That’s…glamourous

Though bear in mind not all punk bands and punkers necessarily dress in sexualised outfits, some are actually pretty normal looking as it gets it’s actually been said that some of the more infamous punk fashions come from prostitutes and some gay cliques. It’s not just that Vivienne Westwood played around with bondage clothing though some of the same things can be said of some glam rockers (who also influenced later punks).

It’s actually been said that the Ramones took a cue from at least one of the members’ curious career and fashion sense that to give you the idea the still alive photographer Peter Berlin used to dress sometimes what you’d expect the Ramones to look. Except that the Ramones were at least publicly chaste as it goes, despite all the cheating and annoying love triangles whereas Berlin let his freak flag out.

Of course not all punks and glam rockers necessarily dressed like this but I suspect dressing like this is to provoke people, make a statement and not give a damn whether if you have dyed hair, spiky hair or in the case with the Ramones, long hair.

Humour – Eccentricity: 10 (Google Books)

AN OLD MAID’S WILL. A maiden lady, who died in London in 1786, left the following singular legacies in her will.

“ Item. I leave to my dear entertaining Jackoo (a monkey), of 10 per annum during his natural life, to be expended yearly for his support.”

“ Item. To Shock and Tib (a lapdog and a cat), £5 each for their annual subsistence during life; but. should it so bappen that Sbock die before Tib, or Tib before Shock, then, and in that case, the survivor to have the whole.”

The legacies in renainder, were bequeathed to her niece.

WHIMSICAL TASTES. A few years ago a young lady was living near Exeter, whose eccentric sympathies aud antipathies, were the talk of the whole neighbourhood. She had a mortal aversion to all colours, except green, yellow, or white, in one of which she always dressed. She has been known to swoon away at the sight of a soldier, and a funeral never failed to throw her into a violent perspiration. She would not eat or drink out of any thing but queen’s ware or pewter; and was as peculiar in wbat she ate or drank, preferring the muddy water of the Thames, to the clearest spring, and meat which had been kept too long, to that which was fresh. She preferred the sound of the Jews’ harp to the most delicious music, and had in every thing a taste peculiarly her own.

The Churchman, Volume 87

The Churchman, Volume 87

BROWN BROS. & Co.,

No. 59 WALL STREET,

Literary Notes.

“Dogtown,” by Mabel Osgood Wright (Macmillan, $1.50), and “Master Frisky,” by Clarence Hawkes (Crowell, 50 cents), are two delightful dog-books. Readers of “Tommy Anne” will meet old friends and a great many new ones in “Dogtown”; all the little Waddleses, for example, and Hamlet, the French poodle, and pretty Miss, Letty, who was one of the “house people.” The book is charmingly illus trated by photographs of the children and the dogs, especially the dogs. “Master Frisky” was a collie, and some of the things he did are almost beyond belief, but those of us who have lived with col lies will hesitate a long while before we accuse the author of this entertaining lit. tle book of drawing too much upon his imagination. Both “Dogtown” and “Mas ter Frisky” will be of absorbing interest to all dog-lovers, whether young or old.

The International Encyclopedia (Dodd, Mead, Vol. V., $5), of which we gave a general account on Nov. 22, last, carries the alphabet in its fifth volume from Coleoptera to Desiderius. We are still of the opinion that the method of illustra tion is mistaken. There should be more inserted pictures in the text and fewer full-page reproductions of pictures, build. ings and the like, of which the end, if not the aim, is purely decorative. The In a DS, on the other hand, are very good and the plans of cities, though apparently not al. ways designed for this work—since they contain numbers with no accompanying legend—are useful. Biography is a promi nent feature of the work in general and seems to be increasingly accentuated as it proceeds. If one were to discriminate be tween the departments, it would probably be found that the sciences and architec ture have fared somewhat better than the other arts or, with one or two excep tions, the literatures. Proportion between the different departments is better ob. served as the work proceeds, and while this encyclopedia still leaves something to be desired on this score when compared with German models, it will probably be found the most satisfactory, as it is the largest, of recent cyclopedic ventures in English.

The Homesickness of Tokyo.

BY VIRGINIA BAKER.

T was only an Ordinary mud turtle. Fred discovered it making its way along the bed of the brooklet that Crossed the corner of Uncle Jerry Fisher’s meadow. As Fred was a §ty boy, a turtle was quite a novelty to him, and after capturing his prize he pro §eeded to examine it minutely. He found it so interesting that he began to wonder whether Elsie would care to have it. Elsie was ill, and Fred longed to “do something for her,” as he expressed it. Gifts of fruit and bonbons were out of the question, for old Dr. Brown would not al low her to taste either. And, as her eyes Were in a weak condition, she was de barred from reading books and looking at pictures. A mud turtle was a strange of fering, but Fred reflected that Elsie was not just like other girls. She was fond of ribbons and dainty knick-knacks, but she was also fond of some things that boys like. She dearly loved animals, and num bered among her pets chickens, rabbits, a puppy, two kittens, a lamb, and a parrot. Once she had tried to tame a grasshopper. Fred thought a turtle not so very much Worse than a grasshopper. He decided that he would present his shelly find to Elsie. So he put it in his pocket and hur ried “’cross lots” to the Graysons’ cot tage. Elsie received his gift with unmistak able pleasure. She had, she declared, al Ways admired turtles, and wanted to know about their habits. She praised the prettily marked shell and laughed at the queer little tail. “He looks like some thing Japanese,” she said, thoughtfully, as she turned the turtle upon his back. “I think I shall give him a Japanese name.” Fred got the geography and found the map of Asia. After considerable discus sion Elsie decided to name her new pet Tokyo. “Because,” she explained to her mother, “we can call him Toky or Toke if Tokyo sounds too long.” Having settled the name to her satis faction, Elsie next took up the problem of a suitable home for the turtle. Mrs. Gray son, being appealed to, remembered that there was, under the attic eaves, an old aquarium. Fred pulled this treasure from its hiding place and after a great deal of washing and polishing, triumphantly brought it downstairs and placed it in the bay window of the library. … “Toky’s house,” he said, “was now ready to be furnished.” – For a carpet the children Sprinkled on the floor of the aquarium a thick layer of fine white sand. For furniture shells and bright-colored stones were scattered OWer the sand. The decorations consisted of aquatic plants, branches of White coral, and a small umbrella palm which was planted in a large shell. Fred filled the aquarium with water from Uncle Jerry’s brook, and then Toky was installed in his abode. *. seemed very well pleased with his surroundings. After exploring every nºok and corner of the aquarium and indulging in a swim to the surface of the water and back again, he settled quietly upon a large pebble, drew his head within his shell and, as the children thought, went to sleep. “He is j Elsie declared to Fred, a week later, never had a present I liked so well. Indeed, Tokyo proved a never failing source of delight, to the little girl. Elie reſt sure that he knew and loved her. He would poke his funny little head out Of his shell and look at her with his tiny, id:like eyes as if to say, “You and I are comrades, aren’t we?” He always knew when feeding, time arrived, and would accept tid-bits frºm her fingers Without a sign of fear. She studied his habits with surprise and amusement. He would eat almost anything offered him With apparent relish. “Like Timmy

ust as cute as cute can be,” “I

Murphy’s goat,” Fred said. He rarely re mained for any length of time on the floor of his house. His favorite resting-place Was in the topmost branches of the um brella palm, where he would perch like a queer four-legged bird hour after hour. But what most astonished Elsie was the rapidity with which he moved about. Placed upon the library floor, he would traverse the room at a pace that caused Fred to enthusiastically dub him a “reg ular sprinter.” Elsie mentally decided that the man who wrote the fable of the tortoise and the hare had little knowledge of turtles. “For Toky never goes real slowly,” she explained to her mother. All through the summer Tokyo lived a life of peace and happiness, and waxed fat upon bits of clam and other deli cacies. But, with the ad V ent of early autumn, clouds began to darken his bright horizon. T h e Graysons w e r e ready to c 1 ose their summer cot tage and return to their Winter home in Boston. Uncle J e r r y Fisher w a s to care for t h e chick en s, and rabbits and pus sies and the lamb, during the cold season, and the parrot and puppy would accompany the family to the city. But Mrs. Grayson declared that Toky must be returned to his

old quarters in the me a dow brook.

A n d suddenly Tokyo lost his appetite. Elsie’s father said that the turtle realized that winter was coming and was making ready to bury himself in the mud for the long nap from which only the

its wet shell with rapturous kisses. Toky poked out his head and turned his bead; glance upon his young mistress with an expression that, to Elsie, said very plain. ly, “Nobody shall part us again.” And nobody did. Elsie’s father declared that a turtle sufficiently intelligent to travel half a mile in search of his friends commanded his respect. And Elsie’s mother said that Toky must go to Bos ton with Snips, the puppy, and Polly Pepper, the parrot. So the aquarium and

the sand and shells and stones were care fully boxed, and Tokyo journeyed to his new home in a tin kettle of brook water, lunching luxuriously by the way on deli. cious shreds of raw clam. In the sunny window of the library of

warmth of spring W ou 1 d awaken h i m. Secretly, Elsie believed that her pet was pining at the thought of leaving the aquarium. It was with a heavy heart and many tears that the little girl, at length, bade farewell to her treasure. She was so over come with grief at the parting that she could not carry the turtle to the brook herself. Fred undertook the task, and al though he could not cry, too—being a boy —he swallowed several large lumps that rose in his throat with uncomfortable per sistence. One meagre hope consoled him —the hope that in the spring he might be able to recover Toky. He felt certain that he should recognize the turtle among a hundred of his kindred. Two days later, Elsie sat disconsolately in the library. The room looked very for lorn, shorn of its draperies and bric-a brac, and with the furniture shrouded in linen covers. The little girl sighed heavily as her eyes rested upon the spot where the aquarium had once stood. Sud denly a peculiar noise attracted her at tention. Something seemed to be softly scratching at and bumping against the door that led out upon the veranda. Elsie opened the door, and as she did so uttered a cry that penetrated to the room above, where her mother was busily engaged in packing her little daughter’s trunk. “Oh, mother, mother, look!” she sobbed, joyfully, as Mrs. Grayson came hurrying downstairs. “It is Toky. He has come back. He was so homesick he couldn’t stay in the brook!” and catching up the turtle, which was making its way with alacrity over the threshold, she covered

“Elsie cpened the door, and as she did so uttered a cry.”

the Graysons’ city residence the aquarium º

now stands. For fear that Toky may be * trifle lonely, at times, Mrs. Grayson his

supplied him with some pretty gold-fish, º

two or three tadpoles, and a couple of frogs for companions. He seems thor oughly contented with city life, and m4. be seen, any day, perched among tº palm-branches apparently dozing, but really, Elsie says, thinking how much nicer an aquarium is than Uncle Je” Fisher’s muddy little brook.

Jerry and Jane. A True Story. BY FLORENCE A. EVANS,

T was in no way likely that the tW0

snakes had ever met before. ” .** they were respectively found dº” (º at the mili race and far to the W*. & ward on the golf links, one several .** weeks later than the other. They.” º garter snakes, and very pretty sº. ** of their kind, the female having unusual; * light markings, while the male wº.º. º. a brunette, from the first day that thºſ º were together in captivity, their fondness º for one another was remarkable, . ** time passed on they seemed to amº º each other more and more. On one * **

196 (32) February 7, 1903 The Churchman.

The Homesickness of Tokyo.

BY VIRGINIA BAKER.

