The other dog gangs up
On her, trying to save her
Doing the best they can.
The other dog gangs up
On her, trying to save her
Doing the best they can.
Helenenthal. (See Baden.)
Along straggling village, west of Vienna, immediately outside the turnpike at the outlet of the Alser suburb. It lies on the direct road to Dornbach, and is said to derive its name partly from the Als, a little brook running beside it, and partly from having once belonged to the Templars, whence it was called die Herren an der Als, (the Lords on the Als) and in process of time Herrnals. It is celebrated for a holy sepulchre erected there in 1679, after a model brought from Jerusalem, and where the Austrian court, till the year 1759, used to make a pilgrimage on foot once a year. This custom is still kept up by the common people every sunday in lent.
Hietzing. (See Schönbrunn.)
This is the name of the 4″ summit of the Kahlenberg chain, counting from the Danube; it is about an hour aud a half’s walk from the city, passing through New Döbling and then to the left through Sievering, from which two foot paths lead up to it, or through Grinzing, from where there is a carriage road. Whence the name Himmel (Heaven) took its rise, no one knows; unless perhaps from the beauty of the situation, which might indeed justify the appellation. This once lovely country-seat belongs to a Mr. Schosulan, but in 1836, while tenanted by the French embassador, the dwelling was unfortunately consumed by fire, so that it now is a ruin; the park and grounds have also fallen into neglect, but they are still an object of great attraction from the magnificent view they command in front over the city, the Danube, the prater, the distant plain as far as Presburgh, and to the right Schönbrunn, the hills of Mödling and the Briel with the Schneeberg and the Styrian Alps beyond. Close under the eminence where the ruins stand are two large stone quarries, visible with the naked eye from the ramparts of Vienna. To the right of the ruin is a farm-house where coffee may be had, and by pursuing the alley, which consists partly of mulberry partly of chestnut trees, one comes out by a large gate exactly opposite the entry to the Cobenzlberg. The way to the left over the heath on quitting the gate leads to the Hermann’s Kogel; this is a trip of about an hour, which cannot be performed without a guide.
Sievering (divided into upper and lower) is a straggling village, a full half English mile in length, running along at the foot of the Himmel, and at the other end, almost stretching down to the Grinzing road. It probably owes its name to S’ Severin, the Norican apostle, who is known to have lived in the neighbourhood about the year 454; in the 12″ century it is chronicled under the names of Sauringau, Sauveringen, Suiverin etc. and doubtless dates from the earliest Babenbergs. The greatest ornament of Sievering is its ancient little church, with its square tower and gigantic lime tree opposite; on ascending the village from below, they present a very picturesque appearance, indeed nothing upon the whole can be more quiet and rural than the aspect of this sequestered little nook. By pursuing the valley of Sievering to the end, one reaches the valley of Weidling; or by striking over a meadow to the right, where the valley opens out, one may ascend the Herrmann’s Kogel.
Sometimes called Josephsberg, is the 2d summit of the chain, counting from the Danube, and a good hour and a half’s walk from town. It may be reached either through Döbling and Grinzing, or by the KahlenbergerDörfel, a very small village about a couple of
hundred yards beyond Nussdorf. The road by Grinzing is the longest, but by far the most agreeable, leading through meadow, vineyard and woods to the very top; one can also ride up on horses or asses this way, there being an establishment for the purpose at Grinzing. In going by the Kahlenberger–Dörfel, there is a choice between two paths; one from the left of the village leads up by a gentle ascent through the vineyards and requires about an hour; the other, more to the right, is much steeper, and instead of leading direct to the Kahlenberg, takes one over the Leopoldsberg, the first summit of the chain, overhanging the Danube almost perpendicularly, at a height of nearly 1000 feet. The Kahlenberg was called by the Romans Mons Cetius; afterwards Montes Comageni, and constituted the boundary between Noricum and Pannonia. Why it has since been termed kahl (sterile) is uncertain; at present, no part of it would merit this appellation, except the very extreme point stretching over the river; perhaps this barren appearance in ancient times extended farther south; it is also pretended there was once a village called Kalen at the foot, which has since been washed away by the Danube. At all events, it is the same chain of mountain, which, under various denominations, stretches from the bank of the Danube to that of the Save in Carniola. The Leopoldsberg took its name from margrave Leopold II., who in 1101 fixed his residence there. From the time the castle was no longer inhabited by the sovereigns of Austria, it fell to ruin, and was quite neglected till the emperor Leopold I. erected the chapel in 1697. In 1683, this was also destroyed by the Turks; but ten years after, Leopold began a new church on the same spot, which was finished by Charles VI., in 1730, as it now stands. The gallery round the foot of this church commands one of the most extensive prospects in lower Austria; the Danube both up and down the stream; the whole of the Marchfeld with its countless villages as far the Carpathian boundary; the Brigittenau, the Prater, innumerable islands with the river meandering away down to Presburgh; the capital in its whole extent, and the vast plain beyond, stretching to the Hungarian mountains towards the south. There is a pretty good path leading down the west side of the hill to Klosterneuburgh. On quitting the castle court of the Leopoldsberg, by pursuing a pretty broad path straight forward, which afterwards makes a wide bend to the left, through a fine wood of beeches and pines, one reaches the little village on the top of the Kahlenberg in a short half hour. In 1626 a Camaldulan monastery was here founded, where according to the rules of its order, each brother inhabited a separate dwelling, the church and refectory being in common. In 1782, when these monks were abolished, the cottages and gardens were sold to private individuals, and now with the church constitute a little parish of 22 houses. There is an extremely good inn, where refreshments of all sorts may be had in every season; the prospect from the platform on which it stands is nearly the same as that from the Leopoldsberg, except that the view up the Danube is of course precluded by this very mountain projecting to the left. There is a charming walk from the Kahlenberg down to the valley of Weidling, and from thence by Weidling am Bach through Sievering back to town; or from Weidling, with the help of a guide, one may prolong the stroll over hill, wood and dale to Greifenstein; from here one can descend the river in a boat to Nussdorf, where hackney coaches may usually be found to return to town.
Kalksburg, (see Schönbrunn).
Kaltenleutgeben, (see Schönbrunn.)
A town of 3000 inhabitants, close on
the south bank of the Danube about 8 English
miles from Vienna. The high road to it leads >k
through Nussdorf. Its chief interest consists in a very large monastery of a superior order of monks, called the regular Lateran canons of St. Augustin; it was established in the 12″ century by St. Leopold, margrave of Austria. The incident which gave rise to it was as follows. The margrave was residing on the KahIenberg, and as his consort Agnes was one day looking out of window, her veil was carried off by a high wind towards the forests, where she entirely lost sight of it. A couple of years after, while hunting in the woods, the margrave’s dogs set up an incessant barking, and on riding up to the place where they had stopped, he saw a veilhanging on the tree above, which he instantly recognized as his wife’s. He had long before intended to found a monastery, but could not determine where it should be; he now resolved to six on this spot; the order was accordingly founded, richly endowed, and is at present one of the wealthiest in all Austria. It contains 60 canons, many of whom are however appointed to various parish churches, the duties of which they have to superintend. On the 15″ Nov. (St. Leopold’s day) an annual feast is held in honor of the founder, the patron saint of Austria. It was formerly attended by the court and a number of persons of high rank, when large quantities of bread, meat, wine and silver coins with the head of the saint were distributed
among the people; this custom has now fallen into disuse, and though the feast is still kept up, none but the lower classes are to be seen there. The church offers little to attract the curiosity of a stranger; beside it is the chapel of St. Leopold containing the tomb of the saint and his consort with some of their children. In the treasury is a relic in the form of an elder-tree, with the mysterious veil interwoven among the branches. The archducal hat of Austria is also conserved here, since the year 1616, and is carried in pomp to the capital on every occasion when the ceremony of paying homage isrendered to a new sovereign. The ancient monastery which was extremely irregular has been rebuilding since se— veral years; but on so large and magnificent a scale, that it would appear to want funds for so grand an undertaking, and it goes on but slowly. The top of each wing is adorned with an imperial crown and ducal hat of such size, that six or eight persons can standinside; there is a staircase leading up to them, and they will be found to offer a fine. view over the Danube and the surrounding country. Another object of interest is the immensity of the cellars, built in three rows, one above each other. At the monastery cooper’s a cask is to be seen, capable of containing 999 eimers, or abont 79,920 bottles.
The large town on the opposite side of the river is Korneuburgh; it contains 1858 inhabitants and has a school for pioneers. Under the Babenbergs, it constituted part of Klosterneuburgh, was well fortified and withstood many a siege.
Krapfenwald. (see Cobenzlberg.)
Laab. (see Schönbrunn.)
Speed’s Account of Bishop Fox’s Mausoleum in Winchester
“X He Cathedral Church, built by Kenwolf, King of the West Saxons, that had been Amphibalus’, S. Peter’s, Swythin’s, and now Holy Trinity, is the sanctuary for the ashes of many English King’s. For herein great Egbert, anno 836, with his son Ethelwolfe in 857 ; here Elf red, Oxford’s Founder, in 901, with his Queen Elswith in 901; here the first Edmund before the conquest, in 924, with his sons Elf red and Elsward; here Edred in 955, and Edwy in 956, both Kings of England; here Queen Emme in 1052, with her Danish Lord Canute in 1035, and his son Hardicanute in 1042; and here lastly the Normans, Iiichard and Ihfus in 1100, were interred. Their bones, by Bishop Fox, were gathered and shrined in little gilt coffers fixed upon a wall in the quire, where still they remain carefully preserved.”—Speed’s Theat. of the Empire of G. B. (Uantshire), p. 13.
They remained so indeed in Speed’s time, (for he published his Theater in the reign of K.James the First); but in the subsequent civil wars, the fanatics made sad havoc in Cathedral Churches, and particularly in J finches let’ Cathedral. See the Supplement to the 2d Part of these Memoirs.
Note n» Bishop Scot: see his Speech, p.05.—Of this learned and worthy Prelate I am sorry it is not in my power to subjoin so full and satisfactory an account as I could wish, being;forced to confess, that, after the strictest search, I find very little recorded of him in our Church History; from whence I have not been ableto glean any tiling material, besides the following particulars, viz. that
“V. Scut was consecrated Up. of (luster in l.Mfi. That upon the commencement of Q. Elizabeth’* persecution against the Catholics, he was deprived of his Bishopric, and committed to durance, for his refusing to take the Supremacy Oath: and that, having- the good fortune to escape from his imprisonment, he became a voluntary evile in Flanders, and died at Louvain.”
The End of the 4/>pendix,
PREFORMATION OE ENGLAND:
IN TWO PARTS.
THE WHOLE COLLECTED
CHIEFLY FROM ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
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THE TRANSACTIONS OF K. HENRY VIII. AS SUPREME HEAD OF THE CHURCH.
§ I.—King Henry VIII. [being declared and acknowledged the Supreme Head of the Church of England) publishes Injunctions to the Clergy, and Articles of Religion; in both which he takes upon himself to act in the Character of a Supreme Ordinary.
Having finished our general account of the manner how, as also with what views, and upon what motives, the Spiritual Supremacy was invaded and carried by King Henry VIII. King Edward VI. and Q. Elizabeth, we shall now proceed to a more circumstantial detail of their conduct with regard to Ecclesiastical Affairs: it being our intention, in the Second Part of these Memoirs, to display more distinctly and particularly the Use they made of their Spiritual Authority.
Now as soon as King Henry VIII. was acknowledged by the Clergy to be supreme in Church Matters as well as State Affairs, he procured a Bill to pass both Houses, that
* ” That no constitution or ordinance shall be hereafter by the Clergy enacted, promulged, or put in execution, unless the King’s Highness do approve the same by his authority and royal assent : and his advice, aid, and favour, be also interponed for the execution of every such constitution, to be made in time coming among his Majesty’s subjects.”— And by virtue of this and some other acts of a similar nature (to be seen in Mr. Collier’s Collection of Records, No. XIX. XX.) the Clergy are expressly required and enjoined neither to attempt, alledge, claim, or put in use any of the old canons, without leave from the Crown ; nor yet to enact, promulge, or execute any new ones. And thus the King became most absolutely, in fact as well as title, the Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England.
And now, the power of the Clergy being utterly supThe Transactions of K. Henry VIII. $c. 138
* CoWcr’t EceL Hist. Vol. II. B. i. p. r.8; and his Collection of Records,
pressed by the superior force of disabling Acts, and the Authority of the Church being laid asleep, Henry lays hold of the favourable opportunity to assume the character of Supreme (Jrdhiary, and adventures to appear as such in the publication of bis Injunctions, which Bishop Burnet thinks were the first Act of his Supremacy.— [The Reader will find a short Abstract of them in the Appendix, No. VI.]—As to the general contents of them, they are as follow, viz. All Ecclesiastical Incumbents were, in the first place, to cry down the dope’s Power, and preach up the abrogation of some superfluous holu days. They were to inform ihe^eopie of the particulars which they ought to teach their children. They were to take care that the sacraments, &c. be reverently administered. They were not (except upon urgent occasions) to frequent taverns or alehouses, nor indulge (after meals) in drinking, tables or card-playing, but be mindful to give good example. The next three articles regard the proper management of the Clergy’s Revenues, and the due reparations of their Churches, Chapels, and Mansion-houses; and the last article contains the penalties to be inflicted on the violators or infringers of hi* Majesty’s Injunctions; which amounted to suspension and sequestration.—And such were the regulations prescribed to the Clergy.
But it seemed a much more difficult task, how to regulate and keep within proper bounds the rest of the people, who now began to run mad after new gospels and new religions. Forthesecrfs of heterodoxy-having been sown in almost every comer of the nation, they soon sprouted up, and soon promised (what indeed they have since produced) a plentiful harvest of religious oddities.
But of all the unorthodoxies of the times, none seemed more remarkable than the Mala Dogmata, under which denomination the absurd opinions of the Zuinglian Gospellers were comprised. They had lateiy been imported from Swisserland; and, like other foreign exotics, were not a little admired (and perhaps improved too) by the English, who naturally delight in novelties. — [The Reader may gratify his curiosity with a taste of them in the Appendix, No. VII.]
Byway of counterpoise to these enormities in casuistry and christian moralitv, the King soon found himself obliged to publish a system of his belief. It was comprised in a set of articles, which do not seem indeed to swerve or recede, in any material point, from the doctrines admitted and defined in former General Councils. Neither have they, on the other hand, any thing in them that may seem to favour tiie modern Church of England: for they strenuously assert and maintain, that Penance is a Sacrament instituted by Christ: the necessity of Auricular Confession: the corporal Presence of Christ in the Eucharist: the Use of linages: Invocation of Saints: Purgatory, and Prayers for the Dead. — [See a short abstract of these Articles in the Appendix, No. VIII]
In perusing these Articles, (which, as well as the Injunctions, are directed to the Clergy) one cannot help taking notice of the Kiug’s lofty style of—Wethinh—Wervill—We command—We have caused to be published—We have committed our people to their [the Clergy’s] Spiritual Charge.
From which last expression in particular, it is pretty
plain, that the Clergy now held their Spiritual Commissions from the King, in quality of their Supreme Ordinary.
