That kind of confirms my opinion

Admittedly I never took up linguistics but upon learning what the word ‘mawy’ means in Turkmen, if gök’s used to refer to blue and green (often of grass) then mawy’s used to gloss over blue (sometimes light blue), pink and violet (depending on dialect) and mawy’s most probably ultraviolet blue. There’s even a link in Turkmen about the seven colours of the rainbow where one such line says “red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, blue and violet”.

Note that gök seems to mean cyan (and the colour blue that Isaac Newton had in mind) so logically mawy’s indigo that Isaac Newton assumed and practically closer to pure blue that when lightened up seems purplish on some computers. Maybe not always exactly the case but it does seem amusing that gök’s used to mean ‘blue’ and mawy for ‘indigo’ in that sentence. It does validate my opinion that mawy’s ultraviolet blue.

Goats, deer, sheep oh my

Around three years ago, we had something like the year of the ram/sheep/goat. Whilst Anglophones mostly assumed that the (Mandarin) Chinese language treats goats as interchangeable with sheep, let’s not forget that other European languages do the same however with goats and roe deer. In German, the word geiss can sometimes refer to goat and more specifically she-goat in addition to female roe deer with kitz being obviously kid (as in baby goat) as well as baby roe deer.

In French and Italian, there exists chevre/capra/goat and chevreuil/capriolo/roe deer. I sometimes get the impression that though Francophone, Teutonophone and Italophone websites aren’t any better in wondering why Chinese language treats goats and sheep are interchangeable, but European languages themselves aren’t any better either. Especially when it comes to treating goats as interchangeable with roe deer or cattle with elephants.

Akan language treats cats, souls and dogs as interchangeable the word for cat being the same for soul (okra) and dog being okraman. Or that the word for cat in some languages initially referred to leopard cats (similar for dogs in others too). Basta, it’s not just Mandarin that’s guilty of this in a way.

Them canine invaders

Should dogs be outed as the first invasive species, it would make sense as though they’re technically the first domesticated species ownership habits in tandem with ecology, economy and geography can allow any degree of straying (and thus pestilence) to occur wherever trade and immigration occur at all. If that’s the same for cats (to whatever degree as well, as far as I infer from knowing about them in Japan), it’s similar for dogs.

Pigs, goats and sheep to a lesser degree though it’s got more to do with keeping them as livestock that they need to be that protected to prevent thieves from getting to them. The word kidnap likely originates from the idea that thieves might steal baby goats (kids). Keep in mind that strangely enough in German, the word geiss (recalling goat) seemingly refers to a female deer and the baby’s called kitz (kid).

So far in Dutch, geit is goat. But anyways the idea that dogs are the first invasive species makes sense if/when owners might allow their dogs to stay outside and even if they don’t want them to stray but not when leashes and other resources aren’t just expensive but also inaccessible that it occurs anyways and similar for cats. Much moreso in the distant past as some of the means needed to humanely sterilise them weren’t there yet.

Let alone in a more refined form, which might still occur in less urbanised areas.

Blue in Turkmen

I’m under the impression that there are two colour terms for blue. One that’s close to the green end (gok as spelt with an umlaut) and mawy which’s used to gloss over purple, pink and blue proper. The latter being the ultraviolet blue. Interestingly, Turkish as well as Polish and Russian also have separate words for blue. One for the lighter blue (Turkish mavy, Polish niebieski and Russian goluboy) and one for the darker blue (Turkish lacivert, Polish granatowy and Russian siniy).

Or in the case with Turkmen and Uzbek, one veering towards green (gok spelt with an umlaut on the middle letter) and one veering towards ultraviolet (mawy, thus blue proper). There might be many more languages out there with separate words for each blue and thus worthy of being preserved before the nick of time. Irish’s more interesting as it has two separate colour terms for either grey or green. Glas means grey on sheep and horses and green of grass.

Uaine and liath are green and grey proper whilst blue (gorm)’s used to encompass not only pale-coloured eyes (blue) but also dark skin as well as blue proper. Though that may depend on dialect and user (same for Turkish, Turkmen and Uzbek), I get the impression that Irish blue (gorm) is almost always a dark colour. Whereas Turkmen and Uzbek mawy/mowy might be better understood in the context of spectral light.

Again as I said earlier, gok might be the grue colour whilst mawy/mowy’s better understood as blue that approaches ultraviolet given as it’s sometimes defined as both pink, purple and blue proper (sometimes more specifically light blue). There’s an amusing website suggesting that blue’s not a primary colour the way violet is which might explain certain terms and especially for both Uzbek and Turkmen.