T was only an Ordinary mud turtle. Fred discovered it making its way along the bed of the brooklet that Crossed the corner of Uncle Jerry Fisher’s meadow. As Fred was a §ty boy, a turtle was quite a novelty to him, and after capturing his prize he pro §eeded to examine it minutely. He found it so interesting that he began to wonder whether Elsie would care to have it. Elsie was ill, and Fred longed to “do something for her,” as he expressed it. Gifts of fruit and bonbons were out of the question, for old Dr. Brown would not al low her to taste either. And, as her eyes Were in a weak condition, she was de barred from reading books and looking at pictures. A mud turtle was a strange of fering, but Fred reflected that Elsie was not just like other girls. She was fond of ribbons and dainty knick-knacks, but she was also fond of some things that boys like. She dearly loved animals, and num bered among her pets chickens, rabbits, a puppy, two kittens, a lamb, and a parrot. Once she had tried to tame a grasshopper. Fred thought a turtle not so very much Worse than a grasshopper. He decided that he would present his shelly find to Elsie. So he put it in his pocket and hur ried “’cross lots” to the Graysons’ cot tage. Elsie received his gift with unmistak able pleasure. She had, she declared, al Ways admired turtles, and wanted to know about their habits. She praised the prettily marked shell and laughed at the queer little tail. “He looks like some thing Japanese,” she said, thoughtfully, as she turned the turtle upon his back. “I think I shall give him a Japanese name.” Fred got the geography and found the map of Asia. After considerable discus sion Elsie decided to name her new pet Tokyo. “Because,” she explained to her mother, “we can call him Toky or Toke if Tokyo sounds too long.” Having settled the name to her satis faction, Elsie next took up the problem of a suitable home for the turtle. Mrs. Gray son, being appealed to, remembered that there was, under the attic eaves, an old aquarium. Fred pulled this treasure from its hiding place and after a great deal of washing and polishing, triumphantly brought it downstairs and placed it in the bay window of the library. … “Toky’s house,” he said, “was now ready to be furnished.” – For a carpet the children Sprinkled on the floor of the aquarium a thick layer of fine white sand. For furniture shells and bright-colored stones were scattered OWer the sand. The decorations consisted of aquatic plants, branches of White coral, and a small umbrella palm which was planted in a large shell. Fred filled the aquarium with water from Uncle Jerry’s brook, and then Toky was installed in his abode. *. seemed very well pleased with his surroundings. After exploring every nºok and corner of the aquarium and indulging in a swim to the surface of the water and back again, he settled quietly upon a large pebble, drew his head within his shell and, as the children thought, went to sleep. “He is j Elsie declared to Fred, a week later, never had a present I liked so well. Indeed, Tokyo proved a never failing source of delight, to the little girl. Elie reſt sure that he knew and loved her. He would poke his funny little head out Of his shell and look at her with his tiny, id:like eyes as if to say, “You and I are comrades, aren’t we?” He always knew when feeding, time arrived, and would accept tid-bits frºm her fingers Without a sign of fear. She studied his habits with surprise and amusement. He would eat almost anything offered him With apparent relish. “Like Timmy

ust as cute as cute can be,” “I

Murphy’s goat,” Fred said. He rarely re mained for any length of time on the floor of his house. His favorite resting-place Was in the topmost branches of the um brella palm, where he would perch like a queer four-legged bird hour after hour. But what most astonished Elsie was the rapidity with which he moved about. Placed upon the library floor, he would traverse the room at a pace that caused Fred to enthusiastically dub him a “reg ular sprinter.” Elsie mentally decided that the man who wrote the fable of the tortoise and the hare had little knowledge of turtles. “For Toky never goes real slowly,” she explained to her mother. All through the summer Tokyo lived a life of peace and happiness, and waxed fat upon bits of clam and other deli cacies. But, with the ad V ent of early autumn, clouds began to darken his bright horizon. T h e Graysons w e r e ready to c 1 ose their summer cot tage and return to their Winter home in Boston. Uncle J e r r y Fisher w a s to care for t h e chick en s, and rabbits and pus sies and the lamb, during the cold season, and the parrot and puppy would accompany the family to the city. But Mrs. Grayson declared that Toky must be returned to his

old quarters in the me a dow brook.

A n d suddenly Tokyo lost his appetite. Elsie’s father said that the turtle realized that winter was coming and was making ready to bury himself in the mud for the long nap from which only the

its wet shell with rapturous kisses. Toky poked out his head and turned his bead; glance upon his young mistress with an expression that, to Elsie, said very plain. ly, “Nobody shall part us again.” And nobody did. Elsie’s father declared that a turtle sufficiently intelligent to travel half a mile in search of his friends commanded his respect. And Elsie’s mother said that Toky must go to Bos ton with Snips, the puppy, and Polly Pepper, the parrot. So the aquarium and

the sand and shells and stones were care fully boxed, and Tokyo journeyed to his new home in a tin kettle of brook water, lunching luxuriously by the way on deli. cious shreds of raw clam. In the sunny window of the library of

warmth of spring W ou 1 d awaken h i m. Secretly, Elsie believed that her pet was pining at the thought of leaving the aquarium. It was with a heavy heart and many tears that the little girl, at length, bade farewell to her treasure. She was so over come with grief at the parting that she could not carry the turtle to the brook herself. Fred undertook the task, and al though he could not cry, too—being a boy —he swallowed several large lumps that rose in his throat with uncomfortable per sistence. One meagre hope consoled him —the hope that in the spring he might be able to recover Toky. He felt certain that he should recognize the turtle among a hundred of his kindred. Two days later, Elsie sat disconsolately in the library. The room looked very for lorn, shorn of its draperies and bric-a brac, and with the furniture shrouded in linen covers. The little girl sighed heavily as her eyes rested upon the spot where the aquarium had once stood. Sud denly a peculiar noise attracted her at tention. Something seemed to be softly scratching at and bumping against the door that led out upon the veranda. Elsie opened the door, and as she did so uttered a cry that penetrated to the room above, where her mother was busily engaged in packing her little daughter’s trunk. “Oh, mother, mother, look!” she sobbed, joyfully, as Mrs. Grayson came hurrying downstairs. “It is Toky. He has come back. He was so homesick he couldn’t stay in the brook!” and catching up the turtle, which was making its way with alacrity over the threshold, she covered

“Elsie cpened the door, and as she did so uttered a cry.”

the Graysons’ city residence the aquarium º

now stands. For fear that Toky may be * trifle lonely, at times, Mrs. Grayson his

supplied him with some pretty gold-fish, º

two or three tadpoles, and a couple of frogs for companions. He seems thor oughly contented with city life, and m4. be seen, any day, perched among tº palm-branches apparently dozing, but really, Elsie says, thinking how much nicer an aquarium is than Uncle Je” Fisher’s muddy little brook.

Jerry and Jane. A True Story. BY FLORENCE A. EVANS,

T was in no way likely that the tW0

snakes had ever met before. ” .** they were respectively found dº” (º at the mili race and far to the W*. & ward on the golf links, one several .** weeks later than the other. They.” º garter snakes, and very pretty sº. ** of their kind, the female having unusual; * light markings, while the male wº.º. º. a brunette, from the first day that thºſ º were together in captivity, their fondness º for one another was remarkable, . ** time passed on they seemed to amº º each other more and more. On one * **

February 7, 1903 (33) | 97 The Churchman.

º

ilº

º

casion, when the wire screen which formed the lid of their box was accident ally left open and they had made their es cape, they were found some hours later, and some distance away, still together, and coiled in a heap in the most affection ate manner in the world. We named them Jane and Jerry, and Jerry was always most polite and atten tive to his better half. For instance, if a fresh supply of earth worms (the favor ite food of garter snakes) was placed in the box, he would always call her atten tion to it before beginning his own meal; and if, as sometimes happened, she was peewish and did not wish his presence, he would allow her to occupy alone the sun niest portion of the box. Jane had re ceived an injury on her side at some time previous to her capture by us and, though the place had healed, she bore a large scar and the old wound seemed sometimes to trouble her. For between three and four months, Jane and Jerry lived happily together. Other snakes were at intervals put into the box, but the happy pair paid little or no attention to the intruders, and at length they were allowed to retain undis puted possession of their home. And at last a great joy came to them. Going to the box one day to put fresh water in their drinking vessel, we found that, beside Jane and Jerry, the place was occupied by about twenty baby garter snakes, tiny creatures about six inches long, but already exhibiting in miniature all the characteristic markings of their parents. Dainty little reptiles they were, no thicker than a slate pencil, with bright eyes which seemed much sharper than those of grown snakes, and with the tiniest of forked tongues, with which they were industriously examining everything within reach. A large supply of the smallest earth worm procurable was at once dug, and the babies had their first meal. Jerry ate, too, but Jane was too busy with her off spring, touching one after another with her tongue, as though counting them. We did not, of course, disturb her. She made no objection when we picked up one of her little ones and examined it, but seemed glad when we replaced the tiny creature by her side. Her happiness was not to be of long duration, however. Visiting the box the next day for another peep at the new ar rivals, we found poor Jane cold and stiff, while, coiled lovingly around her lifeless body, touching her now and then with his tongue and expressing his grief as plainly as it is possible for a snake to do so, was Jerry. The babies were squirming con tentedly about the other end of the box. Their mother’s death did not concern them in the least, but they instinctively shunned her body. Poor dead Jane was at once removed, though it was hard to uncoil Jerry from the lifeless form of his mate; he even hissed several times, something that he had never been heard to do before. Ex amination proved that the old wound on Jane’s side had reopened and to this her death was probably due. Jerry was put back into the box, and Irish worms were dug for the youngsters. This time their father did not join in the meal, but roved anxiously from one end of the box to the other, evidently looking for his lost mate. Presently, however, he “”leted down and then the baby snakes **me around him, and this seemed to as **e his grief to some extent, for he soon lºan fondling them with his tongue as Jane had done on the day previous. For several days we kept them thus, but ‘hºn, as Jerry steadfasty refused to eat *” several of the babies had died from * unknown cause, we resolved to let *family go. So the young ones were ºst removed from the box and put in * As and then Jerry was placed be: side them. He raised his head and took ºne long look about him; then he gave a * hiss and started off in the exact di º from which he had been brought . *ptured, and after him, as fast as … move, followed every one of *y snakes! Now and then he would

stop for a moment, as though to allow any stragglers to catch up, and then Would again continue his journey; and the last that we saw of them—for we did not follow for fear of frightening and con fusing some of the babies—Jerry and his family were moving in as straight a line as a compass could have pointed toward the mill race.

A Pair of Loving Brothers.

BY LUCY FLORETTE NICHOLS.

WANT to tell THE CHURCH MAN chil dren about two most intelligent and interesting little animals, and of whom, as household pets less is known than of some others. Their fur coat was soft and white, and their eyes large and of a ruby tint; their ears were of a beautiful pink, and their fore-paws were the most perfect tiny hands you ever saw, and of the same shade of pink as their ears. In the palms of their hands were little pink cushions, So they could run about softly and not hurt themselves; and they had also long white tails, soft as silk, which they used in a very interesting way in balancing themselves as they climbed or ran about. When they were six weeks old we named the larger one “General,” because he watched over his brother very careful ly, and would let no stranger come near his home. The smaller we called “Baby,” for he was more gentle (at the first) and liked to be held and petted as little chil dren are by their father and mother. They both became very tame, and gentle and loving as the weeks and months went by. We provided a large square table that they might have room enough to play, a little house with a glass door for them to sleep in at night, and a pasteboard box in which they soon made an opening large enough to sit and watch what was going on outside and around them. They were observant and inquisitive. Like Some children I have seen, they did not like to go to bed, but they did not cry about it; when ten o’clock came, and they were put into their little house and the door closed, what do you think they did? First, they chattered noisily to each other for awhile, and then they sat up and Washed themselves with the hands I have told you about, holding their hind-legs with one hand, and washing with the Other until not a spot or blemish was left on their fur; then they would have a good play standing up and throwing their arms about each other, and wrestling as boys do, until one was down and the other sat upon him. Then they would hunt about to find the latch of the door of their house, and would work over it until they had pushed it open and come out; then such a chattering and scolding you never heard’ They showed us in this way that they did not like to be shut up, and soon we al lowed them to do as they pleased and to go to bed when they liked in a pretty basket we placed on their table. At first they were very timid, and would run and hide behind their basket even when we tried to feed and pet them; but they soon learned that we loved them, and they showed great affection for us in many ways. Although it was natural to them to sleep in the daytime, and prowl about at night, they easily learned when the gas was out that they must get into their basket, and in they would go, pull ing about them a scarf we had provided as a wrap to keep them warm, and leaving exposed only their bright eyes and pink noses, and after a little chatter together as to whether it was not too early for bed (as I suppose) they would go to sleep till morning. We fed them twice a day, morning and night. At first they snatched their food greedily; but they soon found out that there was enough, and all they wanted for

both, and then they would stand quietly side by side while I fed them. They travelled a great deal, and always in their basket, which was never cov ered: they would lie side by side, their heads close together, and their bright eyes on my face, perfectly content and happy, no matter what noise or confusion was around us. When they were about a year old they were taken to the country for the summer. During the first half of this journey a gentleman whom they did not know occupied a part of the seat. The little fellows were somewhat disturbed by his proximity, and although they made no sound and did no harm, they rested their little paws on the side of the basket, and their noses upon them, and kept their eyes on the stranger. He often looked at them, and after awhile turned pale, got up and took another seat in the extreme end Of the car: as soon as he had disappeared they moved back into their old position, close together, and went to sleep—though I think they always kept one eye open– Watching the friend who took care of them, and whom they trusted perfectly. When they arrived at their destimation. they were given the freedom of a large bay window overlooking the hills, and Soft breezes blew lovingly over them. Here also stood their table and basket. We got green grass and sweet clover for them, and they soon felt at home, and revelled in their surroundings, tossing the grass over themselves and nibbling the SWeet clover heads. Every morning they were taken out for a Walk, and side by side—and close to gether always—would run behind us up the hill on the country road, never turn. ing to the right or left until we turned about for home, or took them in our arms to rest them after a long tramp. This walk they enjoyed extremely, and it was never omitted while they were in the country. At evening they would sit quietly each on an arm of the large piazza chair I occupied, and seemed to enjoy the country air as much as we did; they wore the same white dress every evening, on which never a bit of dust or dirt was seen, and a pink or blue ribbon about their necks was their only ornament. They never quarrelled, for they were very loving little brothers. When the swivel blinds had been closed a good while, and they thought it too dark in the room, one or the other would stand up on his feet, and, with the same dear little hands, work away at the Swivel until he had opened it, and then they Would peep their dear little pink noses through it for light and air. One Sunday morning we found “Baby” asleep on the grass on his table, and we could not waken him. For a few days the General Seemed to think his brother was Coming back; but soon he became very unhappy, and would run all about the rooms hunting for him. Then he began to droop, and did Ilot care for his food; he lost his rapid motion, and Would sit still with longing eyes, watch ing ever for the one he loved. He de voted himself more and more to Ime, and would sit still for hours in my lap, spena. ing the evenings in the parlor where we played whist, occasionally getting up and putting his little hands on the table, look ing about for a moment, or taking a card in his hands and putting it against his nose, as if he wondered what it all Imeant: and then he would step back and Cudd le up again, but never go to sleep while the game lasted. All that could be done to cheer him done, but he drooped more and more. “. put his basket on the floor near us, that he might be less lonely; for he Would no longer stay in his window or look about out of doors, and he would eat nothing but a little milk. One morning I awoke early and lºoked out to see my little friend b. mo bright eye greeted me. His Saucer was empty, and he lay in his basket With his face between his little hands; he too had gone to sleep, weary of waiting for his dear companion. Now what little animals do you thin have told you this true story it.” nk I Turo white rats /

198 (34) February 7, 1903 The Churchman.