Cardinal Pole takes notice of this unexampled stretch of the regale, in his answer to Bp. Tonstal, who, it seems, had endeavoured to clear the King from the imputation of invading the Sacerdotal Office, because he did not pretend to preach, or administer the sacraments. “To this,” says Mr. Collier, “the Cardinal rejoins, that his taking the title of Supreme Head of the Church supposed him the fountain of Spiritual Jurisdiction: and in case he had authority to delegate others, and coramissionate them for such offices, does it not follow, that he might execute the same whenever he pleased? Farther, if the administration of the sacraments is the highest spiritual office, must it not belong to the Supreme Ordinary and be annexed to the Head of the Church ?”— [See Bp. TonstaCs Letter, and the CardinaVs Answer, in Mr. Collier’s EccL Hist. Vol. II. which, for brevity’s sake, we omit.]
§ 2.— The King takes it into his Head to reform the Regulars : and procures an Act of Parliament to dissolve the lesser Houses… The Preambled that Act.. .Corrodies explained.
Henry having reformed the Secular Clergy, by virtue of his Injunctions, Articles, and what not, his next resolve was, to introduce a reformation amongst the Regulars ,• but such a reformation as proved fatal to them in the event, and
concluded with the total extirpation of them all. True it is, that the religious inhabitants were first assaulted; but this was only a false attack, the true one being carried on, all the while, against their houses. This was the bait that drew on the Reformation ; and the riches of the abbies, &c. may be said, in one sense, to have contributed not a little to their own ruin.
Now, in order to come at his prey with more ease and expedition, his Majesty had the precaution to get all the Monasteries in England put under the immediate jurisdiction of the Crown. And this was done by virtue of a statute enacted for that purpose, part of which is as follows:
‘As for Abbots, Priors, and all places exempt and formerly under the immediate jurisdiction of the Pope, these religious fraternities were to make their appeal immediately to the Court of Chancery; neither were any Archbishops or Bishops to disturb their application to the King, or intermeddle with such matters.’—Stat. 25. H. VIII. c. 20.
“* By this clause, all the religious, instead of being returned to the jurisdiction of their diocesans :ind metropolitan, were put under the regale, and the King is enacted their Ordinary. This provision, we may imagine, was contrived to bring on the dissolution of the Abbies : for noiv the King was empowered to visit the Monasteries, to inspect their behaviour, and proportion the correction at his pleasure.”
At first the King only proposed to dissolve the lesser Monasteries, i. e. such of them whose revenues did not exceed L. 200 per annum: and
“f This proposal,” as Mr. Fuller observes, “found little opposition in either of the Houses. HenryYIW. was a king, and his necessities were tyrants; and both [king and tyrant] suing together, must not be denied: besides, the larger thongs they [of the temporality] cut out of other men’s leather, the more entire thoy preserved their own hide; which made the Parliament concur to ease their own purses by laying the load on the lesser houses, which they accordingly passed to the crown.” “Jin Parliament,” says our Annalist, “were granted to the King and his heirs all religious houses in the realm of England of the value of L. 200 and under, with all the lands and goods to them belonging. The number of (he houses then suppressed were 376, and the value of their lands then thirty-two thousand pounds and more by the year. The moveable goods (as they were sold at Robin Hood’s Pennyworths) amounted to more than ten thousand pounds. The religions persons that were in the said houses were clearly put out; whereof some were sent to the other greater houses, and some went abroad into the world.”
* Collier’s Ecch Hist. Vol. II. B. ii. p. 84.
+ Fuller’s Ch. Hist. Book vi. p 310.
J Stuw’s Amials, p. 572.
And thus began the blessed work of Reformation. It was built upon the ruins of demolished religious houses; and the Act of Parliament that first gave birth to it bears this title:
‘An Act concerning the Suppression or Dissolution of certain Religious Houses, given to the King’s Highness, and to his Heirs for ever.’
The Preamble to this Act is too curious and remarkable to be overlooked. It sets forth, that ‘Forasmuch as manifest sin, vicious, carnal, and abominable living, is daily used and committed commonly in such little and small Abbies and Priories, and other Religious Houses of Monks, Canons and Nuns, where the congregation of such persons is under the number of tw«!ve persons, whereby the governors of such Religious Houses, and their Convents, spoil, destroy, consume, and utterly waste, as well those Churches, Monasteries, Priories, principal houses, farms, granges, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, as the ornaments of their Churches, and their goods and chattels, to the high displeasure of Almighty God, slander of good Religion, and the general infamy of the King’s Highness and the realm, if redress should not be had thereof. And albeit that many continual visitations have been heretofore had, by the space of two hundred years and more, for an honest and charitable reformation of such unthrifty, carnal, and abominable living; yet nevertheless little or none amendment is hitherto had; and by a cursed custom, so grown and infested, that a great multitude of religious persons, in such small houses, do rather chuse to come abroad in apostasy, than to conform themselves to the observation of good religion. So that, without such small houses be utterly suppressed, and the religious persons therein committed to great and honourable Monasteries of Religion in this realm, where they may be compelled to live religiously for the reformation of their lives, there can be no redress or reformation in that behalf. In consideration whereof, the King’s most Royal Majesty, being Supreme Head in earth, under God,
of the Church of England, daily studying and devising the increase and advancement arid exaltation of true doctrine and virtue in the said Church, to the only honour and glory of God, and the total extirping and destruction of vice and sin, having knowlege that the premises be true, as well by the complaints of their late visitations, as by sundry credible informations.
‘Considering also, that divers and great solemn Monasteries of this realm, wherein, thanks be to God, religion i« right well kept and observed, be destitute of such full numbers of religious persons as they might and may keep, have thought good that a plain declaration should be made of the premises, as well to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, as to others his loving subjects, the Commons in this present Parliament assembled; whereupon the said Lords and Commons, by a great deliberation, finally resolved, that it is, and shall be, much more to the pleasure of Almighty God, and for the honour of this realm, that the possessions of such small religious houses now being spent, spoiled, and wasted, for the increase and maintenance of sin, sh uld be used and converted to better uses; and the unthrifty religious persons so spending the same, be compelled to reform their lives. And thereupon most humbly desire the King’s Highness that it may be enacted, by authority of this present Parliament, that his Majesty shall have and enjoy, to him and his heirs forever, all and singular such Monas’eries, &e. as in
the printed statute.” And such was the tenour of this
famous Preamble: upon which we beg leave to subjoin
Mr. Fuller’s Observations.
“* We must not forget,” says he, “how in the foresaid Preamble, the King fairly claweth the great Monasteries, Wherein, says he, religion, thanks be to God, is right well kept and observed; tho’ he clawed them soon after in another acceptation.—However, most specious uses were pretended, That all should be done to the pleasure of Almighty God, and for the honour of the realm. And particular eare is taken in the statute, as it is printed, For the reservation of many rents and services, corrodies and pensions to founders, donors, and benefactors. They [the purchasers or grantees] were also to occupy yearly as much of the demesnes in tillage as tke Abbots did,or their farmers under them, within the time of tnenty yeart next before this Act, otherwise forfeiting to the King’s highness, for every month so offending, L.6:li.i, * Fuller’t Ck. Hist. Book VI. p. Sl-2.
to be recovered to hit use in any of his courts of record. The arrears whereof, if rigorously exacted, would amount to a vast sum from such offenders, whose hospitality was contracted to a shepherd and his dog; neither relieving those’ that would work by their industry, nor such as could not work bv their charity. These penalties stood in full force above SO years, viz. till the 21st of King James, when by Act of Parliament they were repealed. Indeed, such who are ob. noxious to Penal Statutes are only innocent by courtesy, and may be made guilty at the Prince’s pleasure. And tho’ . some statutes may be dormant, as disused, they are never dead till revoked, seeing commonly Princes call on such statutes when they themselves are called on by their necessities. Many of the English gentry knew themselves subject to such penalties, when, instead of maintaining tillage, they had converted the granges of Abbies into inclosures; and therefore provided for their own safety, when they wrought the King into a revocation of those statutes.”—lid. Stat. 21 K. J.c.28.
These observations are sufficiently plain and intelligible. There is not a word of obscurity in them, if we except corrodies: of which antiquated term we shall give our Reader an explication from the same writer.
“* Corrodies were so called a corrodendo, from eating together : for the heirs of the founders had the privilege to send a set number of their poor servants to Abbies to diet there. Thus many aged servants, (past working, not feeding, costly to keep, and cruel to cast off,) were sent by their masters to the Abbies, where they had plentiful food during their lives. But these corrodies, after the dissolution of the Abbies, were totally extinct, and no such diet after given, when both table and house were overturned.”
§ 8.—Some previous Remarks upon the King’s destructive Scheme of A general Dissolution of all the Monasteries in England.
X He demolition of the lesser Monasteries having given King Henry a taste oi monastic gold, it was not long before he resolved to glut his voracious appetite with the downfall of all,the rest, and make a prize of the Church. He had already prevailed with himself to pass the Rubicon! from
* Puller’s Ch. Hist. Book VI. p. 186.
‘Whence he continues his desolating march; still advancing by degrees from less to more, till at last he left not so much as a single Monastery (little or great) standing within the precincts of his realm of England.
Since therefore it may be questioned if the British Annals can furnish us with a more astonishing emergency, than the general Dissolution of the Religious Houses; and since this was an affair that touched the Regular Clergy in a verysensible manner, and occasioned an extraordinary Revolu-‘ tion in the Church, we Keg leave, and hope to be indulged the freedom and liberty to open the scene a little, and enlarge upon the circumstances. And this indeed we have endeavoured to perform, but with no other view than that of doing justice to the memory of the injured sufferers, and of exposing, at the same time, the unjustifiableness and insignificancy of the King’s motives for pushing his destructive project into execution. But before we enter upon a detail of this blessed work, we imagined it might not be amiss (by way of introduction) to premise the following remarks.
1. When and as often as the reader calls to mind the ma-” ny stately Monasteries and Churches that were formerly in England, and considers the dismal end they were brought •tio; if he does not, as a Christian; abhor the sacrilege of destroying Churches dedicated to the service of God, only for the vile profit made of the materials, he may at least, as a man, reflect on the inhumanity of demolishing such noble -structures (heretofore, perhaps, the greatest ornaments of this island) by the hands of the natives themselves; and that with such stubborn rage and relentless fury, as if the work had been done by a victorious army of barbarians.
“O lofty towers and sacred piles,
That once adoni’d these happy isles!
Who can recount your overturning,
Without deep sighs, and bitter mourning?”
‘Ward’s Ref. c. 1.
2. Our Monasteries have long since perished, nor have we, at this day, any footsteps left of the piety of our ancestors, to shew to inquisitive strangers, besides a few tattered walls and deplorable ruins! Nay, the ruins of most of them are not only gone to ruin themselves, but their very situations are quite lost to us, and remembered no more! “Jam seges est ubi Trojafuit!” 3. The shocking hostilities committed by King Henry. VIII. against the Church (to make .use” of Lord Herbert’*
ex predion) astonished the Christian world. And Well they might : for with sortie, I find, it is even doubted, whether the destruction of Christian Churches at this juncture was not equal to the sacrilegious ravages of Julian the Apostate.
4. This woful work was both projected and carried into execution by Commissary-General Cromn-el [a name ever fatal to the Church!] And he acted, in this business, in quality of principal agent; being not only the King’s Vicar General, but his Scout-Master-General too, as Mr. Fuller humorously styles him *. In which capacity he employed a world ofspies and hungry emissaries, whom he empowered with orders and instructions, to go from one religious house to another, in quest of monastic irregularities and disorders. These Visitois (for so they were called) exerted their power to the utmost stretch, and were far enough from partiality in their inquisition. In short, upon their return to London, they gave in a most tragical relation of the immorality of the monks, &c. And the consequence of their informations was this, that Cromwel, by virtue of his high commission, and without further proofs, dissolved all the Abbies and Monasteries in England. Some few of them indeed capitulated, but by far the greater part were taken by storm, plundered, and demolished! This done, Ctomuel politicly advised the King to alienate the Abbey Lands by sale or deed of gift; that by this means the ejectment of the former possessors might become to all intents and purposes irrevocable, and repossession impossible.
“f The writers that lived near that time,” says Bishop liurnet, “represeut the matter very odiously, and say, about 10,000 persons were sent to seek for their livings, only forty shillings in money and a gown being given to every religious man. And it is generally said, and not improbably, that lhe commissioners were as careful to enrich themselves, as to increase the King’s revenue. The churches and cloisters were, for the most part, pulled down, and the lead, bells, and other materials, were sold. The people, that had been well entertained at the Abbots’ tables, were sensible of their loss; for generally as they travelled over the country, the Abbies were their stages, and were houses of receptiou to travellers and strangers. The poor that fed on their daily alms were deprived of that supply. But to allay these discontents, Cromwel advised the King to sell their lauds at very easy rates, to the gentry in the several countries. This drew in the gentry apace, both to be satisfied with what was done, and to assist the crown for ever in defence of these laws; their own interest being so interwoven with the rights of the crown.
* “The Lord Crommel, Scout-Master-General in this desipn, utayed at cmirt, whilst liin subordinate emissaries! sent unto him all their intelligence.” fuller’s Ch. Hist. Ii. vi. j>. 306.
-j- Burnct’t Iliit. Ref. Vol. I. B. iii. p. 283.
§ 4.—King Henry absolves the Religious from any farther Obligation or Observance of their Monastic Vows… Cromwel is appointed his Majesty’s principal Commissary in the grand, Affair of the General Dissolution. The Names of some of his sub-deputies… Copy of an Instrument or Act of Surrender.. .A remarkable Letter from Richard Bellasis to Lord Cromwel.
A o pave the way to the astonishing Ecclesiastical Revolution we are going to recount, the King, in virtue of his dispensing power, and, as Head of the Church, took upon him to secularize religious persons, and to absolve and free them entirely from the servitude of their Monastic Vows ; as it is expressed in a statute enacted for that purpose: ‘Where all and singular religious persons, of what order, rule, or habit soever, are said to be put at their liberty, from the danger, servitude, and condition of their religion and profession, whereunto they were professed, and 1iave free liberty giveif them to purchase to themselves and their heirs, in fee-simple, fee-tail, &c. manors, lands, &c. in like manner as though they, or any of them, had never been professed, or enter into any such religion.’ — Vid. Stat. 31 U. 8. c. 13.
And here we beg leave to observe, first, that it is impossible to reconcile this absolution-statute with the doctrine delivered in the famous Six Articles. For, according to the fourth article, the monks, &c. were obliged, upon pain of death, to live up to the duties of their religious profession. [The second offence, in this matter, being declared felony by the law] Whereas the statute now before us, at one single blow, knocks off the spiritual fetters of a cloistered life, and secularizes the religious as effectually, to all intents and purposes, as if they, or any of them, had never been professed. These proceedings are truly surprising. But our surprise, perhaps, will abate something, when we condider that the conduct of K. Henry VIII. after his revo>l-fc from the See of Rome, was nothing else hut a continued se — ries of inconsistencies. From that unlucky period, he iv.is always doing and undoing he knew not what, nor why. And. thus was he perplexed thro1 the remainder of his reign, and (what is still worse) was so unfortunate at bis death, as to~ leave the nation entangled in reliyious labyrinths, wherein” it has been, for many generations, and still is, unhappily, bewildered to this day!
