an accusation, which on top of that he may very often be regarded as a middle ground between envy and admiration; so you ridicule the old maid,although, as a rule, she can do nothing to prove that she has become such, while the hag pride, who has almost always wanted his own celibacy, need not fear the judgment of the slanderous world. And this injustice should not exacerbate the first spurned and then ridiculed woman? Even more. The man remains a man, even if he is a husband; the world is always open to him, he may do deeds or may make works; But what is the woman who can not fulfill his only true profession, to whom the world can offer no substitute for the want of a domestic flock of its own? How cheap is our ridicule about tenderness, with which old onesWishing to hang maids on a small pet dog, a favorite cat, a parrot or a canary! This love of animals is nothing but a safety valve of the woman’s heart, without which the heart, which is so full of fresh love, would have to burst. What the people spurned, that benefits the animal. “So we would have quoted the spirit of the book, are the women horrified by it? Those who are afraid of it, it is said: they are the exceptions to the rule, for they are witty, maybe even awesome, but at least more beautiful than the man.