The News. –

Under “Diocesan News”: The Paddock Lectures to be delivered by Bishop Hall at the General Seminary; Discussion on Chang ing Name of Church at the Church Club of New York; The bi-centennial of St. Paul’s church. Chester, Penn.; Meeting of the Con vocation of Germantown; Alumni Banquets in Philadelphia; Meeting of the Archdeaconry of Queens and Nassau, diocese of Long Island; Meeting of the Episcopalian Club in Boston; Bishop Coleman preaches before the Berkeley Association of Yale; Meeting of the Archdea conry of Troy; Golden Jubilee of St. Paul’s church, Newark, N. J.; Meeting of the Arth deaconry of Scranton; Course of Lenten Lec tures at Washington, D. C.; Observance of day for Diocesan Missions in diocese of Ohio; visitations of Bishop White, diocese of Michi gan City: The Cathedral at Faribault: The Church Club of Minnesota; Bishop Partridge in St. Louis, Mo., etc., etc.

Mentions.

The address of the Rt. Rev. Dr. Tuttle, Bishop of Missouri, is changed from 2,727 Lawton avenue to 74 Vandeventer Place, St. Louis, Mo.

The address of the Rev. A. Basil Perry is changed to Muskogee, I. T.

The Rev. Dr. Henry Tarrant, of Pine Meadow, Conn., has presented to the mission at Niantic a new chalice and paten.

The Rev. Daniel F. Warren, D.D., has re signed the rectorship of St. Mary’s church, Jersey City, on account of ill health. His res ignation is to take effect after Easter.

The Rev. Arthur Rooney has been appointed to the charge of St. Andrew’s mission, Jack son, Mich., and to St. Mary’s church, Grass Lake.

The Rev. J. De Wolf Perry, Jr., rector of Christ church, Fitchburg, Mass., has been called to the rectorship of Epiphany church, New York City.

The Rev. Chas. H. Powell, Ph.D., has re signed the rectorship of St. Peter’s church, Ashtabula, O., resignation to take effect April 1.

The Rev. W. W. Webb, president of Nasho tah House, will conduct a Retreat for the clergy of Milwaukee at All Saints… cathedral on the Monday before Ash Wednesday, Feb. 23.

Mr. Henry Hayes, treasurer for many years of the diocese of Newark, died suddenly at his residence on Monday, Feb. 2. He was senior warden of Grace church, Newark, where the funeral took place on Thursday, Feb. 5.

The Rev. Edgar A. Enos, D.D., rector of St. Paul’s church, Troy, made the baccalaureate address at the graduating exercises of the Samaritan Hospital Training School for Nurses, in Troy, N. Y.

On Tuesday, Jan. 20, the Rev. Chauncey C. Williams, D.D., celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his rectorship of the historic parish of St. Paul’s, Augusta, Ga. A large number of his parishioners and friends were present to offer their congratulations.

on Thursday, Jan. 29, the Rev. James slidell celebrated the twelfth anniversary of his connection with St. John’s church, Mil waukee, Wis. At a supper given in his honor, a purse of $100 in gold was presented to him by the members of the congregation.

Mr. Paul Shimmon, of Urmi, Persia, has made a wonderful recovery from his recent illness. He was seriously wounded by the ac Cidental discharge of his own revolver, while on horseback about two miles from his home on Nov. 2. The horse was excited by some passing camels and had become unmanage; able. The wound was of a very dangerous and painful character. Mr. Shimmon recognizes in his recovery God’s gift in answer, to prayer offered on his behalf by many friends in Persia and America. It is gratifying to learn that the Industrial School for East Syrian girls that Mr. Shimmon went out to estab lish has begun its work. Adequate funds for its commencement have been subscribed in this country. Rooms have been, rented at tºmi. Material obtained and the training of initive girls in the making of rugs has begun.

Clerical Changes.

The Rev. w. S. Danker, curate of Trinity church, Bayonne, N. J., has resigned and ac cepted the rectorship of Trinity church, Mil ford, Mass. Address accordingly.

The Rev. William Fitz Simon has been a P pointed minister-in-charge of St. Mary’s in Tuxedo, N. Y., until May next. The late reº tor of St. Mary’s, the Rev. George G. Merrill, has already taken charge of his work in Buf faho.

The Rev. William N. Guthrie, rector of the Church of the Resurrection, Fern Bank, Q., has accepted the rectorship of Christ church, Alameda, Cal., in succession to the Rev. T. J. Lacey, Ph.D. –

The Rev. R. F. Keicher, of St. John’s

church, Dubuque, Ia., assumed charge of Grace church, Hartland, Wis., on the Feast of the Purification, Feb. 2.

The Rev. George Woodward Lamb, former ly of St. Timothy’s, Roxborough, Philadelphia, has entered upon his duties as vicar of the St. Mary memorial, Pittsburg. Address, 207 Coltart Square, Pittsburg, Penn.

The Rev. John Mockridge has resigned the Church of the Messiah, Detroit, and accepted a call to St. Andrew’s, Detroit.

The Rev. Wm. Warne Wilson has resigned St. Stephen’s church, Detroit, Mich., and ac cepted a call to Trinity church.

The Rev. S. Alston Wragg has accepted a call to the Church of the Good Shepherd, Augusta, Ga., and entered upon his duties on the first Sunday in February. His address after that date will be Augusta, Ga.

Deposition.

MISSIONARY DISTRICT OF DULUTH. NOTICE OF DEPOSITION.

Notice is hereby given (Title II., Canon 5, Section i., Digest.) that on the 28th day of January, A.D. 1903, in St. Paul’s church, Duluth, I deposed from the Ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church, at his own writ ten request, Robert R. McVettie, Presbyter. I furthermore certify that I pronounced and recorded said deposition in the presence of the Rev. A. W. Ryan, D.C.L., LL.D., and the Rev. Louis I. Belden. J. D. MoRRISON, Bishop of Duluth.

Necrology.

REV. S. H. TREAT.

The Rev. Sidney Hubbell Treat, rector of St. James’s church, Greenfield, Mass., died there from acute congestion of the lungs on Thurs day, Jan. 29, 1903, aged thirty-two years. He was born in Marlborough, Mass., and was graduated from Columbia University in 1893. He was ordained deacon in 1896 and priest the following year, by Bishop Potter. After ordi nation he served as assistant in St. Stephen’s church, New York City, of which his father was rector.

REV. E. J. LION.

The diocese of California has suffered an other great affliction in the loss by death of a second prominent priest and rector, who for years has been a leader of the Church’s life. The surprise and grief at the unexpected death of the Rev. Robert Ritchie, rector of St. Paul’s church, Oakland, was still fresh when the startling tidings came of the sudden decease of the Very Rev. Edgar J. Lion, rec tor of St. Stephen’s church, San Francisco, and for many years dean of the most impor tant convocation of the diocese. Dean Lion had just officiated in his parish church, the occasion being a Thursday celebration of the Holy Eucharist, when he was seized with a hemorrhage of the brain, after leaving the altar. He was taken to the rectory adjoining the church, where, in a few hours, on Jan. 15, he passed peacefully away. His death has caused widespread grief. Next to the bishop. he was without doubt the most beloved clergyman in the diocese. His entire life had been spent in San Francisco, and with St. Stephen’s church, of which he was successive ly lay-reader, deacon and priest for twenty seven years. Repeated invitations to larger parishes with rich emoluments were declined by him. He valued the pastoral ties which bound him in growing richness and intimacy of affection to his people. They reciprocated

this love in full, so that there was a most perfect translation of his mind and will in the iite of his parish. The flock was truly fed, guided and inspired by this noble shepherd. In time the whole community of San Fran cisco came to see in Dean Lion a priest of the very highest type, a man of transparent sin cerity and sympathy, a profound scholar, a preacher of wonderful spiritual power, and as an extempore speaker the superior of any ever heard on this coast, and not in fluency alone, but in the ability to say the exactly right thing at the right time, and to say it with grace, wisdom and effectiveness. His sermons, retreats, quiet day and mission ad dresses were full of his rich personality. His spirit was full of God and by deed and word he revealed God to all. For three successive terms of two years each the clergy and laity of San Francisco paid him the unique honor of nominating him their dean. He was for years a member of the Standing Committee and an examining chaplain. He was the chaplain of the Order of Sisters of the Good Shepherd, and of the Home for Aged Women. Although less than fifty years of age, he has left an indelible impress upon the life of the Church in this diocese, so that his name will be mentioned in its history with those of Bishop Kip, who ordained him, Dr. Lathrop, the pastor of his youth, and the other found ers and makers of real Christianity on this COaSt.

The Churchman

ANILLUSTRATED WEEKLYNEWS MAGAZINE.

Entered at the Post-Office in New York as Sec

ond Class Mail Matter. SUBSCRIPTION RATES:

52 numbers (a year) in advance $3.50; or after 30 days $4.00; to clergymen, in advance, $3,00; single copies, ten cents. The Domestic Postage on this copy of THE CHURCHMAN if remailed is 2 cents. The Foreign postage is 3 cents. For the convenience of subscribers subscriptions are continued unless otherwise ordered on expira

tion. The Churchman Co., New York.

NOTICES.

Marriage notices, one dollar. Simple death notices free; additional matter, thirty cents a line. Obituary notices, complimentary resolu tions, appeals, acknowledgments, and other simi lar matter, Thirty Cents a Line, nonpareil, or Four Cents a Word, prepaid. No advertisement inserted for less than $1 net.

Advertisements under Appeals, Situations, etc., should be accompanied by satisfactory reſer ences.

Died.

ARNOLD.—on Wednesday, Jan. 28, 1903, Hicks Arnold.

BAIRD.—Entered into rest. On Jan. 27, 190% º’ her home in Philadelphia, Matilda E. Baird, widow of John Baird, in the 73d year of her *

BANFIELD.—on Monday, Jan. 25.1% ºf S. Mary’s Hospital for Children, New York, Emm. Augusta Banfield, Associate of the Sisters Of Saint Mary. “Eternal rest grant unto her, O Lord.”

BIELBY.–Entered into rest. On Jan. *.*. at Åſtºy, N. Y. the Rev. William Foster Bielby, in the 50th year of his age.

cAse-Entered into rest. On Dec., 1*.* at hº je “in New Brunswick, N. ; Mary B. Deshler, widow of Robert C. Case, in the 78th year of her age. She was for . years a devout communicant and a faithfu worker in Christ church parish. —

“Her children rise up and call her blessed. ht

“fºrmal”ºst grant “her o Lord, and let l’É perpetual shine upon her.’’

DAW.—Entered into rest. On Friday º: Jan 33, 1903, at Brooklyn, N. Y., J. º: father of the Rev. W. E. Daw, in his 84th . l Heaven, the heart’s true home, will “” ast.”

ENGLAND.—Entered into rest…?…”. Jan. 26, 1903, at her residence in H. £º Mary E., wife of the late Joseph Towns” land.

“Grant her, O Lord, eternal rest, and let light perpetual shine upon her.”

ForstER—Entered into life eter*…”. º:

evening of Jan. 29, 1903, from the rºsiº.

her sister. Mrs. Lewis B. Bailey; St. #”. it. Mrs. Virginia H. Forster, daughter of the

Julia and Alexander Hamilton. …,

“Peace, perfect peace.

– Jan. 15. ”

Conn., months.

HODGE.-At Roxbury, 79 years and 4

Jane Wells Hodge, aged At the

LEwis—on wednesday, Jan. *.*. iá, reºry. Ashtabula Harbor. 9:…ºf jº. Dorothy, the five-year-old daughter 0 and Mrs. William H. G. Lewis. At rest.