Secondly, it is to be observed, that the above mentioned statute is generally represented as this King’s last public act in quality of Supreme Ordinary. For after this, we are told his Majesty stept behind the scene, and acted only the part of a promptei•; resigning to another man the honour of being the hero of the trayedy.
And who should this man be, but the celebrated Thomas Cromwel? The destructive sc/ieme was of his own project-ment; and who more fit to be employed in the management and execution of it than himself? No wonder then, if, at this juncture, and upon so extraordinary an occasion, we find him advanced to the dignity of the King’s *Commissary General, and surrounded by a crowd of commissioners, or sub-delegates : amongst whom the following are particularly mentioned by Mr. Fuller, viz.
“f Richard Lay ton, ‘Ihomas Leiyh, William Fetre, Doctors of the Law, D. John London, Dean of Wallinyford. Of the three first I can say nothing; but I find the latter (tho’ employed to correct others) no great saint himself • for afterwards he was publicly convicted of perjury, and adjudged to ride with his face to the horse’s tail, thro’ Windsor and Ockinyham, with papers about his head denoting his crime; which was done accordingly.”
To these sub-delegates were afterwards added Southwell, Guye, Price, Bellasise, Cave, &c. who, with Cromwel at their head, invaded the Church with such unexampled fury, and carried on the blessed work so vigorously, that, in one year’s time, ten thousand parochial, abbatial, conventual, &c. churches, chapels, oratories, &c. were entirely ruined, if there be no exaggeration in this noted verse: ,
“Millia dena units Templorum destru.it annus!”
* The patent for Cromwel’* Vicar-Generalship styles him Vicemyerentem, Vicarium Gcnerulcm, ac Cvmmissurivm Specialem et Priiicipalcm. ‘ Vid. Mr. Cai tier’s Collection of Records, No. XXX.
f Fuller’s Ch. Hist B. \i. p. 317,
“In the short period of a year, ’tis said,’
Ten thousand Temple’s in the dust were laid!”
Vid. Fuller’s Ch. Hist. Book vi. p. 309, and the
Appendix, No. IX.
Mr. Fuller is of opinion it was Christchurch Priory, (of Canon Regulars) near Aldgate, London, that led the dismal dance.
“* As for the manner of dissolving thereof, whereas all Abbies afterwards were stormed by violence, (whatever is plausibly preteuded to the contrary) this only was fairly taken by composition. For the Prior thereof was sent for by the King, commended for his hospitality, promised preferment, as a man worthy of greater dignity.—Whereupon he surrendered the same to the King’s use.—What might move the King to single this Priory out of all the rest, to lead this sad dance, is variously conjectured. Indeed, this was the ancientest of all England, of that order, since the Conquest, I mean of Canon Regulars, as our Author [Stow] tells us. And therefore it was but reasonable that the oldest should go first, and that the first born should be first buried. But surely no such consideration moved King Henry to this choice, who was not so methodical in bis deeds of undoing.”
Some kind of method, however, was constantly pursued in conducting these acts of desolation, or deeds of undoing, as Mr. Fuller further observes. And it was this.
“f King Henry sent a large instrument,” saith Sanders, “to every monastery, fairly ingrossed in parchment, enjoining them all to subscribe, sign, and seal the same with their seal conventual, upon the pain of his displeasure.— Most certain it is (which amounts almost to as much in effect) a general intimation was given to all houses, how acceptable such an act would be to the King. It was also pressed upon the said Monks, Friars, and Nuns, that by being obnoxious to the King’s anger, this [i. e. the stripping them of their temporals] might and would be done without their consent; so that it was better, rebus sic stantibus, to make a virtue of necessity.”.
Add to this, that the very instruments the religious were obliged, at this juncture, to sign and seal, required their throwing themselves upon (what they never found) the King’s mercy. I shall gratify the reader with a sight of
* Fuller’s CK Hitt. B.n. p. 8t7. f /M* p.Jl».
one of these curiosities in puris naturalibus, and without altering the least tittle of its ancient and venerable pseudography. Such is the following
Copy of an Instrument or Act of Surrender.
‘Whereas yowr Hyghnes being Supreme Hedde immeadiately aftre Christ, of his Church in this yowr royalme of England, so consequently generall and only Reformator of all Religious Persons there, hare full authority to correct and dys-olve at your Graces pleasure and libertye, all Covents and Religious Companyes, abusing the rewles of their profession. Wherefore minded hereaftre to folowe the same, couforrayng owr seltfes Onto the will and pleasure of owr Supreme Hedde undre God in Erthe, the Kinges Majestye, withe muiuall assent and consent doo submytt owr selffes unto the mercye of our said Soveraygne Lorde. And with like mutual! assent and consent doo surrender and yelde upe unto the handes of the same, all owr saide howse of in , comenly caMyd ,
withe all landes, tenements, gardens, medowes, waters, pond-yards, feedings, pastures, comens, rentes or tythes aperteyning unto the same; mooste humbly besechyng his mooste Noble Grace to disspose of us, and of the same, as best schall stonde withe his mooste gracious pleasure. And farther, freely to grauut unto every one of us Licens undre Writyng and Sceall, to chaunge our Abites into seealer fasshion, and to receive such maner of livyngs as other Seculer Priestes comenly be preferryd unto. And we all faythfully schall pray unto Almighty God, long to preserve his mooste Noble Grace wythe encrease of inoche felicitie and honor.
‘And in witnes of all and singuler the premisses, we have put owr Covent Sceall, this day of .’
N. B. All Abbots, Priors, and other heads of Religious Houses, (and all their subjects) were expressly and peremptorily injoined to sign, seal, and subscribe their names to this, or some such like instrument.
Thus the Religious being compelled to surrender their Properties without further ceremony, became an ea«y prey to the greedy Visitors; whereof such as were vested with extensive commissions and a discretionary
porver*, proceeded directly to ejectment. And in order to preclude the return of the religions inhabitants for the future, their houses (after having been severely ransacked and -plundered) were utterly ruined and defaced. And this woful sentence (pronounced by the Commissary General) ^eras executed with such relentless rigour, ana in so barbarous a. manner, that not so much as the dead walls were spared. In short, the dreadful havoc and the sacrilegious depredations committed in and about these ancient monuments of devotion, (as my Lord Herbert styles them) by iZrommel and his fellow-plunderers, are, we think, too shocking to be repeated; and, for this reason, we forbear the recital of them.
However, we hope our Reader will not be displeased with one instance out of the many that might be produced, if the ‘vile conduct of these devouring locusts (the visitors we mean) in the person of Bichard Bellasise; who, it seems, had been appointed by Cromwel to destroy Jervaux Abbey and Burlington Priory [of Can. Reg.-] : that from the behaviour of this incendiary alone, he may learn how significantly the rest of the visitors were employed.
“Crimine ab uno,
And thus does our pious sub-deputy give an account to Lord Cromwel in what manner he had performed part of his commission, and how he intended to execute the rest, in a remarkable letter to his Lordship as follows.
“Plesyth your good Lordshipp to be advertysed, I have taken down all the leade of Jervase, and made itt in pecys of half foders, which leade amountyth to the number of 18 score and five foders, with thirty and•five foders that were there before; and the said leade cannot be conveit nor caryed until! the next sombre, for the ways in this contre are so foull and deep, that no caryage can pass in wyntre; and as concernyng the rasing and taking downe of the house, iff itt be your Lordshipp’s pleasure, I am mindeth to lett itt stand to the spring of the year,- by reason of the days are now so short, itt would be double charges to do itt now; and as Concernyng the selling of the bells, I cannot sell
+ The generality of the Visitors were furnished with a plenitude of power, to visit, deprive, or suspend Archbishops, Bishops, and the rest of the inferior Clergy. A,nd with regard to the Monasteries, they had an absoliiteand illimited authority.—See a full account of these powers in Mr. Collier’s Heel. Hitt. Vol. 11. B. ii. p. 105, and bin Collection of Record*, No. XXX.
them above 15 shillings the hundreth, wherein I wolde gladly know your Lordshipp’s pleasure, whether I shall sell them after that price, or send them up to London; and iff they be sent up, surely the caryage will be costly from, that place to the water; and as for Brydlington, I have tioyn nothing there, but spareth itt to Marck, because the days are now so short; and from such time as I begyn, I trust shortly to dispatche itt, after such fashion, that when all is finished, 1 trust your Lordsbipp shall think that 1 have been no evil howsbound in all such thiugs as your Lordship], appointed me to do; and thus the Holy Ghost ever preserve your Lordsbipp in honour.
“At York this 14 day of Nov. by your most bounden headman,
“Richard Bellycys.” Thus fell the great solemn Monasteries of this realm, to the number of 615! and with the demolition of religious houses, churches, &c. ended (to his immortal honour) King Henry’s Reformation! For, as the noble Author of this Prince’s Life observes, Henry promoted no other Reformation but only that which would turn the penny and increase the exchequer.
§ 5.—Of the six Bishoprics erected by K. Henry VIII. . . The Erection is confirmed by Cardinal Pole in the Reign of Queen Mary… The Changes at Westminster.
And now our great Monarch seemed to be placed in the happy circumstances of the famous King of Lydia. Riches, with a full spring tide, came rolling in upon him from every quarter! insomuch that he soon found himself obliged to institute a new court, with proper officers, to collect and manage to advantage his extraordinary royal intrado. It was called The Court of Augmentation. But it proved to be an unprosperous establishment; for, in seven years time, it came to nothing!
However, out of this prodigious mass of wealth, which must needs accrue from the seizure of all the houses, lands, and revenues (besides the jewels, plate, and ready money, of all the Religious Orders in England, Henry, with much ado, was persuaded to restore some inconsiderable scraps to the Church. And with this view, he is said to have set apart eight thousand pounds per annum, to support the six Bishopries which he afterwards erected at Oxford, Peterborough, Bristol, Gloucester, Chester, and Westminster. The five first remain Episcopal Sees to this day. But of £lie last place, as a Bishop’s seat, we have but little to say, further than that it was soon up, and soon down again; once a Bishopric, now a Deanry. That D. Thirlby (or ^I’hurlby) was both the first and the last Bishop of Westminster; and that, in the next reign, it was dissolved by the King’s Letters Patents, as D. Heylin informs us.
And here, perhaps, it may not be improper to observe,
that the erection of the above-mentioned Episcopal Sees,
‘with some other alterations of a similar nature, that had been
made by King Henry VIII. towards the conclusion of his
reign, were first dispensed with, to remain in statu quo,
and afterwards confirmed by Cardinal Pole in the reign of
Queen Mary : yet so, that the new erected Cathedrals,
Hospitals, &c. are declared, in the Cardinal’s Bull of
Dispensation, to have obtained no sanction or validity from
their first irregular establishment by tlie King; and that
therefore it was thought necessary they should be grounded
upon and supported by apostolical Authority; in virtue
whereof, the above changes and alterations are said to be
and to remain firm and inviolable for ever.—See as much
of this Bull as makes for our purpose, in the Appendix,
But of all the changes that happened at this time to particular churches, those that befel Westminster Abbey Church are, perhaps, none of the least remarkable: and, as such, we beg leave to lay them before the Reader in D. Heylin’s own words.
“*The Abbey of Westminster” says he, “had been founded for a Convent of Benedictin Monks by King Edward the Confessor, valued, at the suppression by King Henry the Eighth, at the yearly sum of 3977 pounds in good old rents, anno 15S9. At which time, having taken to himself the best and greatest part of the lands thereof, he founded with the rest a Collegiate Church, consisting of a Dean and Secular. Canons; and afterwards erected it into an Episcopal See.”
But its too near vicinity to the court, exposed it to the depredations of the nobility, by whom it was so unmercifulfuly fleeced, that Bp. Thirlby was hard put to it to sup
f Heylin’s Hist. Ref. p. 56,
port his dignity with the scanty allowance that was left him. But fortune did not always frown upon him. For in K. Edward’s reign he had the good luck to be translated to Norwich. And as he never had a predecessor, so never was there any successor (after his translation) appointed in his room, in the See of Westminster.
“f For in the sixth year of King Edward, the Bishoprick of Westminster was dissolved by the King’s Letters Patents; by which the county of Middlesex, which had before been laid unto it, was restored unto the See of London.— Most of the lands of Westminster were invaded by the great men of the court, the rest laid out for the reparation of S. PauCa, pared almost to the very quick in those days of rapine. From hence came that significant by-word of
robbing Peter topay Paul.” In short: “% In the space
of twenty years it bad been changed from an Abbey to a Deanry, from a Deanry to a See Episcopal; and from that reduced again to a Deanry; and lastly by Queen Elizabeth (having first pleased herself in the choice of some of the best lands belonging to it) it was to be called The Collegiate Church of St. Peter’s, in Westminster.”
Much in the same manner does Mr. Fuller describe the changes at Westminster, only with this difference, that he allows a longer period of time (by ten years) for the completion of them. And thus (in his own most remarkable style) does he entertain bis reader upon this subject.
“§ The bells of S. Peter, in Westminster, had strangely rung the changes these last thirty years. Within which time, first, it was a stately and rich convent of Benedictin Monks. Secondly, it was made a Collegiate Church of a Dean and Prebendaries by King Henry VIII. Thirdly, by the same King it was made an Episcopal See, and Thomas Thirlby the first and last Bishop thereof. Fourthly, Queen Mary reseated the Abbot and Monks in the possession thereof, who were outed after her death. Lastly, Q. Elizabeth converted it again into a Collegiate Church.”
f Heylin’s Hist. Ref. p. 121. t Idem, p. 136.
5 Fuller’s Ch. Hist. Book ix. p. 70.
§ 6.—Sir William Dugd ale’s Account of the Suppression of our English Monasteries.
A He following narrative is taken out of Sir William DugdaWs celebrated History of Warwickshire (p. 801), where, after having mentioned the particular suppression of Polesworth nunnery, he takes an occasion to present his reader with a short view of the vile artifices and scandalous methods that were pursued by the King’s Agents or Commissioners in carrying on the general Dissolution of all the Abbies, Monasteries, Nunneries, &c. in the kingdom.
“I find it recorded by the Commissioners, that were employed to take surrender of the Monasteries in this shire, (an. 29. Hen. VIII.) that after strict scrutiny, not only by the fame of the country, but by examination of several persons, they found these Nuns vertuous and religious women, of good conversation. Nevertheless, it was not the strict and regular lives, or any thing that might be said in behalf of the Monasteries, that could prevent their ruin then approaching. So great an aim had the King to make himself thereby glorious, and many others no less hopes to be enriched in a considerable manner. But to the end that such a change should not overwhelm those that might be active therein, in regard the people every where had no small esteem of these houses, for their devout and daily exercises in prayer, alms-deeds, hospitality, and the like, whereby not only the souls of their deceas’d ancestors had much benefit, as was then thought, but themselves, the poor, as also strangers and pilgrims constant advantage; there wanted not the most subtle contrivances to effect litis stupendous work, that, I think, any age has beheld; whereof it will not be thought improper, I presume, to take here a short view.