(Alternately speaking the blue colour generated on computers might as well be the elusive violet colour all along.)

Vieille femme et chien (Google Books)

Delphi Complete Works of Gustave Flaubert (Illustrated)
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1908909455

Gustave Flaubert – 2013 – ‎Preview
C’est une passion de vieille femme, seules créatures qui avec les chiens ne repoussent pas leur amour. … il n’a peutêtre jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quelque 40 ans plus tard et qui se résumera [en] son carlin et sa guenon.
Œuvres de Jeunesse Inédites.̐̐ – Volume 1 – Page 232
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Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
V! I l Mme de Lansac avait une quantité de singes -— c’est une passion de vieille femme — seules créatures qui, avec … il n’a peut-être jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quarante ans plus tard, et qui se résumera en son carlin et sa …
Musée littéraire: collection remarquable de politique, histoire, …
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1842 – ‎Read
LES CHAPEAUX A LA VIEILLE. … Je ne désespère pas de voir revenir à la mode les vieilles femmes elles-mêmes. … vous n’apercevez plus que d’horribles petites vieilles auxquelles il ne manque qu’un carlin et le nez barbouillé de tabac.

Delphi Complete Works by Gustave Flaubert (Illustrated)
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Gustave Flaubert – 2013 – Preview
It’s an old woman’s passion , the only creatures that with dogs do not repulse their love. … he may never have thought of this woman’s society , some 40 years later, and which will boil down to [his] pug and monk.
Unpublished Youth Works.̐̐ – Volume 1 – Page 232
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Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – Snippet view – More editions
V! Madame de Lansac had a quantity of monkeys – it is an old woman’s passion – only creatures who, with … he may never have thought of the society of this woman , forty years later, and that will be summed up in his pug and his …
Literary Museum: remarkable collection of politics, history, …
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1842 – Read
HATS IN THE OLD . … I do not despair of seeing the old women themselves come back into fashion . … you only see horrible little old girls with only a pug and a nose smeared with tobacco.

Indian Fairy Tales (Contes de fées indiens): Bilingual …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=B3uvDAAAQBAJ

Joseph Jacobs – 2016 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Ils avaient cherché le jardin pour la terrible vieille femme, mais n’ont rien trouvé, et le roi Dantal dit à son fils qu’il était très … Mais une nuit, le petit chien a disparu, et à sa place, il se trouvait la petite vieille femme qui l’avait effrayé tant dans le …
Histoire Physiologique Et Anecdotique Des Chiens de Toutes Les Races
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Bénédict Henry Révoil – 1857 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
marchait, un jour, une vieille femme tenant en laisse un vieux chien. La malheureuse ressemblait à toutes les vieilles femmes du peuple. Le chien était simplement repoussant. Gros, court et petit, sans race, d’une couleur obscure, il traînait …
Bibliothèque Choisie de Littérature Française – Volume 2 – Page 168
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1833 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Tous les marchands de chiens de Paris ont des petits issus de Zémire et d’Azor; regardez tous les chiens qui passent, ce sont … Pour un célibataire, pour le poète qui est pauvre, pour tout homme qui est seul, pour la vieille femme qui n’a plus …
Les petits chiens de ces dames – Page 94
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Henry de Kock – 1856 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Nous nous priverons de donner à madame Boc- quillon le nom qu’elle mérite. XII Madame Bocquillon a reculé en apercevant un homme dans le boudoir de Blanche. Blanche se hâte de sourire en disant à la vieille femme : — Oh ! ça ne fait …
Les petits chiens de ces dames Henri de Kock – Page 94
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1856 – ‎Read
Blanche se hâte de sourire en disant à la vieille .\ femme : —Ohl ça ne fait rien, vous pouvez parlerÏlevant lui. ~ _ ‘ — Bon ! pense madame Bocquillon, qui connaît son monde, c’est un king’s—Charles. ~’ Et elle se met à parler, en effet’, …
La vie des peintres flamands, allemands et hollandois, avec des …
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Jean Baptiste Descamps, ‎Pissot (París), ‎Durand (París) – 1660 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Chez M. le Lormier, le Portrait d’un Seigneur assis, & auprès de lui un Negre & un Chien ; une Dame à sa toilette … une Femme avec son Enfant & un petit Chien ; Lucréce mourante, une vieille Femme consternée auprès d’elle; le reste du …
L’APPEL A LA VIE Poèmes de lumière – Page 42
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Preview
Elle voit la douleur partir du regard du petit chien. Qui, heureux, vient lui lécher les mains. Elle trace de nouveau la croix sur lui. Demain, la maladie, sera définitivement partie. Et la vieille dame, qui n’a pas d’argent pour le soigner. Sers son …
Les Nains-Géants – Page 232
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Gisela Elsner – 1965 – ‎Snippet view
l’un de l’autre, c’est-à-dire à un demi-cercle de distance, leurs deux chiens sont accrochés par la tête de l’un à l’arrière-train de l’autre, avec des corps … chien. Une vieille femme aux cheveux gris avance à reculons de droite à gauche, en s’appuyant sur un bâton. … Mais le grand chien brun tire le vieil homme récalcitrant vers le petit chien blanc récalcitrant, entraîné à coups de bâton par la vieille femme.
Galerie des contemporains illustres – Volume 2 – Page 540
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Louis de Loménie – 1841 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Après quatre ans passés dans cette retraite, la jeune fille apprend par la vieille femme, dont elle a conquis l’affection, que … L’ami se lève, salue la dame, et lui dit en la quittant, sans êtrc entcndu du mari, le nom du petit chien qu’elle n’avait …
Galerie des Contemporains illustres, par un homme de rien Louis de …
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1848 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Après quatre ans passés dans cette retraite, la jeune fille apprend par la vieille femme, dont elle a conquis l’affection, que … L’ami se lève, salue la dame, et lui dit en la quittant, sans être entendu du mari, le nom du petit chien qu’elle n’avait …