The Haram area from the side of the Tower of Antonia.

D is cover i e s – and Prospects of D is cover i e s

in Pales t in e

By the Rev er end John P. Peters, D. D.

Jerusalem, looking south from the top of the Damascus Gate, the Dome of the Rock in the distance.

l. Jerusalem–Topography and Tombs

T is not my purpose to give a complete account of discoveries in Palestine, but merely a resume of results, with special notice of a few of the more im portant and more recent discoveries. For the purpose of convenience, I shall discuss in the present and following paper only Jerusalem and its environs, and later, Palestine outside of Jerusalem. Very little excavating has been done at Jerusalem, but as a result of what has been done, and especially of the excavations of Warren and Bliss in the years 1867-70 and 1894-97 respectively, we now have a fair knowledge of the topography of the ancient city. The present city within the walls occupies the northern part of the space occupied by Jerusalem at the time of Christ, and something more. The southern half of the ancient Jerusalem lies without the walls of the present city. On the east, south and west sides we now know the position of the walls at almost all periods of the city’s existence, exactly or approximately. The course of the various walls on the north side of the city, however, has not yet been determined with any certainty. Within the city the site of the ancient temple and its enclosure has been fixed with a fair degree of accuracy. The temple stood on the highest part of the eastern hill. This hill was in those days almost isolated. On its west side lay the deep Tyropoeon Valley and on the east the still deeper valley of the Brook Kidron, while to the north of the temple enclosure was a ravine which almost cut the hill in two. It was a place of great natural strength. The western hill, commonly called Zion, although higher than the temple hill, was not quite so strong by nature. This had the Tyropoeon valley on the east and the Valley of Hinnom on the south and west, while to the north, from a point near the modern Jaffa Gate, a lesser valley or ravine ran down to the Tyropoeon. These ravines and valleys are to-day filled, to a considerable depth, with an immense mass of debris, and are in some places quite unrecog nizable as valleys. To reach the natural rock at the foundations of the north eastern tower of the temple enclosure, Warren was obliged to descend through debris to a depth of 125 feet. His excavations to determine the lines of the walls of the temple area were conducted for the most part by galleries, one of them 600 feet in length, far below the surface of the ground. It will be seen

characters. This mosaic may belong

to the heathen period. It is in the court yard of a Jewish house. The Im perial government ordered that it should be taken up and sent to Con stantinople, but provided no funds for the purpose. The consequence is that it has never been removed, the Jew has never been allowed to build over it, and it is now at the bottom of a hole, covered with a mass of rubbish, await ing, apparently, inevitable destruction, Not far from this, in a house occupied by a Turk, is a fine mosaic in an ad mirable state of preservation, repre senting a vine with grape clusters, and among the branches peacocks, ducks, storks, a parrot in a cage, and many other birds. An Armenian inscription shows that it belonged to a mortuary chapel. It dates from the Byzantine period. More commonly excavations for new buildings in this region result in the discovery of tombs. Last Summer a German Roman Catholic order, which is about to build, a little to the north of the Damascus Gate, a hospice for German pilgrims, laid bare an ancient

Horse Market on Friday morning in the Birket es-Sultan, in the Valley of Hinnom. crypt. In the floor of this were some

from this that the work of excavating at Jerusalem is one of great physical difficulty. This difficulty is enhanced by the fanaticism of the people and by the numerous sacred places, tombs and graves, which may not be touched. Moreover, a con siderable part of ancient Jerusalem lies beneath the streets and houses of the modern city. Modern Jerusalem is growing rapidly, owing to the influx of Jews. It has spread particularly toward the north and west. Within the last few years the upper part of the Valley of Hinnom has been completely filled in, and it seems likely that the same fate will shortly befall all that part of the valley lying westward of the ancient city. There is, at the present moment, probably, as large a population outside the walls as there is within. This population has not yet spread, to any consider able extent, southward, and a large part of the ancient city within the walls, on the southern slopes of the old hills of Zion and Ophel, is still uninhabited. But there are signs of a movement in this direction also. Across the deep Valley of Hinnom southward, quite a settlement is de veloping, while monasteries, chapels and the like are springing up in the valley itself. The an cient charnel vault of Aceldama on the south side of the valley has been partly, at least, in cluded within a new convent, together with sev eral other rock-cut tombs in that immediate neighborhood. Last summer I found some na tives digging out and turning into a dwelling a rock-cut tomb somewhat further up the valley, belonging to the interesting group containing the tomb of the Abbess Thecla. It was curious to see, above the home of these poor peasants, the ancient inscription, “Memorial of the Holy Zion,” proof that their house was once a tomb belonging to the Christian Church on the op posite hill of Zion. However, this is a better use than that to which the tombs of this group were put some thirty years ago by the Turkish authorities in Jerusalem, namely, public shambles. The extension of buildings to the north of the city has resulted in a number of discoveries of some interest. In the grounds of the large Russian hospice, surrounded by a railing to pre serve it from injury, lies an immense column, forty feet or thereabouts in length and six feet or more in diameter, cut out of the rock, but never detached. This monolith belongs prob ably to the time of Herod’s rebuilding and adornment of the city. After it had been cut out, a flaw was found in the rock, which caused its abandonment. Two other similar-unfinished columns have been found. More interesting from the artistic standpoint are two mosaics which were unearthed not far from the Damascus Gate. One of these, said to be very beautiful, “represents Orpheus, life size, playing upon his harp, surrounded by several animals, all in beautiful colors and graceful attitudes.” At the corners are heads of Athene and Zeus. Below are figures of women with the legends *Theodosia” and “Georgia,” written in Greek

200 graves, side by side, separated Only by narrow walls of masonry, each covered with a flat stone which formed the pavement of the crypt itself. In each grave there were from three to ten bodies. The coins and other ob. jects found in these graves show that the earliest burials go back to the fifth century A.D. After the graves were filled up, the crypt itself was used for burial, the bodies being simply laid upon the flagstones. In one corner there was a pile of human remains rising to a height of eight feet or thereabouts. From the coins and other objects found, it would appear that the last burials in this crypt belong to the close of the crusading or the beginning of the Saracenic period. It would seem to have been originally a burial place for pilgrims dying at Jerusalem, similar in general character to the Aceldama charnel Vault in the Valley of Hinnom.

ordon’s Tomb.

Looking down the Valley of Hinnom from before the Jaffa Gate.

In front of this crypt were found the foundations of a large marked a rock-cut grave. Apparently we have in this one spot stepped monument of beautiful masonry. This was evidently burials commencing in the Hebrew times and continuing until much older than the crypt, and must have been destroyed be the overthrow of the Crusaders. fore the crypt was built. This monument again partly sur- A little further away from the Damascus Gate lies the so rounded a more ancient rude monolith of great size, which called Gordon’s tomb, that is, the tomb suggested by General

Jeremiah’s Grotto. Hill outside of Damascus Gate, supposed by Gordon * * * * Golgotha.

Gordon as that of Joseph” where Jesus

– – – – – –

Rock-cut Tombs in Valley of Hinnom. Tomb of Thecla at head of step S.

After Gordon’s property was

…it by an Elº”. ciety, and the tomb is now shown as the tomb of Jesus. … original tomb. . sibly have been Jewish, but iſ so it was made.” and ised again in the By” period. Later still it was incorporated in the ſlallerit jonging to a hosp”. which stood hereabouts, and the trough in front of it, which is now shown as the trough in which the rolling stone moved, is in reality a manger for donkeys. Just beyond this again lies the fine new Dominican convent of St. Etienne. In excavating for the founda. tions of this building, the fathers found a number of early Christian tombs and the foundations of t w 0 churches, one above the other, the latter and smaller of the crusading period, the earlier and finer structure of the fifth Christian Cen: tury. The mosaic floor of this latter building was in large part preserved, and now forms the floor of a new Church of St. Stephen, built on the ancient site and model. This ancient church was pretty clearly the church erected in honor of St. Stephen by the unhappy Empress Eudocia in the fifth century A.D., and We have here the site of the stoning of St. Stephen, ac cording to the tradition of that time. If one follows the Damascus road a little fur ther to the north, one comes to the English college and Church of St. Stephen, the bishop’s church. The exca. vations for this building and for the cisterns, which are necessary in every Jerusalem house, have laid bare a number of tombs, some of them going back to the Roman period. The most interesting and cur. ious tomb at this point was one decorated with a painted fresco, something very unusual in Palestine, belonging to the late heathen period, perhaps the third century A.D. The English College of St. Stephen stands close to the “Tombs of the Kings.” the most famous and in many ways the most inter esting tomb about Jeru: salem. This is now general. ly supposed to have been the tomb of Helena of Adiabene and her $0″ Izates, proselytes to Juda. ism at about the time ºf Christ. Travellers visiting this tomb are always intº ested in examining the * rangement for the rolling stone, although the stone it. self is missing. Few set” to be aware that there ** perfect specimen of the rolling stone still in exist ence in another tomb ” about the same period. ‘ moſt opposite the Jaffa

Arimathea, WaS laid. death this

– *

º º-ºº:

Village of Silwan (ancient Siloam), the houses of which are largely made out of or built on or over old Tombs.

Gate, across the valley of Hinnom. This tomb lies in the property of the Greek Convent of the Holy Sepulchre. There are still in it a couple of Jewish sarcophagi, and at the outer door is a rolling stone, perfect and in place, about

six feet in diameter and resembling a huge millstone. One curious feature of this tomb, un

noticed by previous observers, is the preparation of the walls to receive Paintings. The cracks and flaws in the stone have been carefully filled up, after a fashion practised only where it was intended to decorate the stone With paintings, but the paintings them. selves were never executed. This is only one of several indications of the incomplete state of the tomb. Close to this tomb are the remains of the foundations of a great monu ment, resembling that already de scribed north of the Damascus Gate, From the descriptions of Josephus we know that there were a number of such monuments about Jerusalem in his time, and that in this immediate neighborhood there was such a monu ment erected by Herod, of which this is presumably the foundation. But of tombs about Jerusalem there * no end. Some of the most interest. ing lie in the village of Silvan, the an tient Siloam, across the walley of the Kºron, opposite the lower end of the hill of Ophel. This village is a singu larly picturesque and a singularly *alid one. Many, if not most of the houses, consist of or are built about *kcut tombs. The general opinion of *holars is that the most ancient “mbs of Jerusalem, those which go back to the early Hebrew period, are Prºbably to be found at the base of the * at this point. Up to the present “me, however, only a few insignificant “races of ancient Hebrew inscriptions * been found in connection with * graves. Northward of silvan **lopes of the hills on both sides of * Valley of Kidron are covered with “ºrn Moslem and Jewish graves, * Moslems and Jews counting Jerusalem as a sacred city, and con *ing this valley, sometimes called the Walley of Jehoshaphat, with the ºnal Judgment. In the midst of these

graves, at the foot of the Mount of Olives, is a singular series of rock-cut tombs, a striking feature in the landscape, most conspicuous of which is the well-known monument called the “Pillar of Absalom.” The lower part of this tomb is cut out of the rock, but a curious little cupola has been added on the sum

Absalom’s Pillar, in Valley of Kidron.

(24) March 14, 1903

360

mit. In its present form it may belong to the beginning of the fourth Christian century, but the original tomb was evi dently much earlier. It is almost filled up to-day with stones thrown in by Jews, who accept the tradition that it is the “Pillar of Absalom,” and as they pass throw a stone at or into it as an indication of their hate and scorn. Another curious instance of the accept

ance by the Jews of later Christian tradi tion in connection with tombs occurs on the Mount of Olives. Here is an interest.

ing series of circular rock-cut catacombs, now in possession of the Russians. In Scriptions found in these catacombs prove that they belonged to a Christian associa tion of the fifth and following centuries,

the object of which was to give reverent

burial to its members who might die in

pilgrimage at Jerusalem. The Crusaders

gave to these catacombs the title “Tombs

of the Prophets.” Accepting the name as

evidence of the fact, the Jews of to-day hold them in reverence and thus actually

make their devotions at the graves of Christians. Like the Valley of Hinnom, the Valley of

the Kidron is lined throughout its entire

length on both sides with tombs. At its extreme northwestern limit is an interest ing group of tombs of the Hasmonaean period, prominent among which is the so called “Tombs of the Judges,” which mod ern Jews reverence as graves of the Sanhedrim. At this point one is a mile or more away from the walls of Jerusalem, in the barren stone fields of the Judaean mountains. Habitations have been left a considerable distance behind, but tombs still continue. Indeed, every ravine and all the hillsides for a long distance abouf Jerusalem are honeycombed with rock-cut tombs of all sorts and all ages, many of them used over and over again at differ. ent periods and modified accordingly, and all, or almost all, rifled in antiquity.

(The pictures for these articles are mainly from photographs taken by the author, supplemented by views procured from “Bonfils” and “The American Colony.” The picture of “Gordon’s Tomb” in this article is from a photo graph taken by the Rev. Mr. Hanauer of Jerusalem.)