“In order therefore to it, was that which Cardinal Wolsey had done for the founding of his Colleges in Oxford and Ipswich made a precedent, viz. the dissolving of above thirty Religious Houses, most very small ones, by the licence of the King and Pope Clement VII. And that it might be the better carried on, Mr. Thomas Cromwell, who had been an old servant to the Cardinal, and not a little active in that, was the chief person pitch’d upon to assist therein. For I look upon this business as not originally designed by the King, but by some principal ambitious men of that age, who projected to themselves all worldly advantages
imaginable, thro’ the deluge of wealth which was like to flow amongst litem by this hideous storm.
“First, therefore, having insinuated to the King matter of profit and honour, (viz. profit, by so vast an enlargement of his revenue, and honour, in being able to maintain mighty armies to recover bis right in France, as also to fctrengthen himself against the Pope, whose Supremacy he himself had abolished, and to make the firmer alliance with such Princes as had done the like) did they procure Cranwer’s advancement to the See of Canterbury, and more of the ProtestantClergy (as my authority terms them) to other Bishopricks and high places ; to the end that the rest should not be able, in a full council, to carry any thing against their design; sending out preachers to persuade the people to stand fast to the King, without fear of the Pope’s curse, or his dissolving their allegiance.
“Next, that it might be more plausibly carried on, care was taken so to represent the lives of Monks, Nuns, Canons, $c. to the world, as that the less regret might be made at their rain. To which purpose, Thomas Cromwell being constituted General Visitor, employed sundry persons, who acted their parts therein accordingly, viz. Richard Layton, Thomas Ijeigh, and William Petre, Doctors of the Law, and D. John London, Dean of WaUingford, and others. By which they were to inquire into the government and behaviour of the Religious of both sexes. Which Commissioners, the better to manage their design, gave encouragement to the Monks not only to accuse their Governors, but to inform against each other; compelling them also to produce tJte charters and evidences of their lands, as also their plate and money, and to give an inventory thereof. And hereunto they added certain injunctions from the King, containing most severe and strict rules; by means whereof, divers being found obnoxious to censure, were expelled, and many, discerning themselves not able to live free from exception and advantage that might be taken against them, desired to leave their habit.
“Having by these Visitors thus searched into their lives, (vrhich by a black book, containing a world of enormities, were represented in no small measure scandalous, to the end that the people might be better satisfied with their proceedings), it was thought convenient t« suggest that the lesser houses, for want of good government, were chiefly guilty of these crimes that were laid to their charge: and so they did, as appears frcw the Preamble of that Act for their dissolution, made in the 27th of Henry VIII. which Parliament, (consisting in the most part of such members as were pack’d for the purpose, thro’ private interest, as is evident from divers original letters of that time, many of the nobility, lor the like respects also, favouring the design) assented to the suppressing of all such houses as had been certified of less value than two hundred pounds per annum, and giving1 them, with their lands and revenues, to the King. Yet so, as not only the religious persons therein should be committed to the great and honourable Monasteries of the realm, .where they might be compelled to live religiously for the reformation of their lives, wherein, thanks be to God, Religion is well kept and. observed, (they are the words of the Act) but that the possessions belonging to such houses should be converted to better uses, to the pleasure of God Almighty, and the honour and profit of the realm.
“But how well the tenour thereof was pursued we shall see; these specious pretences being made use of for no other purpose, than by opening this gap to make way for the ruin of the greater houses, wherein it is by the said Act acknowledged that Religion was so well observed. For no sooner were the Monks, &c. turn’d out, and their houses demolished, (that being the first thought requisite, lest some accidental change might conduce to their restitution) but care was taken to prefer such persons to the superiority in government, upon any vacancy in these greater houses, as might be instrumental to their surrender, by tampering with the Convent to that purpose; whose activeness was such, that within the space of two years several Convents were wrought upon, and Commissioners sent down, to take them at their hands to the King’s use; of which number I find, that besides the before specified Doctors of the Law, there were 34 Commissioners.
“The truth is, that there was no omission of any endeavours that can well be imagined to accomplish these surrenders. For so subtilly did the Commissioners act their part, as that after earnest solicitation with the Abbots, and finding them backward, they first tempted ihem with pensions during life, whereby they found some forward enough to promote the work, as the Abbot of Hales, in Gloucestershire, was, who had high commendation for it from the Commissioners, as their letters to the Visitor General do manifest. So likewise had the Abbot of Ramsey and the Prior of Ely: ?Jay, some were so obsequious, that after they had wrought the surrender of their own houses, they were employed as commissioners to persuade others; as the Prior of Gttisborn, in Yorkshire, for one. Neither were the courtier* unactive in driving on this work; as may be seen by tbe Lord Chancellor Audley’% employing a special agent to treat wit.j the Abbot of Athelney, and to offer him a hundred marks per annum pension, in case he would surrender; which the Abbot refused, insisting upon a greater sum : and the personal endeavours he used with the Abbot oiOsitke, in Essex, as appears by his letter to the Visitor General, wherein it is signified, that he had with great solicitation prevailed with the said Abbot; but withal insinuating his desire that, his place of Lord Chancellor being very cltargeable, the King might be moved for an addition of some more profitable offices unto him. Nay, I find that this great man, the Lord Chancellor, hunting eagerly after the Abbey of iValden, in Essex, (out of the ruins whereof, afterwards that magnificent fabrick called by the name of’ Audley Inn, was built) as an argument to obtain it, did, besides the extenuation of its worth, alledge, that he had in this world sustained great damage and infamy in serving the King, which the grant of that should recompense.
“Amongst the particular arguments which were made use of by those that were averse to surrender, I find that the Abbot of Feversham alledged the antiquity of their Monastery’s foundation, viz. by King Stephen, whose body, with the bodies of the Queen and Prince, lay there interred, and for whom were used continual suffrages and commendations by prayers. Yet it would not avail; for they were resolved to effect what they had begun by one means or other: insomuch that they procured the Bishop of London to come to the Nuns of Sion with their Confessor, to solicit them thereunto. Who after many persuasions, took it upon their consciences that they ought to submit unto the King’s pleasure therein, by God’s law. But what could not be effected by such arguments and fair promises, (which were not wanting nor unfulfilled, as appears by the large pensions that some active Monks and Canons had in comparison of others, even to a fifth or six-fold proportion more than ordinary) was by terror and severe dealing brought to pass. For under pretence of dilapidation in the buildings, or negligent administration of their offices, as also for breaking the King’s injunctions, they deprived some Abbots, and then put others that were more pliant in their room.
“From others they took their Convent Seals, to the end they might not, by making leases or sale of their jewels, raise money either for supply of their present wants, or payment of their debts, and so be necessitated to surrender. Nay to some, as in particular to the Canons of Leicester, the Commissioners threatened, that they would charge them
with adultery and b *• unless they would submit. And
I). London told the Nuns of Gods tow, that because he found them obstinate, he would dissolve the house by virtue of the King’s Commission, in spite of their teeth. And yet all was so managed, that the King was solicited to accept of theiii) not being willing to have it thought they were by terror moved thereunto; awl special notice was taken of such as gave out that their surrender was by Compulsion.
“Which courses (after so many that through underhand corruption led the way) brought on others apace; as appears by their dates, which I have observed from the very instruments themselves; insomuch that the rest stood amazed, not knowing which way to turn themselves. Some therefore, thought fit to try whether money might not save their houses from this dismal fate, so near at hand. The Abbot of Peterborough offered 2500 marks to the King, and three hundred Pounds to the Visitor General. Others with great constancy refused to be accessary in violating the donations of their pious founders. But these, as they were not many, so did they taste of no little severity. For touching the Abbot of Fountaines, in Yorkshire, 1 find, that being charged by the Commissioners for taking into his private hands some jewels belonging to the Monastery, which they called theft and sacrilege, they pronounced him perjured, and so deposing him, extorted a private resignation. And it appears that the monks of the Charter-house, in the suburbs of London, were committed to Newgale, where, with hand and barbarous usage, five of them died, and five more lay at the point of death, as the Commissioners signified ; but withal alledged, that the suppression of that house, being of so strict a rule, would occasion great scandal to their doings, forasmuch as it stood in the face of the world, infinite concourse comiugfrom all parts to that populous city; and therefore desired it might be altered to some other use. And lastly, I find that, under the like pretence ofrobbiug the Church, wherewith the aforesaid Abbot of Fountaines was charged, the Abbot of Glastonbury, with two of his Monks, being condemned to death, was drawn from Wells upon a hurdle, then hang’d upou the hill called Tor, near Glastonbury, his head set upon the Abbey gate, and his quarters disposed of to Wells, Bath, Jlchester, and Bridgwater.
Lapland Stochingt.—The numerous species of Sedge (called by botanists Carex) arc applied to a variety of useful purposes. In Herefordshire, for instance, sedge is used for tving young hop-plants to the poles; in Cambridge for lighting fires; and every where for making common chair bottoms. In Lapland, however, it has a much more important office, as will appear from the following passage translated from LinnoHis by Mr. Curtis. The great Swedish botanist is speaking of the Carex acuta :—” Thou wilt wonder, perhaps, curious reader, in what manner human beings are capable of preserving life during the intense severity of a winter’s frost in Lapland, a part of the world deserted on the approach of wiater by almost every kind of bird and beast. The inhabitants of this inhospitable climate are obliged to wander with their rein-deer flocks continually in the woods, not only in the day time, but through the longest winter nights; their cattle are never housed, nor do they eat any other food than liver-wort; hence the herdsmen, to secure them from wild beasts and other accidents, are of necessity
kept perpetually with them. The darkness of their nights is, in a degree, overcome and rendered more tolerable by the light of the stars reflected from the snow, and the Aurora Borealis, which in a thousand fantastic forms nightly illumines their hemisphere. The cold is intense, sullicient to frighten and drive us foreigners from their happy woods. No part of our bodies is so liable to be destroyed by cold as the extremities, which are situated farthest from the heart; the chilblains of the bunds and feet so frequent with us in Sweden sufficiently indicate this. In no part of Lapland do we find the inhabitants affected with chilblains, though, in respect to the country, one would expect them to be peculiarly subject to this disease, especially as they wear no stockings, while we clothe ourselves in one, two, and even three pair.— A Laplander preserves himself from tho violence of the cold in the following manner: he wears trousers made of the rough skin of the rein-deer which reach to his ankles, and shoes made of the same material, tho hair turned outward; this grass (the Carex acuta), cut down in the summer, dried, rubbed betwixt the hands, and afterwards combed and carded, he puts into his shoes, so as not only wholly to enwrap his feet, but the lower part of his legs also, which thus defended never buffer from tho severest cold; with this grass he also fills his hairy gloves to preserve his hands; and thus are those hardy people enabled to bear the frost—As this grass in the winter drives away cold, so in the summer it checks the perspiration of the feet, and preserves them from being injured by stones in travelling, for their shoes arc extremely thin, being made of untanncd skins. It is dillicult to learn on inquiry, what the particular species of grass is which is thus in request with these people, as some use one sort, and some another. It is, however, always a species of Carex, and we understood chiefly this.”—The liver-wort mentioned in this quotation is the rein-deer lichen, the Lichen Kangiferinus of Linnaeus, but now called Cenomyce Rajigifcrina.
American Politeness.—Vf hen a female of whatever condition (always alas! provided she has no negro blood in her veins) enters a couch, or packet (in most parts of the United States), or any other conveyance, the universal practice is for the best seat to be resigned to her use ; this in a carriage is considered to be the one which enables the traveller to sit with his face to the horses. Mr. Stuart (whose travels we recently noticed), being aware of this custom, but at the same time suffering much from riding backwards, took measures on one occasion for securing himself against the necessity of resigning the seat of honour; by application at the coachoffice he obtained a positive promise that tho favourite pla»e should be reserved for him, and that he should be left in. the undisturbed possession of it. At starting, Mr. Stuart, much to his satisfaction, seated himself according to his bargain, promising himself for once at least a day of comfort on his journey. His felicity, however, was of very short duration. The coachman pulled up in a street near the outskirts of the town, a door opened, anil the usual cry of “ladies” from the cad warned our traveller that his newly chartered rights were in danger of being contested. It was in vain that lie pleaded his bargain; the whole covenant was declared null and void ab inilio; coachman, porters, passengers, and by-Btanders, all joined in denouncing his claim as abominable and preposterous; the ladie* refused to enter the vehicle or even to leave their house until the seat was vacated; and all was uproar >md confusion. The landlord of the hotel whence the coach had started, being sent for to decide the dispute, refused to acknowledge the validity of the agreement, into which, considering its extraordinary nature, his bookkeeper could have no right to enter without his especial permission ; and on Mr. Stuart’s continuing to turn a deaf ear to representation, persuasion, remonstrance, and invective, the anury proprietor at length declared that if he persisted in retaining his seat, he might do so, but that he sheuld derive little benefit from his obstinacy; for that he would order the horses to be detached and led off to a spare coach, in which the ladies should have their proper places. As even yet no sign of concession appearevl, the threat was actually put in execution ; and our traveller finding at length that an individual has but little chance of resisting the united opinion of a whole population, was finally reduced to the necessity of following to the other vehicle amidst the jeers and exulting laughter of the by-slanders. Mr. Stuart, who tells the whole story with infinite good-humour, ad<U that after travelling a few miles he entered into conversation with his fair ejectors, and that the whole party soon became perfectly cordial,
The above wood-cut presents a view of this mnssive and ancient pile. The earliest seat of the bishopric of Durham was the small isle of Lindisfarne, off the coast of Northumberland. Here, in the year 635, Aidan, a monk, brought from Iona by the Northumbrian king Oswald, who had received his education at the court of his relative, Donald IV. of Scotland, fixed his residence, along with the other pious men who were to be his assistants in the work of introducing and diffusing the light of Christianity among the Pagan subjects of the Saxon sovereign. Another monk of Iona, named Gorman, had preceded Aidan’in the Northumbrian mission; but the severity of his temper, or his repulsive ina:i::or, is said to have so greatly impeded his success in conversion, that after a short time he gave up the attempt, and returned to his monastery The successor of Aidan, who died in 651, and from whom Lindisfarne derived the name of Holy Island, by which it is still known, was Finan, also from the same venerable northern seat of sanctity. His incumbency lasted for ten years,
[North-west View of Durham Cathedral.]
during which he commenced the building of the” church on Lindisfarne, which was, however, merely an edifice of wood, thatched with reeds. Three other S”
bishops followed, the last of whom, Eata, died ir The person next appointed to the see was the re”TM” St. Cuthbert. This celebrated character only new »* office of bishop for two years; but his name BM DM*^ more intimately associated with the see in IjisInO’ popular tradition, than any other with which ll.has,lva been connected. He is said to have been or^’Ba’shepherd, near Melrose; which condition he danced to exchange, according to the legend, lor a monk, by certain miraculous intimations from which we shall not stop, to recount. His W”f-j extreme asceticism soon procured him unriva el brity. Not only was he believed to be e supernatural powers while alive; for many ^ death his mortal relics were regarded as having • ^ perty of working miracles. All who have read story history of the English Church are familiar with
of the manner in which the monks of Lindisfarne, driven i from their original abode by the ravages of the Danish pirates, were directed in their choice of a new residence l>y the dead body of St. Cuthberl. It is affirmed that the coffin in which it was deposited, after having suffered itself, to be carried about for a long while by the wandering brethren without resistance wherever they chose, suddenly halted when it was brought to the spot on which the; city of Durham is now built, and could not by any force be removed from its station. This happened towards the close of the tenth century, in the time of Bishop Aldune, or Aldwine. The extraordinary event was, of course, assumed by him and his brethren to point out the place where it happened as the appointed site of their new monastery. Preparations, accordingly, were immediately made for effecting the settlement thus distinctly commanded by ,heaven. The miraculous tale was found, as might have been expected, to have a powerful effect in exciting the pious exertions of the neighbouring inhabitants. The wood with which the place was covered was cleared by their fervent activity; and after the persevering labour of two or three years, the spire of a completed Christian temple was seen rising in the midst of the waste.