Indian Fairy Tales (Indian Fairy Tales): Bilingual …
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Joseph Jacobs – 2016 – Preview – More editions
They had sought the garden for the terrible old woman , but found nothing, and King Dantal told his son that he was very … But one night, the little dog disappeared, and in his place he was the little old woman who had frightened her so much in the …
Physiological and Anecdotal History of Dogs of All Races
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Henry Benedict Révoil – 1857 – Read – More editions
One day, an old woman was walking on a leash with an old dog . The unfortunate girl looked like all the old women of the people. The dog was just repulsive. Big, short and small , without race, of an obscure color, he was dragging …
Selected Library of French Literature – Volume 2 – Page 168
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1833 – Read – More editions
All merchants dogs in Paris have small from Zémire and Azor; look at all the passing dogs , they are … For a single, for the poet who is poor, for every man who is alone, for the old woman who no longer has …
The little dogs of these ladies – Page 94
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Henry Kock – 1856 – Read – More editions
We will deprive ourselves of giving Madame Bocquillon the name she deserves. XII Madame Bocquillon recoiled when she saw a man in Blanche’s boudoir. Blanche hastens to smile, saying to the old woman : “Oh! it does not …
The little dogs of these ladies Henri de Kock – Page 94
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1856 – Read
White hastens to smile by telling the old \. Woman : -Ohl it does not matter, you can parlerÏlevant him. ~ _ ‘- Good! think Madame Bocquillon, who knows her world, it’s a king’s-Charles. ~ ‘And she starts talking, indeed’, …
The life of Flemish, German and Dutch painters, with …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=B3ixzW1oiDIC- Translate this page

Jean-Baptiste Descamps , Pissot (París), Durand (París) – 1660 – Read – More editions
At M. le Lormier, the Portrait of a sitting Lord, and near him a Negro and a Dog ; a Lady at her toilet … a Woman with her Child & a little Dog ; Lucred dying, an old woman dismayed beside her; the rest of the …
CALL FOR LIFE Poems of Light – Page 42
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preview
She sees the pain from the eyes of the little dog . Who, happy, comes to lick his hands. She draws the cross again on him. Tomorrow, the illness will definitely be gone. And the old lady , who has no money to heal him. Serve her …
The Giant Dwarfs – Page 232
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Gisela Elsner – 1965 – Snippet view
from each other, that is to say from a semicircle of distance, their two dogs are hooked by the head of one to the hindquarters of the other, with bodies. .. dog . An old gray haired woman walks backwards from right to left, leaning on a stick. … But the big brown dog pulls the recalcitrant old man towards the recalcitrant little white dog , trained with sticks by the old woman .
Gallery of illustrious contemporaries – Volume 2 – Page 540
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Louis Lomenie – 1841 – Read – More editions
After four years spent in this retreat, the girl learns from the old woman , whose affection she has won, that … The friend gets up, greets the lady , and says to her leaving her, without being caught by husband, the name of the little dog she had …
Gallery of illustrious Contemporaries, by a man of nothing Louis de …
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1848 – Read – More editions
After four years spent in this retreat, the girl learns from the old woman , whose affection she has won, that … The friend gets up, greets the lady , and says to her leaving her, without being heard of husband, the name of the little dog she had …