(To be continued.)

The Tablet makes this contribution to the ana gathering around the late Archbishop of Canterbury. A Church woman, according to this Roman Catholic journal, wrote to his Grace asking a state ment of his opinion in regard to the adoration of the consecrated elements. “Will your Grace,” she wrote, “kindly tell me, a member of the Anglican Church, if, after the consecration at the Holy Euchar ist, I may worship the Host as God? I am in doubt and great trouble respecting the true teaching of the Church, and to set tle my doubt I appeal to your Grace, being the head of the Church, to help me. If the bread and wine remain bread and wine, as the rubric at the end of the ser vice says, why do I receive it fasting? The Article says it must not be worshipped; yet, if it is God, why not?” The archbish– op’s reply was absolutely decisive. He said: “The bread used in the Holy Com munion is certainly not God, either before consecration or after. And you must not worship it.” The true inwardness of the question appears in a triumphant aside of The Tablet. The “Churchwoman” showed herself a Protestant at heart, and married

a Romanist.

The Churchmaſ”

Calendar for March.

15. Third Sunday in *.

22. Fourth Sunday in Leº.

25. Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Fifth Sunday in Lent.

—-TTT

29,

– – * Matter a Spiritual Fact.

HE Incarnation is the announ”

ment that Spirit is the ultimate

reality of matter. Matter is the expression, the organ, the body of Spirit. It is a spiritual crea’ tion, a spiritual fact. That is its glory. Spirit possesses it; inhabits it; sustains it; fulfils it; transfigures it. In touching it, you touch Spirit. In seeing it, you see Spirit. In understanding it, you under stand Spirit. In uniting with it, you are united to Spirit. In loving it, you love Spirit. Christianity looks out on the entire sum of facts, in all the reality with which they enter into our vital experiences. It sees the solid earth in its undeniable activity. It sees humanity in its unmis takable flesh and blood. It sees a vast physical universe spreading away into il limitable regions of space and time, mov ing under inexorable laws, held together into a single ordered mass, by the stress of co-ordinated forces. All this it sees, it accepts. It denies nothing, it refuses noth ing. Whatever a valid experience rati fies, this is, for it, real. Only, in every particle of the reality, it recognizes the evidence of the Spirit which has made it what it is. Spirit is asserting itself through the outward fact. Spirit verifies its own validity through the very antithe sis with which the material supplies it. Spirit works in its own freedom through the very instrumentality which it creates. It may limit itself by reducing itself to this or that external form, but it never loses itself. It never suffers obscuration or deterioration, because it consents to work under limitation. It utilizes the limitation to intensify its own ideal pur. Dose. It is not less spiritual because it works through the material; for the ma terial is not alien to it, not obstructive, not a perverse, foreign substance to be forcibly subdued; but it is Spirit’s own: issuing from its own will; conceived for its own purpose; fused and identified with its own mind;… congenial, effectual, correspondent, responsive, loyal. Matter is unintelligible except as the vehicle and organ of Spirit. Hence, however partial in its limited significance, it is, as far as it goes, perfectly adequate to that degree of spiritual meaning for which and by which it exists. Spiritual expression, Spiritual manifestation, need suffer no damage or degradation—need lose no whit of reality, by transmission through ma terial mediation. This is how and why it was possible for the Word to become flesh. This is how and why, in the flesh, we could see the glory as of the only son of God, full charged with grace and truth. This is how and why the Word of God who is in the bosom of God, could make to us the absolute revelation through His humanity: so that he who hath seen Him hath seen the Father. This is our normal creed in the In carnation; and it arrives at this, its nor. mal and natural consummation, because it runs back to the yet earlier creed in creation. It springs out of this primal and instinctive faith in a God who delights in

* Extracts from an introduction b C Scott Holland to M. Carta sº *. Truth and Error of Christian Science.”

of His force and in creation; who – I – finds His :… in ºr

jºi.” º created for His joy the th

material hea ” They are shot

ere very good. §º and through by His º: They sing of His majesty and power,

– – hey em are the garment of * º: º body His purpose. T in made them spiritual forces. He h given st for ever and ever; He hath #1 º º’s which shall not be broken,” º and hail, snow and V*. º and is Word. For He storm, fulfilling His r de; He spake the word and they were made tº hey were created. commanded and th9) – praise the Lord upon earth. Yº dragons and all deeps. Young men and maidens, j men and children; praise ye the ma” of the Lord.” How is it conceivable for any one whº has once assimilated this superb gospel Of creation, to be tangled ever again in that ancient and arid dilemma, which bids is choose between Spirit and matter as be: tween rival contradictions? How can such a choice be rationally proposed? The two are not alternatives. They cannot be brought together on the same platform. They express different levels of existence, The sole problem that they suggest is the problem of their correlation and co-ordina. tion. They are antithetical, no doubt; but life always expresses itself through anti theses. What would it mean to be told that you could not love your friend if you loved his voice or his face—that you must choose between him himself and his bodily expression of himself? For you, such a proposal is childish and absurd. That which you love in the sound of his voice, in the sight of his face, is himself. This is what he shows himself to be. He may be more than that. Quite true. That is where the infinitude of Spirit reveals itself. But this infinitude itself is the Se. cret that makes itself felt in the finite Or. ganization through which it is revealed. That is the very charm of voice and ges. ture and act—that they carry and convey something of what is beyond. It comes to light in them, they are filled with it. And that is why we pray that it be granted us to move “from glory to glory in the face of Jesus Christ.” The face of Jesus Christ holds in it the Infinitude of God. But it may be well to go behind our Christian ease in front of the contradic. tion which others find so bewildering, and to ask for some explanation of this ease of ours. Why are we so free from intel. lectual trouble, in face of the material World? How is it that the outward, the concrete, the material, far from seeming to us a difficulty that obstructs spiritual reality, is, rather, the natural issue of Spirit, which we instinctively expect and Welcome? It is, I think, because we regard the reality of Spirit, not so much as “Mind” as “Intelligent Will.” Mind, Reason, Thought—these are ab: stract terms, and they are used in order to detach the intellectual element in life from its invariable correlative, energy. As so abstracted, its mode of operation lies in detaching laws and principles. It flings away the multiplicity of the par. ticular, in order to extract the unity of the formative conception. It looks through the outward manifestations to the inward law. Hence, for it, the concrete and the external are the husk to be cast off in of der that the kernel may be exposed. But for Will, it is entirely the reverse. Will realizes itself in act. It needs and desires concrete realization. It glories” the release of its energy through an * ternal assertion of its purpose. It deligh”

(Continued on page 366.)

Summer Clerical Clothing.

WE ARE ALWAYS GLAD to answer any correspond. ence regarding c or rect styles, materials or prices in the matter of clothing for clergymen. Our Catalogue and Price List of Clerical clothing and Vestments, together with samples of goods and directions for meas. urements, sent upon request.

PRIEST CLOTH su HTINGs.

Imported tropical weight goods, strong and ‘…l. *:::::iii. adapted for clerical mid-summer wear. To order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . s25 00

SERGE SACK SUITs. Ready Made. Ordinary sack coat, roll collar, round corners, skeleton Fº or lined º: with clerical or layman’s West and trousers. … y $15.00 to $20,00 Cassock vest, $1.00 additional.

GLORIA SILK CASSOCKS,

Anglican or Latin, skeleton (no lining what: ever), a perfect summer vestment, cool and comfortable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $18.00

A discount of 10% to clergymen.

Browning King 5.G

Cooper SQUARE. W., New York (Nearly opposite Cooper Union)

unopened. There were several advertise ments, two or three cards to teas, and a letter with an European postmark of Florence, Italy. It was from a dear old friend, Teresa Matthews, who had at tained some reputation abroad as an artist and occupied quite a prominent po sition in the winter society of Florence.

“Do you remember,” Miss Matthews wrote, “when you were last here, how we planned the next summer to make a tour together of the cathedral towns of France, and how I fell ill and the trip had to be abandoned? I am really in most robust health this spring and most anxious to undertake it. I am sure you have noth ing special to keep you in America this Summer, so why not take a steamer early in July for Havre and I will meet you there and we can travel together until November, when I must be back in Flor ence.” She then went on in a pleasant journalistic fashion to tell of the doings of numerous mutual friends.

Lavinia remained for a long time in thought after she had finished reading it. It all sounded very delightful, and she Was Very fond of Teresa. She went to her desk, where a few weeks before she had written out all her plans for Sweet briar Farm, took out a sheet of foolscap paper, drew a black line down the mid dle and put on one side of the line “pros” and on the other side “cons” as to why She should continue and why she should not continue her summer work. She went OVer carefully all her conversations with Mrs. Crutwell and Miss Arnold, consult ing her note-book, and finally made out a paper for her own satisfaction, similar to the following:

Complexion Bad, Liver Torpid, Appetite Poor Horsford’s Acid Phosphate clears the Complexion by restoring stomach, liver

and bowels to health. A strengthening

Tonic for mental, nervous or physical Weakness. y pny

tact usive evau of Rs of

Eleclºic and Tubular Pneumalic organs Austin Universii Airchest System

Peecret, ve tº ook J. in be sent on eppº ce” or

Notes for old maids contemplating Opening temporary vacation homes for mothers and infants.

I. Mother’s milk, the milk of loving kindness. Country cows of good stock are not good enough; you must have Walker Gordon Milk, chiefly obtainable in large cities, and you must overcome the diffi culty, if you live in the hill country, of its arriving at its destination in the shape of cheese. II. You must boil all the baby’s play things once a day for fear of germs, and before it goes out to play in the yard or to ride on the trolley car. III. Cradles are absolutely unhygienic. IV. You must always bathe a baby with most awful attention to the ther mometer, as one degree more or less might prove fatal. W. You must never hug or kiss it at any time, for fear of microbes or the in juring of its character. VI. The ancient myths of Santa Claus and all fairy tales are most injurious to mental development. Stories of pure fact should be substituted, such as “How little Tommy made money, and skinned a cent to make it two.” VII. Most important of all, mother in stinct is very pernicious and at times dangerous, as we should always be gov erned by science. Deduction: If mother instinct is dan gerous, old maid instinct must have the effect of dynamite. There is more logic than hitherto sup posed in the association of the maiden lady with poodles, parrots, canary birds and cats. Advice gratis to maidem ladies in general: “Stick to poodles.” Final resolutions: I will loan Sweetbriar Farm to the Sisters of the Community of St. Law rence on the Gridiron, for their poor, and give them money to run it during the summer. I will write Miss Arnold her services will not be needed. I will Write Teresa Matthews that I will sail for France by the first steamer sailing in July.

Lavinia was very happy when she came to this conclusion, and the Sisters of St. Lawrence were joyous over their summer at Sweetbriar Farm, and the mothers and babies and small children were joyous over it, too. So Lavinia did not feel her first experiment to be altogether a failure.

She spent the summer wandering into the most unhygienic, unsanitary and de lightful places in old French cities, later in the autumn went to Lombardy and visited lovely old towns in the lake region, and finally settled down for the winter in Florence with Miss Matthews, in a very quaint palazzo in the oldest corner of the City of Flowers, the drainage of which, or rather the lack of it, would have driven Mrs. Crutwell mad.

Coming home in the spring, on board the steamer just as it was sailing she met her dear old family physician, Dr. Morton, who had retired from practice several years before, and who had been living for a year with his daughter, Baroness LeJeurne. He had been a friend of her mother’s and, in fact, had helped herself and several small Colbys into the world, to say nothing of endless other children in Peterstown, now grown up and having children of their own. La vinia confided to him her entire scheme of Sweetbriar Farm, and of how she had been discouraged and bewildered by her own ignorance and the wisdom of Mrs. Crutwell and Miss Arnold. He listened patiently. He once said “Hum!” and ended at last by saying something that sounded very much like “Rot.” It must be frankly admitted, however, he did not

like Mrs. Crutwell. He had been her doc tor and had later declined the honor. He Said she might not believe generally in mother instinct but she certainly thought she knew more than any doctor who had ever taken a degree. Lavinia and Dr. Morton had quite long conversations dur ing the voyage on the proper methods of conducting Sweetbriar Farm, and the re sult was that the old doctor in his retired years took a very active interest in its welfare. He recommended a motherly woman who had had some training as a nurse for matron and during the follow ing summer it became an assured success. It has now become quite a settlement, including three cottages besides a house that is open all the year round, where old Maria is spending a peaceful old age, and her “young lady,” as she still calls Lavinia, no longer belongs to the ranks of the unemployed rich.

THE CHOIR.

Several months ago a chime of bells was offered by Mr. Thomas Kaye, and his son, the Rev. J. W. Kaye, to the Rev. Edgar Cope, rector, for the Church of St. Simeon, Philadelphia, Penn. The donors a C quiesced in the suggestion to give the bells on condition that the tower of the church should be increased in height twenty-five feet—and that the cost should be provided by the people before the bells were used—and that some urgent repairs should be made to the church property. The congregation vigorously be gan to raise the $4,500 necessary—more than 2,600 people gave to this fund—and on the day the bells were ready to be used the entire fund was completed many people leaving money during the day at the rector’s door.