Obvious as are the traces of fraud and superstition which this narrative presents, it is not the less fitted to add to the interest of the spot where the scene of it is laid. The very grossness of the invention which was successfully resorted to, in order to work upon the minds of the simple population, presents the most vivid picture that could be drawn of the ignorance and thick darkness of the time. The spectre is the most forcible as well as the most picturesque evidence of the gloom. The body of St. Cuthbert has since this date had a curious history; but one much too long for us to detail. The fable was that the clayey tenement of the departed saint remained as unaffected by corruption as when his spirit inhabited it; and this continued to be universally believed down at least to the Reformation. The most decisive confutation, however, which the story has received was given to it only a few years ago by the actual disinterment of the body. The Rev. James Uayne, rector of Meldon, has published a highly interesting account of this discovery in a quarto volume entitled ‘Saint Cuthbert; with an account of the state in which his remains were found upon the opening of his tomb, in Durham Cathedral, in the year Mdcccxxvii.’ The work is one of great learning and ability, and will well reward the perusal either of the antiquary or the general reader. Mr. Uayne conceives that he has proved that the coffin in which the remains of’the saint were found was the very one in which they lay for some centuries at Lindisfarne, and which was afterwards carried about from place to place by the monks in their search after a new residence. It is curious that this is not the only memorial we possess of these remote events. A book is still in the British Museum which is said to have been carried, about along with the coffin, and which yet presents some remarkable evidences of its alleged history. Upon this head we can only afford to mention Fart her that at the late disinterment it was found that a composition, in imitation of the natural appearance, had been substituted for the eyes of the saint, doubtless with the object of supporting the imposture respecting the pretended prereservation of his body. His skull, we may add, exhibited the fragments of a nose and chin turned upwards in rather a remarkable manner; and altogether its conformation seems to have been somewhat peculiar, although not of the description that, according to modern doctrines, would indicate any intellectual superiority in its possessor. The present Cathedral of Durham contains no portion of the church erected by Bishop Aldwine. It was begun in 1093, by one of his successors, William de .Carilepho, who had been abbot of St. Vincent the Martyr, in Nor
mandy, and presided over the see of Durham from 1080 till 1095. Mis immediate successor, Ralph Flambard, who held the office till 1128, continued the undertaking, and carried up the walls as far as the roof The tee was then five years vacant, during which the monks applied a great part of their revenues towards the completion of the work. It appears, however, not to have been finished till about the middle of the thirteenth century, when Nicholas Faruham was bishop, and Thomas Welscnme, or Melsonby, or Malsamb, prior of the monastery. Indeed some important additions seem to have been made to it within a few years of the close of the century.
The building therefore presents us with a complete exemplification or history of the progress of ecclesiastical architecture in England during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. According to the account of it published at the expense of the Antiquarian Society, with the drawings of Mr. Carter, and understood to be written, we believe, by Sir Henry Englelield, it illustrates the successive changes which took place during the reigns of the first three Henries, till by degrees the pointed hail completely superseded the circular roof, and the heavy Norman pillars had become polished into the light shafts of the early English. The general character of the edifice, however, is massy and ponderous, only a few of the last finished parts exhibiting the commencement of a lighter style. Some of the more ancient pillars are twenty-three feet in circumference. Within the last half century it has undergone extensive repairs in almost every part; but these unfortunately have not been generally executed in the best taste, nor with sufficient attention to the character of the original building. The south front is the one that preserves its ancient appearance most entire; but it is in great part encumbered and concealed from view by the cloisters, and other extraneous erections. The west front is the richest, and most imposing. Besides the square towers surmounted by pinnacles, which, as usual, crown its extremities, it is adorned by a projecting chapel in the centre, called the Galilee, flanked by buttresses and arches. The Galilee appears to have been repaired and renovated by Cardinal Langley, who was bishop of Durham at the commencement of the fifteenth century, and it is finished accordingly in a much more florid style than the greater part of the cathedral. It is 80 feet in length by 50 in breadth. Over it is a window of large dimensions, but of no remarkable beauty.
The Cathedral of Durham stands on the summit of the mount around which the town is built, and occupies, therefore, a singularly conspicuous and commanding position. Both from its site and its size it far overtops all the other buildings in the midst of which it is placed, and is seen from a great distance rising high above the horizon. It is built in the customary form of a cross; but in addition to the great central transept, which is 170 feet in length, it has smaller cross aisles at both its eastern and western extremities. A richly ornamented tower ascends from the centre of the building to the height of 212 feet; and two others, as already mentioned, of less height and plainer architecture, rise over the western front. The entire cathedral is about 411 feet in length, and about 80 feet in breadth.
The two fronts of which the best view is to be obtained are the north and the west. The former may be seen to great advantage from the spacious square called the Place, or Palace Green, which it overlooks, and on the opposite side of which stands the building called the Castle, which is the bishop’s city residence. The west front surmounts a rocky declivity, at the foot of which flows the river Wear; and from the opposite bank of that stream the facade a.id its battlemented towers show themselves with full eject, and in all their venerable grandeur.
OXFORD SHIR E.—Oxford Circuit.
This county is bounded on the north by Warwickshire and Northamptonshire; on the west by Gloucestershire; on the south by Berkshire; and on the east by Buckinghamshire. The extreme length of the county is fifty miles, its greatest breadth thirty-eight miles, and its circumference one hundred and thirty miles. It was included in the Roman province Flavia Caesariensis, inhabited by the Dobuni, and during the Saxon Heptarchy formed a part of the kingdom of Mercia. The Akeman Street, a Roman military way, enters this county near Alchester; and Dorchester is built on the site of the station Durocornovium. Oxfordshire contains one city and university, and had formerly abbeys at Dorchester, Ensham, Oseney, and Thame; priories at Bicester, Brightweil, Burford, and Minster Lovell; as well as nunneries at Godstow and Goring. It is in the province of Canterbury, and diocese of Oxford, excepting seven parishes in that of Lincoln. There are in this county twelve market-towns, and 280 parishes, containing in 1821, at the last census, 25,594 houses, and 136,971 inhabitants. It returns nine members to Parliament; viz. two for Oxford, two for the University, two for Woodstock, one for Banbury, and two for the county, which at present is represented by William Henry Ashurst, Esq., of Waterstock, and John Fane, Esq., of Wormsley. The air is considered as salubrious as that of any other county in England, and the soil, naturally dry, is entirely exempt from bogs, fens, and stagnant waters, being in general fertile both in grass and corn. The northern division is chiefly strong deep land, partly arable and partly pasture; the south-western includes the Royal Forest of Whichwood, a great part of which is woodland. On the banks of the Thames the soil is chiefly pasture. The Chiltern Hills form a wide tract of chalk, mixed with a small portion of loam and clay, but very full of flints: much of this is covered with beech wood; besides the Chiltern, there are not any hills in this county of considerable height: gentle eminences vary the landscape without obstructing tillage; on the grass farms much cheese is made, of a good quality, though in general thin ; the cows are chiefly of the old Gloucestershire kind, and Southdown sheep are preferred; many boars are also fed for the purpose of making brawn, a considerable article of trade at Oxford and other parts. The chief manufactures in this county are those of blankets at Witney, worsted plush at Banbury and Bloxham, of gloves and polished steel at Woodstock, and of malt at Henley; the employment of females in the neighbourhood of Thame is lace-making, and in the northern part of the county spinning wool. The produce is that which is common to the midland counties; also artificial grasses, particularly sainfoin. The hills yield ochre, pipe-clay, and other earths; as well as lime-stone, free-stone, and rag-stone. The rivers are the Bure, the Cherwell, the Evenlode, the Glyme, the Isis, the Ray, the Thame, the Thames, and the Windrush. The Bure is a branch of the Ray, which it joins near Bicester. The Cherwell rises in Northamptonshire, and passing Banbury discharges itself into the Isis below Oxford. The Evenlode rises in a detached part of Worcestershire, which adjoins this county, and passing Blenheim falls into the Isis near Cassington. The Glyme falls into the Evenlode. The Isis rises in the northern angle of Wiltshire, and enters this county near Lechlade, where it becomes navigable; after passing Ensham, it receives the Evenlode, and unites with the Cherwell below the city of Oxford: flowing southward it passes Abingdon, and below Dorchester is joined by the Thame, whence their united streams form the river Thames. The Thame rises near Tring in Hertfordshire, and flowing through the Vale of Aylesbury, enters Oxfordshire near Thame, and taking almost a south-westerly direction to Dorchester, unites with the Isis. The Windrush, rising amongst the Cotswold Hills in Gloucestershire, enters this county near Burford, ind passing Witney falls into the Isis at New-Bridge about eight miles below that town. The Oxford Canal commences at Longford in Warwickshire, enters this county near Claydon, passes Banbury, Alderbury, Somerton, Heyford Warine, Heyford Purcell, Shipton-on-Cherwell, Begbrook, and Wolvercott, and joins the Isis at Oxford.
he most memorable of the military transactions in this county were the battle between the English and the Danes in the year 914, at Hook Norton, in which the former were entirely defeated; the battle of Banbury between the Yorkists and Lancastrians in 1469, in which Edward IV. was made prisoner by the Earl of Warwick; and the skirmish at Chalgrove-field, 15th August 1943, which is rendered memorable by the death of the patriot Hampden. The magnificent seat and park of Blenheim was the grant of the British Parliament to the great Duke of Marlborough, on account of his signal victory over the French at Blenheim in Germany; and Shirburne Castle is the seat of the Earl of Macclesfield, Lord-Lieutenant of the county. Brough* Qastle is a remarkable structure; and the remains of the ancient mansions at Stanton Harcourt, and Minster Lovel, are Particularly interesting.
1. 36amptom Ibumöttu to which it is united, 67 houses, and 365 inhabitants. The church,
I dedicated to St. Nicholas, is a vicarage, value 7l. 9s. :i. pas bou – – tronage of Eton College. The Akeman Street crossed the river east to…”… oo:: o W. near Aliids. and Asthall barrow is the most con
on the west by Gloucestershire. * siderable tumulus on the Akeman. ALWE – BAMPTON-IN-THE-BUSH, 6) miles S.E. from Burford, and 71 357 SCOT, 5 miles S.E. from Burford, contains 65 houses, and from London, is situated on a branch of the river. Isis, and contains 7 inhabitants. It is a rectory, value 8, 16s. 8d. 285 houses, and 1460 inhabitants. It is said . o been a town – of some importance before the Conquest; and has a market on *THALL.3miles S.E. from Burford, contains with Ashall Leigh, wj. for fellmongers’ wares, no town in England having
such a trade for leather jackets, gloves, &c. A fair is held here 26th August. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a vicarage, divided between three portionists, each valued at 10l.0s. 10d., who are presented by the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. It is a large and handsome cruciform building, with a fine Norman tower in the centre surmounted by a lofty spire. In it is an organ placed there by private subscription. Not far westward from the church are the remains of the Castle, no part of which appears to be older than the reign of Edward II., when Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, had a licence to embattle his mansion at Bampton, in 1314; in the ceiling of the principal chamber is the badge of Henry VII. The township of Weald is included in the above statement of the population. There are also the hamlets of Aston and Cote, and part of the hamlet of Brighthampton or Brittendon, Chimney, and the chapelry of Shifford, in this parish. The free grammar-school at Bampton was founded in the reign of Charles II. by Robert Weysey, of Chimney.
BLACK-BOURTON, 5 miles S.E. from Burford, in the road from Farringdon to Worcester, contains 45 houses, and 336 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a vicarage, value 45l., in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Christchurch Oxford. It contains monuments of the Hungerfords.
BRIZE-NORTON, 33 miles S.E. from Burford, contains 96 houses, and 528 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Brize, is a vicarage, value 91.7s. 11d., in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Christchurch Oxford.
BROADWELL, 53 miles S. from Burford, contains 49 houses, and 226 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, is a vicarage, value 8l. 14s. 4d. The hamlet of Filkins and Holwell Chapelry are in this parish. Broadwell-Grove House is the seat of William Hervey, Esq. It is surrounded by rich woodland scenery, an opening in which affords a fine prospect over the Berk#. and Wiltshire hills. Filkin’s Hall is the seat of E. F. Colston,
BROUGHTON POGGS, 54 miles S.W. from Burford, contains 24 houses, and 114 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is a rectory, value 71.7s. 11d. Broughton Hall is the seat of Sir William Burnaby, Bart.
BURFORD, 18 miles N.W. from Oxford, and 76 from London, contains 290 houses, and 1409 inhabitants. It is situated on an ascent near the river Windrush, and had a charter from King Henry II., granting it all the customs of the townsmen of Oxford: although it has lost most of them, it still retains the appearance of a corporation, being governed by two bailiffs and other officers. The chief manufacture consists of duffels and rugs, and the inhabitants derive great advantage from its large corn-market on Saturday. The fairs are on the last Saturday in April, 5th July, and 25th Sept. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is a vicarage, value 311. 13s., in the patronage of the Bishop of Oxford. The edifice is cruciform, and has a Norman tower in the centre surmounted by a fine and lofty spire. In the church is a very fine monument erected to the memory of Sir Lawrence Tanfield, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, who died 30th April, 1625; several ancient tombs without inscriptions; a monument for one of the family of Harman, 1569; and many for that of Bartholomew. The font is hexagonal, with a sculptured representation of the crucifixion, &c. Here is a free grammar-school, founded by Simon Wisdome in 1571. The inhabitants of Burford celebrate yearly on Midsummer Eve a festival, in which they bear about the figure of a dragon, an ancient custom, said to have commenced in honour of a battle fought at Battle-edge, in which Cuthred King of the West-Saxons defeated Ethelbald King of the Mercians, and threw of his yoke. The banner of the last bore a golden dragon for a device. Upton and Signet are hamlets of this parish. Burford Priory, the seat of W. John Lenthall, Esq., contains several curious pictures; amongst them the famous one of the More family, another of the Lenthall family, portraits of Oliver Cromwell, Sir Kenelm Digby, the Earl of Pem. broke as Lord Chamberlain, the Earl of Holland, King Charles, &c.
CLANFIELD, 7 miles S.E. from Burford, and 2 miles S.W. from Bampton, contains 109 houses, and 490 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Stephen, is a vicarage, value 71.6s. 5d.