Vieille Femme (Google Books)

Delphi Complete Works of Gustave Flaubert (Illustrated)
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1908909455

Gustave Flaubert – 2013 – ‎Preview
C’est une passion de vieille femme, seules créatures qui avec les chiens ne repoussent pas leur amour. … il n’a peutêtre jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quelque 40 ans plus tard et qui se résumera [en] son carlin et sa guenon.
Gustave Flaubert : Oeuvres complètes et Annexes — 69 titres …
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Flaubert, Gustave – 2014 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
C’est une passion de vieille femme, seules créatures qui avec les chiens ne repoussent pas leur amour. … il n’a peut-être jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quelque 40 ans plus tard et qui se résumera en son carlin et sa guenon.
Oeuvres complètes illustrées de Gustave Flaubert: L’education …
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Gustave Flaubert – 1923 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Gustave Flaubert. gardaient … VIII Mme de Lansac avait une quantité de singes, — c’est une passion de vieille femme, — seules créatures qui, avec les chiens, ne repoussent pas leur amour. … et qui se résumera en son carlin et sa guenon.
Oeuvres complètes de Gustave Flaubert: Appendice aux Oeuvres …
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Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – ‎Snippet view
Gustave Flaubert … VIII M'”° de Lansac avait une quantité de singes — c’est une passion de vieille femme — seules créatures qui, avec les chiens, ne repoussent pas leur amour. … jolie femme; il n’a peut-être jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quarante ans plus tard, et qui se résumera en son carlin et sa guenon.
Œuvres complètes de Gustave Flaubert: Appendice aux œuvres …
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Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Gustave Flaubert … VIII M” de Lansac avait une quantité de singes — c’est une passion de vieille femme — seules créatures qui, avec les chiens, ne repoussent pas leur amour. … jolie femme; il n’a peut-être jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quarante ans plus tard, et qui se résumera en son carlin et sa guenon.
Œuvres complètes de Gustave Flaubert – Volume 16 – Page 232
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=WJtJAQAAMAAJ – Translate this page

1910 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… de VIII M”° de Lansac avait une une passion de vieille femme _ – seules créatures qui, avec les chiens, ne repoussent … femme; | n’a peut-être “* Pensé à la société de cette femme, uarante ans plus tard, et qui se résumera en son carlin et …
Mythes et idéologie de la femme dans les romans de Flaubert – Page 32
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Luce Czyba – 1983 – ‎Snippet view
Au mieux la femme vieillie, quand elle a de l’argent, est condamnée à la solitude et à l’ennui, sa compagnie se résume «en son carlin et sa guenon», les singes et les chiens étant les seules créatures qui ne repoussent pas son amour : «Toutes … Hélas ! c’est triste, mais c’est vrai; et puis, après avoir ainsi jauni pendant une douzaine d’années et racorni comme un vieux parchemin, au coin de son feu, …
Quidquid volueris: Nouvelle édition augmentée – Page 35
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Flaubert, Gustave – 2014 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Nouvelle édition augmentée Flaubert, Gustave … C’est une passion de vieille femme, seules créatures qui avec les chiens ne repoussent pas leur amour. … dégoût manger une jolie femme, il n’a peut-être jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quelque 40 ans plus tard et qui se résumera en son carlin et sa guenon.
Memoirs of a Madman
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=YA0bAQAAIAAJ

Gustave Flaubert – 2002 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
A young genius reflects upon his life of philosophy, and then his gradual descent into insanity as he obsesses over a beautiful woman he watches carefully by the ocean.
Œuvres de Jeunesse Inédites.̐̐ – Volume 1 – Page 232
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=RYI_AQAAMAAJ

Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Gustave Flaubert … V! I l Mme de Lansac avait une quantité de singes -— c’est une passion de vieille femme — seules créatures qui, avec les chiens, ne repoussent pas leur amour. … femme; il n’a peut-être jamais pensé à la société de cette femme, quarante ans plus tard, et qui se résumera en son carlin et sa guenon.