Short end of the stick

I actually honestly think shorts aren’t bad in and of themselves, if worn within reason. If worn to do things like playing football, running, hunting and volleyball then that’s reasonable. Like tights, they’re fine when worn under skirts.

They’re also fine for some sports. It’s not necessarily wrong to wear shorts in public. But on the condition of having any practical use for those. Something like running, hunting and soccer/football as doing these with long skirts would be cumbersome.

Those may be the only times shorts are excusable. But that would involve having to think really.

The Christian Observer, Volume 42 (Google Books)

REPLY TO TWO RUBRICAL QUERIES.
For the Christian Observer.

We will reply to two queries propounded to us upon the introductory remarks of our review of Irish Episcopal Charges in our Number for October. We said, “In England most persons stand during the reading of the Gospel; in Ireland sitting is very general. The Reformers, says Bishop Fleetwood, found the custom of standing, and left it as they found it; not thinking it necessary to make a Rubric on the subject.” We are hereupon asked why we are to stand at the Gospel, o our Reformers said nothing about it. The obvious reply is, that what custom had kept up, a rubric was inserted, at the last revision of the Prayer-book, to enjoin. How Bishop Fleetwood came to overlook this Rubric, we cannot tell; but even to this hour some clergymen might be supposed never to have read the Rubrics after the Nicene Creed, (where this stands) as they do not use the formula there prescribed for announcing the Epistle and Gospel. Bishop Fleetwood, in the letter referred to, was remonstrating against the practice of standing at the second lesson, when taken from the Gospels, which a Sacheverellite curate had urged at the church of St. Andrew’s, Holborn, the parish in which the Bishop of Ely’s London residence was situated. The Bishop says that “neither the man nor the gesture itself, considered singly, is worth the taking any pains about; but the spirit of imposing is troublesome and mischievous, and ought to be carefully wo against.” He therefore advises his fellow-parishioners not to follow “new-fangled whimsies” and “oddnesses,” and to remember that “the Rubric is the rule and law both to the governors and the governed.” The Epistles, he said, were as much the word of God, and to be reverenced, as the Gospels. A prudent man, however, he adds, would not offend against a custom which is not evil; he would therefore stand up at the Gospel in the Communion-service, though he would not in the second lesson. But he forgot that besides the custom, othere was a Rubric, which he had just said is “the rule and law.” The other point was, that we said the clergy in Ireland have retained the weekly offertory from pew to pew; but not according to the Rubrical direction, (that is, while the sentences before the prayer for the church militant are being read) but before the sermon; and we are told that this is proper, and that the sentences ought to be used only when there is the administration of the Sacrament; and that these usual collections are not properly the Offertory. Bishop Andrews, we understand, has been quoted in the Times newspaper, to prove that there ought never to be a gathering except when there is “the sacrifice” of the Lord’s Supper. We will not open up a question which has caused much strife to little purpose; but we will quote, from Dean Comber’s Companion to the Temple, a few lines which bear upon the point. The Dean says, (Part iii. sect. 6,) “The first and most natural act of charity, is to relieve the wants of the necessitous with something which we can spare; and this the Apostle adviseth us to do every Lord’s day, 1 Cor. xvi. 1; and by his authority our Church invites us to give alms so often, whether there be a communion or no.” But, adds he, “This apostolical and excellent custom of weekly collections is now generally, to the grief of all good Christians, omitted and wholly laid aside.” He was writing in the days of Charles the Second; so that more than a century and a half ago (if not long before) the custom had ceased in England; but it has been kept up in Ireland ; the difference being perhaps traceable to there being parochial rates for the relief of the poor in England, but not, till lately, in Ireland. The re-introduction of weekly collections in England, is a novelty; and the collecting them after the sermon, with the reading” of the Offertory sentences, would be a novelty in Ireland; and to both cases, therefore, the Archbishop of Canterbury’s oft-quoted prudent suggestion seems to apply; at least in the present unsettled and suspicious state of men’s minds.

We always feel it irksome to consume time upon ritual questions, when the weighty matters of God’s law demand our best energies; but the present course of events seems to make this a part of our duties; and even our Right Reverend Fathers cannot escape from this grievous, and we might say humiliating, burden. It is afflicting, while souls are perishing for lack of knowledge, and there is all the good land of God’s word and promises to be possessed in its length and breadth, that so much time and thought are now-a-days consumed in discussions which bring neither food to the mind nor benefit to the heart. Yet as all things in the Christian church are required to be done “decently and in order;” if men will raise strifes about what is decent and orderly, the discussion cannot always be forgone. May God, in his wisdom and mercy, overrule it for higher purposes.

[ocr errors]
ARCHBISHOP BANCROFT ON CLERICAL COSTUME.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

IN your Number for November, p. 643, there was a strange extract from some Tractarian writer, who ridicules what he calls the “Orthodox brethren” on account of their “comfortable livings,” “snug private fortunes,” “exemplary dinners,” “roomy chariots with fat wives, fat horses, and fat coachmen;” but especially because “the species delights in the rustle of silk gowns with huge pudding sleeves.” I wonder not that the Tractarians are displeased at the “orthodox brethren,” or, as one of their writers in the Times is pleased to call them, “the high-anddry clergy;” for Tillotsonians and Laudites never coalesced; and recent events at Oxford and elsewhere have not cast oil upon the troubled waters. But as for clerical foppery in costume, it is an old subject of complaint; and far from being a characteristic of the Anglican clergy of any class, in the present day, no body of men probably, in any age, have been less obnoxious to the charge. Such satirical censures are calculated to inflict unmerited obloquy upon the Anglican Church. I will transcribe a passage from a letter of Archbishop Bancroft’s, written in 1610, which will shew what was the state of things in the reign of James the First. “There have been many constitutions formerly made concerning the apparel of ministers, but never was their pride in that respect so great as now it is, from the

Dean to every Curate ; nothing being left that way to distinguish a Bishop from any of them. You shall find Deans usually either in their velvet damask, or satin cas

* We say “reading,” not singing. the clerks do sing the Offertory, so many

Our Gregorian chanters, who, as the Bishop of London intimated, in his Charge, neither sing nor read, will do well to remember that the words in the Rubric of King Edward’s first Prayerbook were, “In the mean time, while

as are disposed shall offer to the poor man’s box, according to his ability and charitable mind ;” but that the word singing was intentionally altered to reading : “Whilst these sentences are ‘in reading.’”

socks, with their silk nether-stocks ; nay some Archdeacons and inferior ministers, having two benefices, are likewise for the most part so attired ; to omit that their wives, in the cost and vanity of their apparel, do exceed as much and more, which is one principal motive why there is such exclamation against double-beneficed men, and such as beside their two benefices have some other preferment ‘sine cura.” What to move your Lordship in this behalf, I well know not, but as any so attired shall come before you, let him know particularly, and in my name, that they do greatly forget themselves in these so chargeable vanities, many of them having more care, to their own scorn, so to garnish themselves and their wives, than to furnish their studies with such books as might enable them the better to discharge their duties, as well for the confirmation of the truth, as for the refuting of all their opposites and adversaries. Assuredly if at our next session your Lordship, and so the rest of my brethren, shall not be able to inform me, that upon this my letter and admonition there is some hope, that these abuses will be redressed, I will be a humble suitor unto his Majesty, that some straight order, by his direction, may be taken in that behalf, for that this so chargeable vanity should not be still continued ; whilst many other men endure great want, it is very intolerable ; seeing that by such their bravery in apparel, they do procure no manner of credit unto themselves, but rather upon my knowledge, great envy and heart-burning against their calling and estates. hese and some other abuses being oft objected unto me, do oftentimes plunge me, as being always ready to cover and excuse our imperfections of the clergy; but I must be forced to leave them, if they will not be content to be advised by me.”

Sumptuary laws are usually the most absurd and impotent of all enactments; and in the present age the dress of the clergy, both private and professional, is for the most part plain and decent; and as for walking the streets in cassocks, and visiting cottages in surplices, as the Tractarians propose, it would not tend either to godliness or decorum.

[ocr errors]
REMINISCENCES OF A SERMON OF BISHOP JEBB’S.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

I kNow that you are pleased with short letters, and, therefore, I hope by my brevity to render my communication so far acceptable to you. . I have lived long enough to remember the first announcement of the Christian Observer, and I shall never forget the delight with which its early Numbers were read by myself and friends. It has been a valuable guide to me through many a difficulty for forty years, and therefore you will not be surprised that I welcome its monthly appearance as the visit of an old friend. About thirty years ago your publication directed my attention to some Sermons published by Mr. Jebb, afterwards Bishop of Limerick ; and more especially to an Appendix, in which great learning was displayed, and much labour employed, in an endeavour to establish the famous formula of Vincentius as our proper rule of faith. Now it has been interesting to me—and I hope not without its use—on recently referring to the work, to find my pencil remarks still legible, and sufficiently numerous to enable me to call up the impressions made upon me by a most thoughtful consideration of the various arguments brought forward. With respect to the Sermons, I find written on the blank leaf of them this remark, “There is in this volume much Scriptural truth, but the medium through which it is presented to ordinary minds is too much rarified for a distinct vision of it.” Now, Sir, I apprehend that some others as well as myself fancied we then saw far more Scriptural truth in them than we could now find, and that the experience of thirty years has taught us that even grievous errors may be concealed under ambiguous phraseology.

But my object in addressing you has respect rather to the Bishop’s Appendix than to his Sermons. At the time referred to, from the habit of my mind, and probably my Cambridge training, I had a delight in grappling with a difficult question; and “dies noctesque” did I spend in my endeavours to master this. I have had no reason, on the whole, to regret this propensity, though I fear it may have occasionally caused some loss of time. One good effect has been, that I am far more patient under difficulties than I was formerly, provided that they are the difficulties of Scripture, and not of man’s creating. Those connected with a subject brought forward in Mr. Jebb’s Appendix are of the latter description, as are also the greater part of those which have been revived in our Church in the present day; and though “non eadem est aetas, non mens,” I cannot forbear indulging now and then my “ruling passion,” by labouring hard to find the bottom of a subject, if it has one. I cannot say that I have entered fully into all the details of the controversy now pending, though I have read a good deal of what has been written on both sides of the question. My attention has been directed more particularly to some of the master principles at work; and I have thought much on that fundamental one of the whole system, the rule of faith put forth by Vincentius, and so ably, though unsuccessfully according to my judgment, advocated by Mr. Jebb.

But I promised to be brief, and therefore I will at once transcribe the remark which I made upon his Appendix nearly thirty years ago; only premising that the events of the last ten years have quite confirmed me in the opinion then given, and which I had never any reason to distrust before that time. “There is in this Appendix, and in all such systems of divinity, a strain of reasoning which, if not strictly circular, runs rambling round till it arrives at the same point.” I have, Sir, the more confidence in making this statement as my present conviction, and in laying before the public, should you see fit, together with it, my version of this renowned Latin rule of faith, seeing that my conviction is, as I have intimated, confirmed, and that my version is the one sanctioned and acted upon by learned men at Oxford. We are to believe—“quod creditum est”—that which has been believed, and is believed—“ab omnibus.” —by all who think as we do—“semper”—at any time, “ubique”— wherever we can meet with them. Your’s affectionately, though

[ocr errors]
BIRD MANURE : ILLUSTRATION OF 2 KINGS VI. 25.
For the Christian Observer.