DUCKLINGTON, in a very beautiful situation 2 miles S. from Witney, contains 72 houses, and 373 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, is a rectory, value 241. 10s. 4d., in the patronage of Magdalen College Oxford. It is large, and stands on a hill at the southern extremity of the village; the architecture of the building is a mixture of the Norman and early pointed style. On the north side of the church is a large chapel, built about the reign of Edward III., the east and west windows of which contain particularly delicate ornamental tracery.
Hardwicke is a hamlet of this parish. The chapel stands within Cokethorpe Park, the seat of Walter Strickland, Esq.
KELMSCOTT, 9 miles S.W. from Burford, contains 29 houses, and 118 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. George, is a curacy.
KENCOTT, 5 miles S. from Burford, contains 40 houses, and 174 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. George, is a rectory, value 6l. 19s. 4d.
Shilton is in a detached part of Berkshire, partly in this hundred; and Langford is chiefly in Berkshire; but the township of Grafton and the hamlet of Radcutt are in this hundred. Radcutt bridge over the Isis is of great antiquity.
STANDLAKE, 5 miles S.E. from Witney, contains 113 houses, and 643 inhabitants, including part of the hamlet of Brighthampton, or Brittenton, which is in the parish. The church, dedicated to St. Giles, is a rectory, value 161. TOs. 10d., in the patronage of Magdalen College Oxford. Cokethorpe Park, the seat of Walter Strickland, Esq., is extremely well wooded, with a portion of lawn and pasture grounds; and though exhibiting none of the bolder features of Nature, nor commanding any very extensive views except in the direction of Oxford, presents a calm and interesting scene. The mansion was built by Sir Simon Harcourt, afterwards Lord Harcourt and Lord Chancellor in the reign of Anne. The Queen presented His Lordship with the carved oak decorations of the dining-room, and visited the chancellor at this seat after the house was finished.
Cokethorpe Park was sold in 1755 to Maximilian Western, Esq., whose daughter and heiress married Walter, brother of Sir William Strickland, Bart., of Boynton in Yorkshire. Eastward of the mansion is a large extent of fertile meadows, through which the river Windrush meanders, and about four miles hence falls into the Isis near New Bridge in the road to Abingdon. . Upon this river Mr. Strickland has an extensive fishery: his woods are well stocked with pheasants; and game of every description abounds on his Imanors.
WESTWELL, 21 miles S.W. from Burford, on the borders of Gloucestershire, contains 31 houses, and 160 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a rectory, value 5l. 3s. 9d., in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Christchurch Oxford.
WITNEY, situated on the river Windrush, 11 miles from Oxford, and 66 from London, contains 533 houses, and 2827 inhabitants: It consists chiefly of two streets disposed on the sides of the road from Burford to Woodstock. Witney has long been noted for its manufacture of blankets; but since the introduction of machinery, blankets have been made at a woollen mill near Bridgend in Glamorganshire, whence they are sent to Witney for sale. The river Windrush is supposed to possess some abstergent qualities, which contribute to the whiteness and softness of the excellent and indeed unrivalled blankets manufactured here. It is likewise celebrated for its trout and cray-fish, which are plentiful and of the finest quality. – – –
The Hals is an ancient building, in which the affairs of the incorporated Company of blanket-weavers are transacted. The marketon Thursday is well attended by the neighbouring farmers, who sell large quantities of grain by sample. Fairs are held on Thursday in Easter week, 5th April, 29th June, 2nd August, and 23rd Nov. The grammar-school was founded in 1663 by Henry Box, a native of this town. –
The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a rectory and vicarage; the rectory value 471. 9s. 4d., the vicarage value 91.12s. 6d. It is in the patronage of the Bishop of Winchester…The historians, who relate the deliverance of Alwin Bishop of Winchester from the
charge of adultery with Queen Emma, the mother of Edward the
Confessor, by her walking unhurt over nine red-hot ploughshares, state that the Bishop gave the manor of Witney, with eight others, to his cathedral, in commemoration of that event. Witney was afterwards granted by Henry de Blois, brother of King Stephen and Bishop of Winchester, to his newly founded hospital of St. Cross at wo. The church, one of the finest in the county, is situated at the southern extremity of the High Street. It is a large and handsome structure, built in form of a cross, with a tower in the centre, whence rises a lofty spire, the proportions of which are rather substantial than elegant. The northern entrance, a descent of several steps, is by a circular-headed doorway, over which is a vacant canopied niche; and similar niches occur in various divisions of the north side. The spacious chancel contains a piscina and remains of the stone stalls used by the priests and deacons during the celebration of mass. On the floor is a marble slab inlaid with brass, in memory of Richard Ayshcombe of Lyford, ob. 1606. At the end of the north transept are two recumbent figures in stone without inscription. A chapel on the north side is the burial-place of the Wenman family. The ceiling of this chapel is of carved wood painted and abundantly interspersed with gilt stars.
Dr. Thomas Jackson, the ornament of the University of Oxford, was appointed Rector of Witney in 1638. “He was a person,” says Anthony Wood, in Athen. Oxon., “furnished with all learned languages, arts, and sciences, especially metaphysics, which he looked upon as a necessary handmaid to divinity.”
The hamlets of Crawley, Curbridge, Hailey, and Lew, are in this parish. In allusion to the proximity of these villages the natives repeat the following verse:
Hailey, Crawley, Curbridge and Cogges, Witney spinners, and Ducklington dogs.
YELFORD, 4 miles S. from Witney, contains 2 houses, and 16 inhabitants. The church is dedicated to St. Swithin, and is a rectory, value 4l. 3s.6d.
2. 36amburp bumbret,
Is bounded on the north by Warwickshire and Northamptonshire, which last bounds it on the east. . On the south and vest it is bounded by Bloxham hundred. A detached portion of this hundred is situated on the south-west, and is nearly environed by Bloxham hundred: another detached portion is surrounded by Chadlington and Wootton hundreds.
BANBURY, 23 miles N.W. from Oxford, and 75 from London, contains 651 houses, and 3396 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Cherwell, and consists of several good streets, disposed on the roads leading to Warwick, Southam, Daventry, Brackley, Oxford, and Chipping Norton. The Oxford and Coventry Canal, which passes this town, is a source of much advantage to the inhabitants, who have no staple manufacture, but derive a great portion of their support from the trade in cheese, which finds a ready sale in the weekly market held on Thursday,+the best in the county. The fairs are on Thursday after 17th Jan., the first Thursday in Lent, second Thursday before Easter, Ascension Day, Thursday in Trinity week, Old Lammas Day, Thursday after the 1st Oct., Old St. Luke’s Day, and second Thursday before Christmas.
Banbury received its first charter of incorporation from Queen Mary, and is governed by a Mayor, High Steward, and Recorder, the last office held by the Marquess of Bute, six capital burgesses, thirty assistants, a town clerk, and two serjeants at-mace. The Privilege of returning one member to Parliament is vested in the Qorporation, consisting of nineteen. The present member is the Hon. Arthur Charles Legge, brother of the Earl of Dartmouth. Here was formerly a castle of great strength, which sustained two severe sieges, in 1642 and 1644, during the civil war; but only a wall at present remains. The church, rebuilt about thirty years ogo, in an age not remarkable for taste, is dedicated to St. Mary. It is a vicarage, value 221. 0s. 2d., in the patronage of the Bishop of Oxford. The vicarage-house is of the Tudor age. . Neithrop is a large hamlet of this parish, about a quarter of 3 mile distant from the town. William Lord Knollys, of Grey’s Court, Treasurer of the Household to Queen Elizabeth, was created
by Charles I. Earl of Banbury in 1626. Calthorpe House is the seat of Thomas Cobb, Esq. . It includes within the premises part of a hospital, dedicated to St. John, consisting of a large barn and other ancient buildings. In the house is a collection of portraits of its former possessors, and arms in the windows connected with the history of the estate.
CHARLBURY, partly in Chadlington hundred, is 7 miles N.W. from Woodstock, and contains 266 houses, and 1348 inhabitants, who are employed chiefly in leather-dressing and the manufacture of gloves. It has a market on Friday, and fairs on 1st Jan., second Friday in Lent, second Friday after 12th May, and 10th Oct. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a vicarage, value 25l. 5s. 10d., in the patronage of St. John’s College Oxford. Fawler, Finstock, East and West Chadlington, and Chilson, are hamlets of this parish.
In the chancel of the church at Charlbury are monuments of the Jenkinson family. Sir Robert Jenkinson of Walcot was created baronet 18th May, 1661, when he was M.P. for the county of Oxford, which he continued to represent till his death in 1677. The seventh baronet of this family was created Earl of Liverpool, &c.; but their ancient seat at Walcot has fallen to decay, a part only being tenable by a farmer.
CLATTERCOTT, a house 6 miles N. from Banbury, is extraparochial, and belongs to the Cartwright family. It was formerly a religious house dedicated to St. Leonard, and about the time of its suppression consisted of a prior and four canons, being endowed with revenues amounting to 341.19s. 11d. per annum. It was granted 36th of Henry VIII. to Sir William Petre, one of the Commissioners under Cromwell the visitor-general of monastic houses. Part of the old monastic building yet remains.
CROPREDY, 4 miles N.E. from Banbury, contains 117 houses, and 548 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a vicarage, value 26l. 10s. 10d., in the patronage of the Bishop of Oxford. It contains monuments of the families of Danvers, Loveday, Gostelow, and Taylor. At Cropredy Bridge over the Cherwell, an indecisive action took place between the i. and Sir William Waller, on 30th June, 1644, in which Sir William Boteler and Sir William Clarke, two loyal Kentish knights, were slain. The hamlets of Great and Little Bourton, Prescott, and the chapelries of Mollington, Claydon, and Wardington, are all in this parish, which is partly in Bloxham hundred, and extends into Warwickshire. Wardington Chapelry includes the hamlets of Williamscott, or Willscot, and Coton.
SWALCLIFFE, or Swacliffe, 6 miles S.W. from Banbury, contains 63 houses, and 356 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, is a vicarage, value 7l. 9s. 4d., in the patronage of New College Oxford. The chapelries of Epwell and East Shutford, and the township of West Shatford, are in this parish, which is partly in Bloxham hundred, consisting of the hamlets of Sibford Ferris and Sibford Gower. Plush-weaving has lately been established at West Shutford. Shutford Manor-house was built in the reign of James I. by one of the Fiennes’ family.
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Is bounded on the north by Ewelme and Pirton hundreds; on the east by Buckinghamshire and Berkshire, which last forms its boundary on the south; and on the west it is bounded by Langtree hundred.
BIX, or Bir Brand, 4 miles N.W. from Henley, contains 80 houses, and 383 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. James, is a rectory united with Bix Gibwen, value 91. 15s. In the east window are some Scriptural subjects represented in painted glass.
CAVERSHAM, 7 miles S.W. from Henley, and 2 miles from
Reading, contains 239 houses, and 1317 inhabitants. The church,
dedicated to St. Peter, is a curacy. This was part of the original
endowment of Nutley Abbey in Buckinghamshire in 1162; and be
came a cell to that monastery, * was enriched by the offerings 2
made here, wherein was a favourite relic; no less than the angel with one wing, which brought to Caversham the spear-head that ierced Christ when on the cross” ! The road from Henley to |. commands one of the finest views in this county: the banks of the Thames present a constant succession of delightful objects. Caversham Park, the seat of Colonel Marsack, was built by William Earl of Cadogan, general of the forces under King William III., who particularly distinguished himself at the battle of the Boyne, and in the reign of Queen Anne at the battles of Blenheim and Ramillies. By George I. he was created Earl of Cadogan, Wiscount Caversham, and Baron of Oakley, 8th May, 1718. The park contains about 500 acres, and the pleasure-grounds about 25 acres, with a canal. The terrace on the south front is terminated by a temple of the Tuscan order, whence walks lead to the plantations and Wilderness. The tract, remarkable for its beauty of scenery, possesses both hill and dale, with a luxuriant valley in the centre, and the eminences adorned with full-grown timber. The mansion has been much improved by Colonel Marsack; a Corinthian portico has been added to the south front. Being situated on an eminence, it commands an extensive view of Berkshire and the adjacent counties, the town of Reading, Caesar’s Camp, and the hills of Windsor Forest in the distance. Caversham-Lodge, the ancient seat, was situated nearer to the river Thames than the present structure. It was honoured by a visit from Anne of Denmark, Queen of James I., on her progress to Bath, and in the next reign was the temporary residence of the children of Charles I. On the 15th July 1647, the Earl of Northumberland had an order to accompany the children to visit His Majesty, who earnestly desired to see them. Great numbers of people in their wa to meet the king flocked to see them, and strewed the road wit green boughs and herbs. , His Majesty was quartered at Caversham, and his children remained with him two days.
HARPSDEN, 2 miles S. from Henley, contains 41 houses, and 223 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Margaret, is a rectory, value 121. 10s. 5d., in the patronage of All Souls College Oxford. The hamlets of Lower and Over Bolney are in this parish. Harpsden Court is the seat of T. Hall, Esq., and Bolney Court, of J. Jackson, Esq.
HENLEY-UPON-THAMES, 24 miles S.E. from Oxford, and 35 from London, contains 696 houses, and 3509 inhabitants. The town consists of two principal streets, one in the road from London to Oxford, and the other in the road from Reading to Marlow. Here is an elegant bridge of five arches over the Thames; the keystones of the centre arch, representing heads of Thame and Isis, were sculptured by the Hon. Mrs. Damer. The bridges over the Thames exceed in extent and magnificence not only those over the Seine, but any river of Europe; . and amongst the provincial bridges, that at Henley may be praised for its superior lightness and construction. This is a corporate town, governed by a high steward, who is the Earl of Macclesfield, a recorder, mayor, 10 aldermen, and 16 burgesses: a considerable trade is carried on in malt, flour, and beech-wood; upwards of 30,000 quarters of malt are annually made here. The grammar-school was founded by King James I.; and the blue-coat-school by Dame Elizabeth Periam; there is also agreen-coat-school; and an almshouse founded by Longland, Bishop of Lincoln.
The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a rectory, value 211. 1s. 3d. It stands near the bridge, and has an embattled tower with pinnacles at the angles. The east window contains the arms of France and England quarterly, within the garter; various other shields are disposed in the different windows; against the north wall is a monument to the memory of Dame Elizabeth Periam, the wife, first of Robert Doyley, next of Henry Neville, and lastly of William Periam. She died 3rd May 1621. Over the south door is a monument to William Hayward of Shrewsbury, architect, after whose design the bridge over the Thames in this town was erected. He died before it was begun in 1782. The armorial distinction of Henley-upon-Thames was a lion rampant, as appears by a seal attached to a deed dated 1306. But the 8. seal in 1624 was the letter H, surmounted by the Royal Badge, of the rays of the sun issuing from a cloud,
• Tanner’s Notitia Monastica.
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SHIPLAKE, 3 miles S. from Henley, contains 101 houses, and 528 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, is a vicarage, value 71. 1s., in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Windsor. It has been repaired under the superintendence of the vicar, the Rev. E. A. Howman, and contains some ancient painted glass re-arranged by Willement. The Rev. James Granger, author of the Biographical History of England, 4 vols. in 1769, was vicar of Shiplake, and died here while administering the sacrament, 5th April 1776. . The liberties of Eye and Dunsden, part of Sonning parish in Berkshire, are in this hundred.