Delphi Complete Works by Gustave Flaubert (Illustrated)
https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1908909455

Gustave Flaubert – 2013 – Preview
It’s an old woman’s passion , the only creatures that with dogs do not repulse their love. … he may never have thought of this woman’s society , some 40 years later, and which will boil down to [his] pug and monk.
Gustave Flaubert: Complete Works and Annexes – 69 titles …
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Gustave Flaubert – 2014 – Preview – More editions
It’s an old woman’s passion , the only creatures that with dogs do not repulse their love. … he may never have thought of this woman’s society , some 40 years later, which will boil down to his pug and his monkey.
Complete illustrated works of Gustave Flaubert: Education …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=PqvtAAAAMAAJ- Translate this page

Gustave Flaubert – 1923 – Snippet view – More editions
Gustave Flaubert . Madame de Lansac had a quantity of monkeys-it is an old woman’s passion -the only creatures who, with dogs , do not repulse their love. … and that will be summed up in his pug and his monkey.
Complete Works of Gustave Flaubert: Appendix to the Works …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=u2tKAAAAYAAJ- Translate this page

Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – Snippet view
Gustave Flaubert … VIII M “° Lansac were plenty of monkeys – it’s a passion old woman – only creatures who, with dogs , do not push their love … pretty. Woman ; it n ‘ Perhaps never thought of this woman’s society , forty years later, and which will be summed up in her pug and her guenon.
Complete works of Gustave Flaubert: Appendix to works …
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=4egG5NlH6dEC- Translate this page

Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – Snippet view – More editions
Gustave Flaubert … VIII M “Lansac were plenty of monkeys – it’s a passion old woman – only creatures who, with dogs , do not push their love … pretty. Woman ; he can not to have never thought of the society of this woman , forty years later, and which will be summed up in his pug and his monkey.
Complete works of Gustave Flaubert – Volume 16 – Page 232
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1910 – Snippet view – More editions
VIII de Lansac had a passion for an old woman -the only creatures who, with dogs , do not repel- woman , perhaps has not thought of the society of this woman. , forty years later, which will be summed up in his pug and …
Myths and ideology of women in Flaubert’s novels – Page 32
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Luce Czyba – 1983 – Snippet view
At best the aged woman , when she has money, is condemned to loneliness and boredom, her company is summed up “in her pug and her kelp”, the monkeys and the dogs being the only creatures that do not grow back not his love: “All … Alas! it’s sad, but it’s true; and then, having thus yellowed for a dozen years and shriveled like an old parchment, by the corner of his fire, …
Quidquid volueris: New augmented edition – Page 35
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Gustave Flaubert – 2014 – Preview – More editions
New augmented edition Flaubert , Gustave … It’s a passion of old woman , only creatures who with dogs do not reject their love. … disgust to eat a pretty woman , he may have never thought about the society of this woman , some 40 years later and which will be summarized in his pug and his monkey.
Memoirs of a Madman
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=YA0bAQAAIAAJ

Gustave Flaubert – 2002 – Snippet view – More editions
A young genius reflects on his life of philosophy, and then his gradual descent into insanity as he obsesses over a beautiful woman.
Unpublished Youth Works.̐̐ – Volume 1 – Page 232
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=RYI_AQAAMAAJ

Gustave Flaubert – 1910 – Snippet view – More editions
Gustave Flaubert … V! Madame de Lansac had a quantity of monkeys – it is an old woman’s passion – the only creatures who, with dogs , do not repulse their love. … woman ; he may never have thought of the society of this woman , forty years later, which will be summed up in his pug and his monkey.

Two kinds of Irish in Europe

Or rather two kinds of Irish languages spoken in Europe where ‘Island Irish’ is the most basal in the sense of having originated there whilst ‘Alpine Irish’ is Irish as spoken in the Alps with substantial Italian and Old Irish influence (that’s if they’re to get a grip on 18th century Irish dictionaries and Old Irish proper if they wanted to go the extra mile). Some German contribution too. But the Italian, French and German influences are going to come from code-switching as much as English does in Ireland.

Who knows if other Germanic or Romance languages might play a big role in shaping Alpine Irish though Northern Italians might use this to further differentiate themselves from their Central and Southern compatriots as well as reclaim a lost Celtic identity (as it’s impractical to use Gaulish) along with their Austrian, Southern German and Swiss counterparts. Should Romansh ever be used en masse again, it too will influence Irish a lot.

Whether if it’s French, Romansh (indeed any lesser Romance language) or Italian, Alpine Irish’s going to be latinised a lot if all four of them belong to the Italo-Celtic family. Some German influence too though an overall Germanic influence (including English)’s going to be minor compared to the more extensive Romance one. One could expect Alpine Irish to be Irish spoken with traces of Italian and French accents.