I HEAR of a wonderful modern discovery, that manure from birds is a powerful stimulant to land; and vessels are mysteriously sent out in ballast under sealed orders to fetch it from some far-away desert island; and the Prime Minister of the country is making experiments with it on his estates; and the scientific farmers sneer at lime, and bones, and stable-litter, and are buying up the wonder-working guano, the vendors of which, (if I may so call them, as the London milk-man called himself a milk-man, though he owned that he gained his living by selling, not milk, but water, his pump being his best milch-cow,) are making their fortunes by adulterating their precious commodity, much faster, I suspect, than their customers will by using it. There is no doubt that bird refuse is a prolific manure; but then as

to this wonderful discovery of this our wonderful age, it is a fragment of ancient agricultural and horticultural knowledge; and is i. alluded to in the account of the famine in Samaria, described 2 Kings vi. 25, when “An ass’s head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth part of a cab of dove’s dung for five pieces of silver.” Dr. A. Clarke says on the passage, “Whether this means literally dove’s dung, or a kind of pulse, has been variously disputed by learned men;” whose opinions, he adds, he had collected, but would not “trouble his reader to wade through,” his own being that “a sort of pulse was meant.” Dr. Shaw says it was “the cicer, or chick-pea.” Josephus says that it was purchased to supply the place of salt; the long-continued want of which is a privation more severe than we who have that article in abundance can realise. Some critics suppose that it was the undigested corn in the crops of the doves, which were able to fly far off to collect grain; or the garbage of the birds when killed for food. These conjectures have been devised in order to escape the literal meaning, on the ground that the refuse of birds is wholly unfit for food; but the very drift of the passage is, that the famished people were constrained to resort to what was not fit, and was most loathsome; and even this revolting substitute was not so horrible as that mentioned immediately afterwards—women devouring their own children. But we need not resort to any but the literal meaning, if only we suppose this guano used for manure, not food. And to this agree the customs of the Orientals to the present hour. Chardin says that the Persians keep vast numbers of doves, more for the manure of the birds than for food; this species of manure being invaluable for their cucumber and melon beds. So also Thevenot says, that at Ispahan “They eat melons almost all the year round, and take much pains in cultivating them ; for which they use a great deal of pigeon’s dung, keeping pigeons

only for that purpose; and that dung is sold by weight. Every time o

they open the earth about the roots, they fill it up with pigeon’s dung, to give it new mourishment. They dig at the roots of the palm-trees, and fill the hole with pigeon’s dung, whereof they have always provision in that country, because in the villages they purposely keep a great many tame pigeons; and I was told by the people, that if they took not that course with the palm trees, they would not bear good fruit.” Morier says, that in the environs of Shiraz pigeon-houses are erected solely for the manure; and in a passage (quoted in the review of his travels in the Christian Observer for 1819), he adds that this is the dearest manure which the Persians use; that they apply it almost entirely for the rearing of melons; that the yearly revenue of a pigeon-house is worth a hundred tomauns; the succulent fruits raised by this manure being essential to the existence of the people during the heats of summer.

Animal manure was much employed in Judaea, so as to give rise to several p. expressions alluded to in the Old Testament; and the virtue of the manure of birds was probably as well known in Samaria as in Persia. The Jews kept vast numbers of pigeons; and Scott the Commentator remarks on Isaiah lx. 8, (“Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as doves to their windows “”) “The church sees immense numbers from every quarter, thronging to her with one consent, as large flights of birds †. the air like a cloud, and as doves hasten to the windows of the dove house.” This plentifulness of these birds must have rendered the cost of them trifling; which shews the leniency of the permitted substitution by the poor of doves and pigeons for more costly sacrifices.

Ch Rist. Observ. App. 5 I

It is against the above solution of 2 Kings vi. 25, that only food is mentioned in the context; but in describing scarcity, an article in common use, and coveted for the raising of food—and food which could be raised even in a city—might naturally be mentioned; and indeed the specification of the price, “a cab for five pieces of silver,” seems to indicate that it was an ordinary article of merchandise; for I take it that the point of the passage is not that the article was sold, but that it was sold at an exorbitant price. But after all, if this solution be not correct, there is nothing incredible in the narrative in the ordinary interpretation, any more than in soldiers eating their shoes, as they have sometimes done, in a besieged city. Only let us not pride ourselves upon our new discoveries, where we are merely following out the experience of ages.

The Women of Turkey and Their Folk-lore, Volume 1 (Google Books)

All these patriarchal customs are, however, in the cities of the iEgean, and in the towns of European Turkey, things of the past. Western education and ideas are, with every succeeding generation, more and more permeating every class, and though a good many of these apparent changes are merely superficial, and present strange and sometimes ridiculous anomalies, unavoidable in a period of transition from Eastern to Western habits and modes of thought, real progress is no doubt being made by this section of the nation. A young wife becomes the mistress of her husband’s house, his parents merely receiving her on her arrival according to the ancient etiquette in matters of marriage, which I shall presently describe, and which is still to a great extent adhered to. She now enjoys the same freedom of action and social status as the European ladies with whom she may be acquainted. All the usual facilities for social intercourse are at her disposal, and she may, if philanthropically disposed, spend some of her leisure time in endeavouring to ameliorate the condition of those of her countrywomen less favoured by fortune.

She has her box at the theatre, and attends the balls given at the casinos of the different nationalities as well as those more exclusively Armenian. I was once, when at Smyrna, invited to a fancy dress ball, given during the Carnival by the members of the Armenian Cercle or Club, where I found myself the only European present. The arrangement of the rooms left nothing to be desired, and the stewards were perfect in their duties. The costumes of the ladies especially were extremely rich, varied, and picturesque, and set off to great advantage the beauty of many of the wearers. Many of them were ancient Oriental dresses of a style no longer worn, and composed of rare silk damask decorated with exquisite old embroidery. Others were of the more conventional type of Floras, “Nights,” and Shepherdesses. Though none of the company had probably ever had a dancing lesson, there was little fault to be found with their performance, and some of the younger ladies, indeed, waltzed most gracefully. Many of the company spoke English, nearly all expressed themselves fluently in French, and I was indebted to them for a very enjoyable evening.

The travelled Armenian lady often returns to her native town imbued with a sense of her own superiority, and sometimes, I must admit, inclined to treat with contempt her less favoured sisters. I was some years ago slightly acquainted with a lady of this description, who posed as a complete Parisienne and femme du monde. One day among the numerous callers, both native and foreign, whom. we met in her drawing-room, was an Armenian lady whose resplendent toilette was completed by a pair of bright blue kid gloves. After some conversation with this lady and her party, the hostess crossed over to where I sat with my friends, saying, as she joined us, “Je viens m’asseoir du cote” de la civilisation ; ces gants bleus la m’ont donne mal au cceur.” On another occasion this very ” civilised ” lady, after deploring the want of literary taste at Smyrna and Bournabat, said, referring to the English Levantine ladies who constitute the principal element of “society” in that suburb, “Really they have no topics of conversation beyond the success of the last boughadha’ and the price of soap!”

The domestic virtues of the average Armenian woman are, however, many. Her house is a model of neatness and cleanliness, and, even if she is sufficiently wealthy to employ several servants, she will often assist in making the many choice delicacies for which the Armenian cuisine is famous, but which I fear that I have not here space to describe. She is a fond and devoted, if not always a judicious, mother, and an affectionate wife ; and, as a rule, the greatest harmony prevails in Armenian households. When, however, family dissensions occur, they are often aggravated by the fact of the absolute indissolubility of the marriage bond, for, though a separation may be effected, neither party is free to contract a fresh union.

As has been already pointed out in the Introduction, two entirely distinct types are to be found among the Armenians—the fair and the dark, or, as the Turks designate them, the “Pure” (Indje) and the “Coarse” (Kalun). It is, no doubt, to this fact that we may attribute the very contradictory estimates formed by different authors of the personal attractions of Armenian women. Dora d’Istria, writing some forty years ago, describes their beauty in glowing terms ;i while Sir Paul Ricaut, though speaking favourably of the appearance of the men, can find nothing to say in favour of that of the other sex.s At the period, however, when this quaintly interesting author recorded his impressions (1679) it was customary for Armenian ladies, even at Smyrna, to live in great seclusion, and when abroad to be veiled and cloaked like Moslem women ;3 and consequently the female specimens of the race with whom he would, under these circumstances, come into contact, would be only women of the lowest class and of the most mixed blood. .. The Armenian ladies of Constantinople enjoy a great reputation for beauty, and those of Smyrna may, I think, be said to be not far behind them in this respect. One of their greatest charms consists

1 The ” great wash” performed every three or four weeks, when the clot hos are bleached with the ley of wood ashes.

1 “La beaut i des Armeniennes quand clle n’est pas defiguree par une embonpoint prGcoce est veritablement remarquable. ….. Leur fraicheur

est merveilleuse, leur taille svelte et fiancee, leurs sourcils quoiqu’ t,pais, parfaitement dessines, &c.”—Les Femmes en Orient.

2 “Their women are commonly ill-shaped, long-nosed, and not one of a thousand so much as tolerably handsome.”—The Present State of the Greek and Armenian Churches, p. 386.

i The Armenian were distinguishable from the Turkish women by the dark colour of their feridgit or cloaks, and by the red shoes which the sumptuary laws of the time obliged them to wear when abroad.

n the languorous expression of their dark, almondshaped eyes. These beauties naturally belong to the “pure” type, and have, as a rule, black hair and eyes; though brown hair and blue eyes are not unfrequently met with, and are distinctive of some families. The complexion of this type is also good, the figure and carriage graceful, and the hands and feet are frequently small and well shaped. A Viennese painter was so struck with the exquisite proportions of the hand and arm of an Armenian lady of my acquaintance that he begged her to sit to him as a model for that part of a picture upon which he was then engaged. This lady belonged to a family famous for the beauty of its female members, among two generations of whom quite half a score of handsome women might be counted, mostly of the brown-haired and blueeyed type, though of pure Armenian blood, and belonging to the Gregorian Church. And the window of a house in the Armenian quarter of Smyrna, where several of these belles were often visible, was named by their admirers “The Seventh Heaven of Mohammed.” A comely specimen of the “coarse ” type may occasionally be met with, but, as a rule, there is not among them, as Sir Paul Ricaut says, “one in a thousand so much as tolerably handsome.”

But, whether “coarse” or “pure,” Armenian women resort more or less to the use of cosmetics, either to enhance their charms, or to conceal their defects. Nor is this practice a result of the emancipation from ancient customs of the daughters of Smyrna and Constantinople. For earlier in the century, when Armenian women still went abroad

o

veiled and. cloaked like Moslems, as above described, and were, in their homes, equally secluded from the gaze of strangers, the passion for “getting up,” which appears to be as inherent in the plain little hired drudge as in the elegant kokona, was perhaps more largely indulged in than at the present day, when the practice is being abandoned by educated women. I was greatly amused during some idle summer weeks at Bournabat by witnessing the open-air preparation and subsequent application of the mysterious compound used for the purpose by the gardener’s wife, who lived in an adjoining cottage. The result of her many hours’ pounding, mixing, shaking, and straining was generally made use of on a Sunday or Feast-day, and the effect was truly dazzling. On the opposite side of the lane lived two girls of a rather higher grade, whose daily occupation might be summed up in the words—they “painted their faces, and tired their heads, and looked out of a window;” and the attempts of the gardener’s wife to rival these “young ladies” were highly amusing. The concoction and sale of these “washes” constitute, in the cities of the East, one of the minor domestic industries. It is generally carried ou by elderly women, who are also skilled in the manufacture of rose- and orange-flower-water and of the delicious preserves met with only in the East. On one occasion, when I had expressed a wish for some rose-water, one of these persons was sent for, who brought with her a handkerchief full of fresh roses (the Rosa moscata), and a small still. Setting up the latter in the garden, over an impromptu fireplace of stones, she in a few hours produced, for the modest charge of six piastres, or one shilling, two large bottles of exquisite rose-water.

The native Armenian costume is now, in the cities of the seaboard and the towns of European Turkey, a thing of the past. A few of the elderly women still retain, it is true, as among the Greeks, the oldfashioned head-dress of the taktikios, which consists of a red fez, the full tassel of which is combed and spread all over it, surrounded by a kerchief of darkcoloured muslin, with a painted border and an edge of coloured needle-point lace. The hair, plaited into one tress, is twisted round the taktikios, and secured with a gold or silver pjn.’ A long plain skirt of stuff or silk, and a loose jacket lined with fur in winter, complete the costume, both for outdoor and indoor wear, though a shawl is sometimes added. In adopting Parisian fashions, Armenian women have retained their partiality for the vivid dyes which accorded so well with their ancient style of dress, but which now often asserts itself in combinations of colour most unpleasing to a Western eye; and the outdoor display they make of their superabundant jewellery says more for the security of property than for the taste of the wearer. But this tendency generally, if not always, disappears after a visit to Paris, or some other European capital.

There are, however, very few of the Europeanised Armenians who, in the privacy of their homes, are neat in their attire. All those I have known were in the habit, immediately on their return from a walk or a visit, of exchanging their Parisian finery for a loose skirt and jacket, their high-heeled and manybuttoned boots for slippers (generally down at heel), and their elaborate coiffure for two plaits, hanging loosely over their shoulders. In this guise, too, they sit at their windows, their fair elbows resting on the cushioned sill, chewing gum-mastic, a practice which, though common to all women of the Levant, is more especially characteristic of the Armenians, and in the motions it gives to their jaws, unpleasantly recalls ruminating animals. This bad habit, however, is said to be good for the teeth.

1 Twenty years ago, all the elderly women of Smyrna of every class, whether Armenian, Greek, or Frank, wore this head-dress, and also many middle-aged matrons belonging to the two former races.

The native costumes still worn in Armenia and in the far interior of Asia Minor vary in form, but the garments, worn one over another, of which they consist are all equally brilliant in colour and durable in material. At Van, the women allow their luxuriant black hair to fall loosely over their shoulders, and on their heads they wear a fez of red cloth, round which is folded, turban-fashion, a many-coloured kerchief. The remainder of the costume closely resembles that formerly worn by all Osmanli women, and still retained by them in many parts of the Empire. It consists of the intarie—a long gown of striped cotton, fitting tightly to the figure; the shalvar—full trousers of raspberry-coloured silk, drawn in at the ankles; the shdpo—a long sleeveless jacket reaching to the feet, and open at the sides up to the waist; and, over all, the jupbe—an ample pelisse leaving exposed to view only the front of the shdpo and the cuffs of the intarie, which are shaped en sabot and edged with “needle-lace.” The pattern always found on the shdpo deserves a word as illustrating a survival of the cone-fruit so frequently found on Chaldean monuments. This garment is made of a kind of cashmere of mixed silk and cotton in wide stripes of contrasting colour. On these stripes are printed various running patterns, of which the leading motive is always the cone. This favourite design of Oriental artists is, however, also said to be merely a modification of the figure of a cypress with its crest bent by the wind, that tree being, both in the folk- and culture-lore of most of the nations of Eastern Europe, the type of grace and beauty.