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Is bounded on the north by Warwickshire; on the east by Banbury hundred and Northamptonshire; on the south by Wootton hundred; and on the west by part of Dorchester hundred and Warwickshire. It displays a greater variety of pleasing scenery than most other parts of this county.
ADDERBURY, on Sorbrook, a branch of the Cherwell, 3 miles S. from Banbury, contains 196 houses, and 924 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a vicarage, value 21.4s. 9d., in the patronage of New College Oxford. The chancel was built by William of Wykeham, who granted the vicarage in 1385 to his recent foundation. The old parsonage house retains much of its original character. Henry Wilmot, Esq. was created Lord Wilmot of Adderbury, by King Charles I., 29th July 1644; and by Charles II., Earl of Rochester, 13th December 1652: he was the father of the witty but profligate Earl. The small remaining part of the residence of the Earl of Rochester is at the east end fo village. The old manor-house was built by one of the Bustard family, with whom Sir Thomas Pope was connected by marriage. . In the south transept of the church are some curious monuments of this family. Sir Thomas Cobb of Adderbury was created a baronet 9th December 1662. Sir George Cobb, Bart., was the last of the family who resided here: he died in 1762. There is a monument in the chancel to the Cobbs. The township of West Adderbury, the chapelries of Barford St. John, and Bodicott, and the hamlet of Milton, are all in this parish.
ALKERTON, 5 miles N.W. from Banbury, contains 31 houses, and 158 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a rectory, value 6l. 8s. 9d. It has some remarkable sculpture in the external courses, of figures of acolytes censing, which are worthy of notice.
BLOXHAM, 3 miles S.W. from Banbury, and 21 miles N. from Oxford, contains 296 houses, and 1300 inhabitants. It is situated on a brook which falls into the Cherwell. The very interesting church, dedicated to St.Mary, is a vicarage, value 171. 9s. 4d, in the patronage of Eton College. It was built probably as early as the reign of Stephen, but affords examples in architecture of the style of various periods. Cardinal Wolsey, it is said, repaired and beautified it, adding to it the spire, and also to have erected astone cross near the east end. The tower and spire of this church, for design and construction, are superior to any in the county; and with the doorway of the tower form two of the most beautiful plates in Mr. Skelton’s elegant work on the antiquities of this county. It is 195 feet to the top of the spire, and the whole of the structure is remarkable for its fine P. and an object of peculiar admiration to the architectural antiquary. The sculpture, which forms the singular decoration of the western entrance, alludes to the Last Judgment, the Deity being represented above the point of the arch, seated under a canopy. Angels are sounding trumpets to awaken the dead, who appear to rise, and in supplicating posture to await their sentence. Widely extended jaws on one side allude to the entrance into hell; and above are the cross and crown of glory, emblems of redemption.
A considerable portion of the manor of Bloxham belongs to Lord Say and Sele, called Bloxham Fiennes; another part is named Bloxham Beauchamp. Pike-Hall Manor, with the parsonage, formerly belonged to the monastery at Godstow, and was granted by King Edward VI. to Eton College. The chapelry of Milcombe is in this parish.
BROUGHTON, 3 miles S.W. from Banbury, contains 46 houses, and 226 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a rectory, value 18l. 16s. The chancel contains numerbus memorials of the Fiennes family; and in the aisle is a monument of Thomas de Broughton. Broughton Castle, the seat of Lord Say and Sele, is moated, and was formerly a place of great strength.
The approach to the castle is highly picturesque, over a stone bridge through an ancient gate-house tower. The greater part of the building, within the court on the north front, was erected by the Fiennes family in 1544. The south front is covered with ivy, which lends its sombre hue to promote the effect; while the forms of the edifice, disclosed in various parts, combine to produce a very pleasing scene. The hall, 55 feet in length by 26 feet 9 inches in width, has a pendent ceiling; eastward of the hall is a more ancient passage, staircase, chambers, &c. Contiguous to the dining-room and drawing-room, which are westward of the hall, is a gallery, extending along the north front about 90 feet in length; the windows contain the arms and quarterings of the possessors of the castle, and their connections. Some of the apartments opening upon this gallery are also richly ornamented in their ceilings, chimney-pieces, &c.; and other specimens of painted glass are likewise here remaining. The most ancient part, built by the Broughtons, is at the east end. The embattled walls and turrets which surrounded it have been removed, but some buildings on the edge of the moat, coeval with the original structure, remain. As Oxfordshire cannot boast of many castellated remains of any magnitude, Broughton Castle is not only valuable on account of its local interest, but as having been long the abode of characters conspicuous in English H.; North Newington is a hamlet of this parish.
Fleury having been plundered by the Normans, the monks who returned to it were living irregularly when Odo began his attempt. They opposed him at first even with weapons. His eloquence or sagacity so changed their feelings, that before his death, in 944, it was so firmly established at Fleury, that this place became the chief seminary from which it was diffused through the West.
Its success as an instrument of discipline ; the sanctified celebrity of its author ; the necessity of some reformation among the monks and clergy, and the novelty of this, gave it a sudden and extending popularity. Fleury became famous for its superior discipline and virtues, and its monks were sent for to other places, to reform and to regulate them. Thus it perpetually happens in human life, that new plans_become popular, and spread far beyond their intrinsic merit, because they happen to soothe some momentary feeling,
promote some meditatcd interest, or supply an existing deficiency. ,In the present case, it seems, that the Benedictine discipline, how
ever objectionable it may appear to us, was the best form of monastic life which had then been conceived; and was therefore wisely adopted by those who valued monastic institutions. Hence the spirit of improvement at the same time passed also into Flanders, and eighteen monasteries there were reformed by the exertions of abbot Gerard.
The monastery of Fleury was eagerly encouraging the rule,
‘when Odo, an ecclesiastic in England, was offered the see of Can
terbury. He was the son of one of those ferocious Northmen who
had infested England ‘under Ingwar and Ubbo (2). He had been ‘himself a soldier in the first part of life, in the reign of Edward (3),
and he quitted the military profession to assume the ecclesiastic. He attended Athelstan in the battle of Brunanburh; and, as other bishops often combated at that time, and as it is confessed that he knew immediately of the king’s sword breaking in the conflict, and supplied the loss, it is probable that he partook of the fray (4), though his cncoiniasts talk only of his prayers. These circumstances may be worth noticing, as they explain that stern severity of temper which was so unhappily exerted against Edwin and Elgiva. He
_ was raised through other gradations to the primacy of England.
When Odo was offered the see of Canterbury, he was unwilling
D (t) Marsham ubi sup. There is a MS. of one of Odds works. Bib. Reg. 0. . 5.
to accept it, from his enthusiastic zeal for the new system, until he
had become a monk; and be selected Flcury as the place wherein‘
he chose to make his profession (1).
Odo came to his metropolitan dignity a decisive friend, and an aspiring patron, of the Benedictine order, from its superior piety and judicious discipline = but though high in favour with several sovereigns, he made no effort to compel the English to adopt the reform of Fleury. A letter of his to the clergy of the country, exhorting them to discharge their duty with zealous care, yet exists (2); but it does not even mention the Benedictine system.
The man whose more active mind roused England to establish the new discipline among its clergy was Dunstan, a character formed by nature to act a distinguished part in the varied theatre of life (3). The following review of his life is made with a desire to be just towards him, without abandoning the right of free judgment on his actions, and of fair inference as to the principles by which they were directed.
He was born in /925 (4). His parents were Heorstau and Cynethryth (5), who seem to have lived near Glastonbury (6). H0 TF0
(I) Chron. Pelrib. 26. Malmsb. 200. (2) See it in Malmsb. de Pont. p. 200. Its first phrase is an unfortunate attempt
Life of Dunstan.
at eloquentlatinity. “ Mirabili cuncti potentis praesulis polorum clementia cpttulante, ~
Ego Odo,” etc. Another sentence expresses something of his temper, “ Stliriluttll charitate, etiam comitalus rigore.” There is another letter of his in Wllllflolls Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 50. . ‘ _ .
(3) There are several lives of Dunstan extant. One written by Osborne, who flourished about the year 1070. See it in Wharton’s Anglia Sacra, vol. ii._P- 33One also by Eadmar, p. 211. There are two ancient ones in the Cotton LibrarYOne, Nero, C. 7., was written by Adelardus Blandiniensis Monaehus, in the tell”! century, or in the beginning of the eleventh, addressed to Elphegus, the archbishop of Canterbury, and composed at his request. But the author says, “ Seias autem in opere isto historiam vita: ejus non continert, sed ex eadem vita quasi brevem sermonis versiculum,” etc. This life is full of miracles and panegyric, with scareell any biographical notices. The most curious and ancient life of Dunstan is in the same library, Cleopatra, B. 13. It was written by a person who was his contem_porary, or nearly so. For, speaking of an incident in his monastery, he SW51 ‘i happened when all the monks were absent, except Dunstan, parvoque scholasttflo qui postea pontifex etlectus hzec nobis intimavit. It has plenty of flattery and wonder, but it contains some curious traits of biography, which enable us to SKEW! his mind. Matthew of Westminster, Malmsbury, and Osberne. have taken _mfl!lY things from it. It seems to be the one mentioned by Wharton, with the name of Bridferth; and so printed in the Acta Sanctorum.
(4) In the year of Athe|stan’s accession, which some place 924. and some 925Millt West. 360. . _
(5) MSS. Cleop. B. 13. Adelard, in Nero, C. 7., is so impatient to get at his miracles. that he annexes one to Dunstan before he was born. _ _
(6) Erat autem regalis in continio ejusdem pra,-fati viri insula antiquo vtcmorllttl vocabulo Glastonia nuncupata. MSS. Cleop. B. 13. This life of Dllnstan had been read by Malmsbury, for he quotes this passage from it; and says, he saw the book “1 Sb A”g\1stiu’s in Canterbury, and at another place. De Ant. Glast- P- 293- The MS. in the Cotton Library is probably the ltilfifltltlfll book which our lllalmibuty saw; for Joscelin has written upon it, that in August, 1565, he found it among other
old MSS. at the Augustine monastery at Canterbury. Usher has added a note making the same Inference
quentiy visited the old British church there (i), It is said that he had here a vision of his future ‘greatness, and that a venerable phantom pointed out the place where he was to build a superb monastery (2). Ambitious talents, meditating much on the honours they covet, may experience sometimes such illusions amid the nightly chimeras of the reposing though disturbed imagination.’
His parents encouraged him to ‘study, and his penetrating abilities enablcd him to excel his companions, and to run with easy rapidity through the course of his studies (-3).
A fever interrupted his advancement, and all the horrors of a temporary frenzy ensued, accompanied with that debility which in this disease sometimes announces the departure of life, and sometimes a crisis which is‘ to end in convalescence. In this state a sudden access of delirium came on. He leapt from his bed, eluded his nurse, and seizing a stick which was near him, he ran over the
neighbouring plains and mountains, fancying that wild dogs were’
pursuing him. His wanderings led him towards night near the church. Workmen during the day had been mending the roof. Dunstan ran wildly up their seatfold, roamed over the top, and with that casual felicity which frenzy sometimes “experiences, got unconsciously to the bottom of the church, Where a heavy sleep concluded his delirious excursion (/t). lie wakcd with returned intellect-, and was surprised at his new situation. As the church
doors had not been opened, both he and the attendants oi‘ the place wondered how he got there (5).
An English Roman Catholic of the name of Milner, has published several editions of a large book, which is circulated through Ireland, in which he enlarges upon the benevolence of the Irish. He has forgotten to mention that those who departed from England, at the year 674, were expelled by persecution because they were not Catholics, or from infectious fever. . . . Egfrid, king of Northumberland at the instance of the monks, brought from Ital by Augustine, or of those who followed him, expelled the Culdees from his dominion, and replaced them with those benedictine mendicant monks; a race as inferior to the Culdees, as they excelled them in ostentation and superstitious ceremonies. i,j was the great plage of emigration, here they found peace and religious liberty; their own principles and the practice of them in security. . . . .” . ” o stimulated by the zealous oiation. of the mendicant monks, Ievied a very great army, protected, as they supposed, by the prayers of the monks on one hand, and the excommunication of the Culdees on the other: they sailed rejoicing and full of assurance of victory. But the refugees, io of their danger, removed their most valuable and most useful utensils, some of which have been latel *. deep in the earth in this country—Bertfrid, as general y the forces, treated the people with terrible cruelty; he spared neither |; nor property, not even the places of worship or education. The refugees at first retreated, but at length they defended themselves with so much bravery and courage, that they – obliged Bertfrid to fly with the scattered remains of this army. #. names of Uim Gaill, the district of English strangers, Bally Utag, the town of strife and confusion; Divis, mountain of sorrow, all conspire in confirming our opinion that the parish of Uim Gaii was the principal scene of strife between the two armies. ‘” Egfrid, cnraged by the loss of a great part of his forces, as he supposed by the mismanagement of his general, with the determination of destroying the original seat of the learning and the ~ religion of the Culdees in Scotland, levied a more numerous army than the former, crossed the Forth and threatened destruction to the Picts. But they having heard of the cruelties he was guilty of in Northurberland, and in Ireland, retreated from his first attack, ignorant of the danger and difficulties of passing their mountains, fans, and marshes, hepursued them as a conquered and flying enemy. When he had lost a great part of his army he meditated a speedy retreat—The Picts took possession of a défile, where they attacked him unprepared; there he lost the whole of his army, his kingdom
and his life, Northumberland was so much weakened and im. poverished by those crusades, that, as a separate state, it never re
covered its ancient strength and splendor.