The costume of the women of Kaisariyeh, in Cappadocia, where the Armenians number some 16,000, is composed of very beautiful stuffs, and decorated with embroidery of remarkable delicacy. The headdress is particularly rich. Strings of gold sequins cover the front of the fez and hang over the forehead. From behind the ears are also suspended strings of seed pearls, and the neck and wrists are similarly decorated with ornaments of gold and pearls. The dress now worn at Sivas is said to be identical with that of the women of ancient Persia. Out of doors, however, all the women of the interior conceal the luxury of their costumes under a cloak of plain stuff, similar to that worn by Moslem women, and shroud their heads and faces with a thick veil.

Armenian girls of the poorer classes manifest an •even greater repugnance than Greek girls to employ

k

ment outside the sphere of their own homes, and the latter are often employed as servants in Armenian houses, owing to the difficulty of obtaining Armenian domestics. To see the Armenian girls lounging about their doorways one might indeed say that their leading characteristics are apathy and listlessness. Yet, though so much less energetic than their sisters inhabiting the less enervating climate of Armenia, they can hardly, as a class, be stigmatised as indolent. Many little home-industries are pursued, such as the making of the coloured lace called oya or bibil, formerly so much in demand for trimming the native costumes both of Armenian and Turkish ladies, and also embroidery in gold and silks. The taste and aptitude displayed by Armenian girls for the latter pursuit led to the formation of a class of “art needlework” in connection with the Industrial Institution for Girls, founded at Constantinople in 1887 by Mr. Ohannes Nourian, a philanthropic Armenian resident of that city. To the pupils of this establishment, who now number one hundred and twenty, and are presided over by thirty teachers, was entrusted the task of decorating with their needles the State apartments occupied by the Emperor and Empress of Germany during their recent visit to the Sultan’s capital. The Empress’s satisfaction with their handiwork was, it is said, expressed to the Sultan in such glowing terms that His Majesty conferred decorations on the lady directresses of the institution.1 The silk factories of

1 It is a rather curious fact that the conferment of Orders on Women, fhould have been initiated in Turkey.

I

Broussa, as before mentioned, afford employment to a considerable number of women, of whom a certain proportion are Armenians, who are, I am told, greatly valued for their powers of steady work.

In Armenia Proper it would appear that the women are not less industrious than their Christian peasant sisters in other parts of Turkey, and, in this respect at least, they rival the men of their nation, who are indefatigable workers. Besides her household work, and the care of the family and domestic animals, the manufacture of clothing for the family and furniture for the house also devolves upon the Armenian woman. The spindle is to her what knitting is to a German housewife, and, with the help of her daughters, many beautiful tissues are produced on the loom, the surplus of which find their way to the bazaars of the capital. Among these are fine linen and silk gauzes; so-called Turkish towels, and havlus, or bathing gowns of the same material, with fringed and embroidered borders, made chiefly at Trebizond, Erzeroum, and Van; cloth of fine camel’s-hair, and handsome stuffs for covering the seats and cushions of divans. The process of making the felt or Ukke carpets so much used in the country is very simple. On a mat, larger than the carpet and strengthened at the back with stout linen, the dyed wool is arranged according to the pattern intended. On this another layer of more finely carded wool is placed to the depth of about a foot. Several persons then carefully roll up the mat, and the cylinder thus formed is rolled about and pressed with the feet until the wool is reduced to the thickness of half an inch. The upper surface is then carefully clipped in order to accentuate the outline of the pattern.

A distinguishing trait of the Armenian character is their fondness for, and consequent kindness to, animals, which contrasts very favourably with the cruelty displayed by their Greek, and more especially by their Jewish, neighbours towards their dumb fellow-creatures. To kill a cat, a rat, or a bird was formerly considered so grave a crime as to deserve ecclesiastical punishment, and M. Fleurian1 records a case in which a fast of twenty years’ duration was imposed by the priest upon a woman for killing her cat. And though much leniency is not, I believe, shown at the present day to the larger vermin, I well remember the horror and indignation of some Armenian ladies at Smyrna on witnessing the inhuman treatment by a Greek baker of a rat which had been caught in a trap in his shop. In Armenia, as before mentioned, the dogs are housed under the platform of the selamlik, and the beautiful white cats with long silky fur, and tails oddly dyed of a reddish hue with henna, sit on the knees of their masters or purr by their sides on the cushions of the divan. Besides these more common animals there are the tame, or half tame, lemmings, jerboas, and kara guez, or “black-eyes.” The last are pretty little creatures, with soft grey fur. Like the pink-eyed lemmings, they hybernate every year, and are easily domesticated. As for birds, the popular reverence for them is so great that it, to some extent, accounts for the immense numbers to be found in Armenia. Some travellers describe them as literally ” covering the ground;” and their variety appears no less great, for Mr. Calvert, when Consul at Erzeroum, collected as many as one hundred and seventy different species.1 Armenian salutations and greetings partake of a decidedly religious character. The reply to goodmorning and good-evening is invariably, “The blessing of God to you.” On separating in the evening the reply to good-night, “And a good dawning,” extends the salutation to the next day. At Easter, and for forty days afterwards, the greeting is, “Christ is risen from the dead!” and the response, “Blessed be the Resurrection of Christ.” The ordinary form of felicitation on the marriage of a son or daughter, the birth of a child, or any other happy domestic event, is “Light to your eyes!” and the acknowledgment, “May you also enjoy the light.”

1 Ktat present de I’Arme’nie, p. 25.

>>

From the above described contrast between the social life and manners of the two sections of the Armenian nation in Turkey, naturally follows a wide difference in the degree of education to which they have respectively attained. While in point of culture the Armenians of the ^Egean would compare not unfavourably with Europeans, the dwellers in the remote Fatherland have advanced but slowly, and female education especially is in a very backward state. Great efforts are, however, being made to remedy this defect, and various educational associations have been organised, which number among their most active members many ladies belonging to the communities at Smyrna and Constantinople. The “Philomathic Society of Armenian Ladies” have founded at Koum-Kapou, Constantinople, a Training College for native schoolmistresses to be sent to Armenia, Cilicia, and elsewhere; and in this establishment seventy-five have already been trained, and appointed to schools in those districts. The “National Society of Armenian Women” also maintains five girls’ schools in the towns of Moush, Hadjin, Keghi, Seghert, and Alashguerd, at which some six hundred pupils are now being educated. The “United Societies for the Promotion of Education in Armenian Centres ” have also in their list ten girls’ schools, scattered over four different provinces, in which instruction is, according to the returns for 1889, afforded to more than seven hundred girls. All these institutions are maintained by voluntary contributions; for, though the Porte imposes an “Education Tax” on its Christian subjects, Moslem schools alone are benefited thereby. The proportion of girls’ to boys’ schools, however, notwithstanding all the praiseworthy efforts of these various societies, is as yet, as with the Greeks of Turkey, only as one to four.

1 Curzon’s Armenia, p. 154. . .<

The American missions to the Armenians, which have been established for more than half a century at Kharput, Kaisariyeh, Sivas, Van, Erzeroum, Aintab, and some other places, have already done much for the education of the female portion of the nation in these towns. The schools attached to these establishments, and presided over by devoted ladies from the

Far West, are attended not only by the daughters of Protestant converts, but of orthodox Gregorians, some, who come from a considerable distance, being received as boarders. Many parents who would gladly follow their example are, unfortunately, too poor to be able to pay even the very low fees required for board and education. The course of instruction comprises the English, Turkish, and Armenian languages, Scripture lessons, arithmetic, and more advanced subjects for those who wish to be trained as teachers.

Among the Armenians, as formerly among the Greeks, the Turkish language has, in some districts, and notably at Broussa and Kaisariyeh, entirely replaced the mother-tongue, which is there used only in the church liturgies. This fact forcibly illustrates the state of denationalisation into which this nation has in many places sunk during the Ottoman domination. With the re-birth of national sentiment and aspiration, a reaction has, however, naturally set in, and the rising generation now everywhere learns in the national schools the mother-tongue, which will, it is hoped, soon entirely supersede the use of Turkish, save as a foreign language. Good schools both for boys and girls have long been established in the capital and in Smyrna, and for very many years past the teaching of French has in the latter city been obligatory. Some of the wealthier families at Smyrna send their daughters to the establishment of the German Deaconesses, where, besides receiving a sound general education, they add a good knowledge of English, French, and German to the three native languages of Armenian, Turkish, and Greek, which they have orally acquired in childhood. Many girls are also educated at home by European governesses, who find their pupils, as a rule, extremely intelligent and painstaking. While Armenian men have been engaged on translations of such works as Milton’s Paradise Lost and Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, some of the Armenian women of the Capital and of Smyrna have occupied themselves with rendering into their native language, for the benefit of their less cultured sisters, the more popular works of Victor Hugo, Dumas, Ohnet, and other French authors. A literary Salon, too, has been formed at Constantinople, though whether the “culture ” of its members is, or is not, of the kind satirised by Moliere in Les Precieuses Ridicules and Les Femmes Savantes, I am not in a position to say. Armenian women are also in considerable demand as actresses in Turkish theatres. The plays most in vogue in this country are French operettas, the librettos of which are translated into Turkish, though original comedies are also often placed on the boards. The Sultan employs a company of these women, and himself writes, or rather furnishes, the plots for some of the comedies and burlesques. Armenian literature, the most brilliant period of which was from the fifth to the seventh centuries, long neglected, is at present in a transitional stage, and there is now, I am informed, “more imitation than creation.” The recent revival of education and national sentiment, however, will no doubt be followed by a revival of letters, and of this there are, indeed, already various unmistakable signs. Old traditions are being collected and published; periodicals started, devoted to the national cause; and, as before mentioned, great efforts are being made in the schools to restore the use of the ancient language of Armenia.

I ought not, perhaps, to close this chapter without some remark on the patriotism of the Armenians. For however far from the land of his ancestors a son of Haik may roam, he never forgets its former greatness, nor ceases to long for its deliverance from a foreign yoke. And this sentiment seems to be as strongly developed in the communities which have lived so long in exile that they still retain forms of speech which are obsolete in the Fatherland, as in the emigrant of yesterday. Indeed, the couplet from the ancient folk-song,

Thy native land still bear in mind,
To it be ever true and kind,1

attributed to an old nurse when taking leave of an Armenian princess about to be married to a foreign monarch, seems always to find an echo in the Armenian breast. And from the women no less than from the men of such far-off colonies as those of Batavia and Sourabayia, in Java, as well as from those inhabiting the Turkish cities, come messages of sympathy, accompanied by more substantial assistance, to the Armenian Patriotic Associations lately established in Europe.

The Tailor and Cutter and London Art Journal: An Index of Cutting, Fashion … (Google Books)

THE NEW HUNTING COAT.

This being the hunting season, it is fitting that one of our Plates’sbould show the latest style in Hunting Dress. For many years there was practically little change in the style in which Hunting coats were made. The figure on our third Plate shows a very material change upon what was wont to be regulation style: it represents what is practically a single-breasted Frock, about the same length as the present fashionable Frock.

There are a few special features connected with a Hunting coat to which we will refer. The collar is heavier, as will be seen, and when the coat is buttoned to the top, the collar up, and tab buttoned over, the chest and neck are well protected. The coat is usually lined through with scarlet twill flannel, and the skirt is frequently interlined with thin macintosh, too keep out the w..t. Others provide for this by painting the inside of the skirt with a waterproof solution. In many cases, but not invariably, a saddle-strap, about 8 inches deep and 6 inches wide, is placed at the waist behind, inside across by the hip buttons. This keeps out the cold and the wet when the coat opens behind. Wind cuffs are an almost invariable feature. A macintosh apron, of which we are frequently called upon to cut a pattern, is often worn—this entirely separate from the coat. It is cut something in the form of the

fronts of a pair of trousers, only much larger. It extends from the waist to the middle of thigh, and is fastened there and at the waist behind with straps.

Then Piatt & Co. make a feature of supplying knee waterproof protectors. These extend about 8 inches above the knee and about 4 below. These are a few of the specialities associated with Hunting Dress.

It is unnecessary to add that Hunting coats, when made of the usual scarlet, should be made by a workman accustomed to this class of work, otherwise he may make a mess of it. The scarlet Hunting coat is not now so universal on the field as it was wont to be, many being now made of black Melton.