Henry’s History of G. Britain, in his Life of Egfrid, `
> – is
It could not be supposed that every individual would continue steady in support of true religion, when stripped of useless show and ornaments of man’s invention in opposition to splendor, wealth and persecution. In 704, Dunchad was promoted to the principal’s chair in Hy; but in his time the teachers, in his college, conformed to the Romish custom of celebrating the feast of Easter, which conformity did not serve the principal; he died the next year, and the king of the Picts oxpelled the whole family from the island of Hy, beyond the mountains of Drum-albin. At the same time, Qsway expelled the Culdees from the island of Lindisfarne, and replaced to.e., by benedictine monks. Thus expired those illustrious seminaries of learning, after having maintained o liberty for more than a century against the secret machinations and open violence of their enemies.” Columba and his disciples were distinguished for learning and steady attachment to their scriptural tenets, who should be held in perpetual remembrance by the friends of true religion; their names and their writings have been much overlooked; writers of modern history have generally neglected to mention the Christian doctrines they taught, the virtues they practised, or even the name of their founder. Two excellent original Latin historians have saved his memory from oblivion; Cumin wrote sixty, and Adamnan eighty years after his decease: to those we may add our excellent ecclesiastical historians, Bede, and Usher. Some more modern writers have done much, Sir James Dalrymple, in his essay towards a history of Scotland; Sir Robert Sibbald, in his history of Fife and Kinross; the Rev. John Smith, D.D. of Campbelton; the Rev. Dr. Jameson; and our learned countryman, the Rev. Dr. Ledwitch, have not only rescued their names from oblivion, but have raised their reputation, their noble Defence of Christian Liberty, to a conspicuous and amiable point of view.—The religious principles of the Culdees retarded the dominion of the church hierarchy over the understandings and consciences of their fellow Christians. They are the great and principal causes of the religious liberty we at present enjoy, the freedom of inquiry into the rational meaning of the scriptures of truth, and our freedom from the imperative decrees of councils. Attempts to convert the Culdees by various cruel persecutions, such as anishments, rapine, and bloodshed, failed; recourse was then had to address and cunning, which at length proved successful. Their colleges and places of worship existed longer in Ireland than in Scotland or England. Wealthyparishes were conferred upon them. They who did not choose to officiate, had salaries o ife. Arch-bishop Usher relates, in our memory, priests called Culdees, having celebrated divine service in the church of
* Ledwitch. – – —– – –
Armagh, latterly in an apartment adjoining the Cathedral. Their president was made Precentor; he had the most honourable seat at table, and every respect from his corps. . . They were a body corporate and seized of a great estate, which fell to the crown when the last abbot or principal departed this life. By an inquisition taken the 24th of March, 1625, about the time the Presbyterian religion was taught in Ulster, their possessions which were found Were Seven … in the county of Armagh, with many more parcels of land; a great number of rectorages, vicarages and tithes, and several messuages and houses in town. There was also a priory of Culdees in the county of Monaghan, called Cluan Innis; and one in Divinish Island, in Lough Erne, about three miles from Enniskillen; and one in the county of Donegall, three miles from Derry; a very remarkable settlement of those was in Inishnemeo, of which there is a particular account given in Ledwich’s Antiuities of Ireland; and many more which were possessed by benej monks, who professed that which was called by the culdess, very properly, the New … At length they lost all their rights, and retained only the character of their ancient celebrity. From the date of the mentioned inquest, the pure religion of the Culdees was preserved in Ulster, till the Protestant religion was considerably settled in this country, under the Presbyterian form of church government. We may, in justice, mention Richard Ralphson, D.D., born in Dundalk, in the middle of the fourteenth century; he published several books in London, which are pregnant evidences of learning and virtue. With great spirit and success he combated the luxury, the vices, and the turbulence of the friars’ mendicants, for which he was cited to a court at Avignon, where he died three years after, in 1360, before his troubles were settled. The power of Mendicant friars, especially of the Dominican order, became so exorbitant, and the vices of the clergy sointolerable, and gave such universal disgust, that Dr. J…W.;. the example of Dr. Ralphson, thought it his duty, as a teacher of divinity and member of the church, to combat the erroneous opinions and scandalous vices of his cotemporaries, especially of the Dominicans, who long inherited the spirit of their founder Guzman, which they demonstrated in their government of the inquisition; by which many thousands of good men have been condemned to the flames. He treated those sturdy mendicants with great freedom and deserved severity. Wickliff thought this a very proper time to demonstrate that the Pope had no right to demand homage and tribute from Edward for his kingdom of England. In a discourse he published, he called the Pope Antichrist, and inveighed against his pretensions to supremacy, his tyranny, and extortions. The Pope demanded he should be brought to trial for his damnable heresies.
For which he appeared before the bishops of London and Canterbury, in London, accompanied by the duke of Lancaster, and Henry Percy, marshall of England. By some dispute between the duke and the bishops, the assembly broke up, without coming to any decision. He appeared a second time before them at Lambeth, accompanied with so great a retinue from London, that his judges were afraid to wreak their vengeance upon him, even at Lambeth. After all his dangers and persecutions, he was allowed to withdraw quietly to This parish of Lutherworth, where he finished some of his valuable works, especially his translation of the Scriptures of the New Testament. He ended his days in peace, among his own people, in 1384.
The malice of his enemies did not cease with his breath of life: his character and opinions were brought to judgment, by a council held at Constance, in Germany, 1415, and condemned. His bones soon after were dug up and burnt: the ashes were thrown into a brook, in Lutherworth, which conveyed them to the Severn, the Severn to the sea
The reasons why Wickliff’s doctrines were not so effectually persecuted in his life time, were his being protected by the king, and the royal family, especially by the Duke of Lancaster, and the great disputes prevailing among the clergy, at that time; which rose to an open division between two popes about the right of succession to St. Peter; which proceeded at length to curses, excommunications, and bloodshed. They have never regained their former power or respect.
When the Churches increased, and the inhabitants became more numerous, and the bishops more luxurious, it was supposed the inspection of all the parishes in a diocese was too laborious for one man to perform; then sees were divided into different proportions, called rural deaneries; and the inspectors under the Bishops were called rural deans, or arch deacons. Uim Gaill is in the rural deanery, called Clan Dermot, or Clan Dermont, which extends from Lough Neagh to Carrickfergus Bay. This Deanery contains 15 places where altarages or places of public worship were; free-will offerings to a priest who officiated at an altar, were called altarages; when those were long continued, they were claimed by the bishop, and then called small dues; such were the tenths of wool, lambs, colts, calves, pigs, chickens, butter, cheese, fruits and herbs. Those were afterwards called first fruits; the same name is continued, although the fruits are changed into money, as at present in the king’s book, and divided into different denominations according to the different offices or duties performed by the same or different priests. The following annexed table is contained in an ancient manuscript, called a Terrier or Ledger Book, preserved in the archives of the bishop of Down and Connor.
The tax of first fruits is still retained in the church as of great importance. The following table shows the ancient and modern manner of taxation: the ancient manner is contained in the old manuscript mentioned; the modern is a copy from the king’s book, published in the appendix to Sewart’s Topographia Hibernica, 4to. Dublin edition.
In the fifteenth year of James I., the different denominations of proxies, refections, and synodals, were added together, and valued by commissioners and ordered to be paid to the bishops at each Easter visitation. The table consists of four columns; the first three contain the ancient, and the last the modern manner of taxation. The first contains Prozies, fees paid to those who attended public meetings for others; the second contains Réfections, allowances to arch-deacons, when visiting parishes and monasteries; they consisted of dinner and supper, which at length became so expensive as to threaten the destruction of many small monasteries. On complaint being made to Clement IV. that the arch-deacon of Richmond travelled with 103 horses, 21 dogs, and 3 hawks, which caused the monks to spend as much in one hour as would support the monasteries a long time, the Pope ordered refections to be
reduced to sums in proportion to the supposed value of each benefice. Synodals, fees paid by priests or bishops as expenses for attending synods, councils or parliaments. The fourth column contains the modern manner of taxation: proxies, and refections were equal. Synodals were always two shillings, and no more.
§ | # |# New. § * P. R. S.I. C. S. D Templepatrick Ecclesia Sancti Johanis a vicar., | 5 || 5 || 2 || 1 0 0 Ecclesia Sancti Johanis, Moyluske, a vicar,….. 5 || 5 || 2 || 0 7 0 Ecclesia de Carn Grame is of Mucomore, has one quarter ploughland glebe vicarage, … | 3 || 3 || 2 || 0 10 0 Capella de Bally Robert is of Mucomore, has one quarter ploughland glebe,…………….. 3 || 3 || 2 || 0 10 0 Ecclesia de Emgaill had a parsonage endowed, the vicar or curate pays…………………… 10 |10 || 2 || 0 6 8
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The townland of Ricamore, Richanmore, the king’s royal mensal; probably the endowment of the parsonage of Uim Gaill. A plowland, in the time of queen Elizabeth, consisted of 6 score acres; each acre contained 40 poles in length, 4 in breadth; each pole contained 24 feet, standard measure of England. The proximity of Ulster to Scotland, especially since the settlement of the colony from Ireland, under Carbrey Rhiata or Rhiada, and the religion, occasioned frequent friendly intercourse between the inhabitants of the northern districts of the two kingdoms. Lest such intercourse should produce too great and friendly intimacy between the Scots and the discontented Irish, and their hands might be thus strengthened by their connection with the Caledonians; the powers who then were, Philip and Mary,” caused an
* Mary succeeded Edward, but she was in every respect contrary to his character: she was a most violent Romanist, generally persecuting with fire, and sometimes with less cruel punishments. She united herself to a man of similar religious profession, but milder and more compassionate. She was long afflicted with bad health, and as her disease increased, so did her cruelty.—This bloody queen, afraid she had not made her acts of cruelty sufficiently extensive, signed a commission; and that it might be executed with greater force, she nominated Doctor Cole one of the commissioners, and sent by him her commission to the Lord Deputy. He lodged a night in Chester; when the mayor heard of the arrival of this great man in office, he paid his respects to him in the lodging. In the course of conversation, he took out of his cloak-bag, a leather box, and said, “Here is a commission that shall lash the heretics of Ireland.” The goodwoman of the house and her family being well affected to the Protestant religion, and her brother John Edmonds being then a citizen in Dublin, she was much distrest
act to be passed, forbidding the introduction of the Scots into Ireland, retaining them, or intermarrying with them.* . . . Queen Elizabeth did not persecute, but she was fond of conformity; cherishing the same unfriendly sentiments to the people of this country, she laid schemes for subduing orexterminating the Scotch, Irish, or wild Irish, as she called them, from a district in the counties of Down and Antrim, containing a certain number of plowlands round the castle of Belfast. She being unable to effect this, the country continued in a state of disturbance till the accession of James I., who, from necessity, took the opposite course, in 1607. He caused this unfriendly and injurious act to be repealed; and all Scots, born in Ireland before that, to be naturalized; and otherwise encouraged Scotch and English Puritans to settle here, which caused many who were persecuted at home, on account of their adherence to their religious sentiments, to emigrate to Ireland. They brought their religious principles and their gospel ministers with them. Many of the names of those worthy ministers are recorded by several authors, Fo by the author of Presbyterian Loyalty, and by Neal’s History of the Puritans. As those books are not easily procured, a few of those ministers may be mentioned in this place. The London adventurers prevailed with several of the English Puritans to remove, who being persecuted at home, were willing to go any where within the king’s dominions for the liberty of their consciences, and more would have gone, could they have been secured of a toleration after they were settled; but their chief resort for gospel ministers, was to the Scots and English.-The first Presbyterian minister was Mr. Edward Brice, from Scotland, who settled in Broad Island parish, in this county, in the year 1611; af. ter him Mr. Robert Cunningham settled in Holywood, co. of Down. At the same time, three English ministers came over, all Puritans, trained up under Mr. Cartwright: Mr. John Ridges, to Antrim, Mr. Henry Calvert, to Oldstone, who were encouraged by the family of Clotworthy, who were of the same persuasion: and Mr. Hubbard, to Carrickfergus; he was encouraged to settle here by Lord Chichester, Lord Deputy of Ireland, who himself had been a pupil of Mr. Cartwright. M. Robert Blair came from Scotland, and was ordained minister in Bangor, in the county of Down, with the assistance of Echlin, bishop of that diocese; he was encouraged by Mr. Hamilton, son of o minister in Scotland, who became Lord Claneboy, in the county of Down. His nephew, Mr. James Hamilton became minister of Ballywalter. Mr. Livingstone, in Killinchy; Mr. Geo. Dumbar, of Larne; and Mr. Josias Welsh, son of the great John Welsh and Elizabeth Knox, youngest daughter of Mr. John Knox, the reformer, of Scotland, came to Templepatrick, in o 1621 or 1622, having finished his literary education under the attention and care of his own father, who was gospel minister in Ayr, but was obliged to fly to France from persecution. Josias having perfected his studics at the great reformed college of Geneva, on his return to his native land, he was found so perfect in literary acquirements, that he was appointed immediately to the professorship of Humanity, in the university of Glasgow. . . . . . . . . . ; At this time, James I. having changed his religious opinions from Presbyterianism, was attempting to enforce episcopal church government in Scotland, to the great confusion and disturbance of the people, attended with some degree of persecution.—Mr. Welsh’s constitution was naturally delicate, and his health impaired by confinement and study; for the restoration of which, it was thought proper that he should withdraw from the tumults, which struggles for Christian liberty are apt to produce; as many of his Christian brethren and fathers were enjoying liberty of conscience in Ireland, he thought departure to this country most advisable, where he would probably receive shelter, protection, and health, particularly from Mr. Shaw, a gentleman from Ayrshire, who ..f settled in the townland of Ballybeantrach, on the north side of the Sixmile Water. The castle of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem is opposite on the south side of the river, to which captain Norton, the inhabitant, gave his name. The proximity of their dwellings, and convenient forde in the river, occasioned many friendly meetings. The state of the country, of religion, and the banished Scotch and English ministers, were often the principal topics of their conversation.—The captain, having an unfavourable opinion of the abilities and conduct of Mr. Tracey, the incumbent, expressed a desire of seeing some sensible, pious man of those divines. Mr. Shaw expressed a desire of gratifying his curiosity, but mentioned a doubt, that they might be afraid of being discovered and persecuted as they had been at home. In consequence of promising a safe conduct, Mr. Welsh was introduced to the captain, who was so well pleased with his conversation, learning, and piety, that he *::: him to preach in the temple, the next Lord’s day. Mr. Tracey, being informed of the captain’s intentions, went early to the church on that day, and had begun the service before
at the doctor’s words. While the doctor complimented the mayor down stairs, she took the commission out of the box and put a pack of cards in its place, with the knave of clubs uppermost. Cole landed in Dublin on the 7th October, 1559, he delivered the box in presence of the privy council, to the lord deputy, lord FitzWalter, who said “Let us have another commission, we will shuffle the cards in the mean time !”. The doctor obtained another commission, but being detained on his return by a contrary wind, the queen died. Thus, by the providence of God, the Protestants of Ireland were saved, for this time, from the most cruel persecution.—The number who suffered death in Mary’s reign, for the reformed religion, were 277 : viz. 5 bishops, 21 clergymen, 8 gentlemen, 84 tradesmen, 100 husbandmen, labourers and servants, 55 women, and 4 children. ~ * History of the Puritans.
* Adair’s Manuscript.
or ——— …”. or—oro
the captain arrived; but when he entered, he ordered the incumbent out of the desk, and Mr. Welsh into the pulpit. This was the only introduction of this reverend gentleman into the church, and the living thereof, which he enjoyed nearly during his life, which ended on Monday the 23d of June, in the year of our Lord, 1634, about twelve years after his arrival in Templepatrick. Mr. Welsh performed the duties of a minister of the gospel with gravity, dignity, and piety; his death was greatly lamented by his people: their regard was expressed by grief, and by conducting his funeral with the utmost decency and solemnity to the church, where they deposited his remains, and laid a stone on his grave with a Latin and English epitaph. The stone was accidentally broken, and the part with the Latin verses is lost; the English verses are expressive of his family, his education, and conduct.
“Here lies interred, under this stone,
Great Knoxes grand child, John Welshes son ;
Born in Scotland, and bred up in France,
He then came to Ireland the gospel to advance.”
Those faithful ministers of the word did not, at first, assume the name of Presbyterians, but they had frequent religious meetings in Antrim, where they generally spent two days at each meeting, in preaching and solemn humiliation by prayer and fasting for the sins of the #. and then consulted among themselves how piety and true religion could be most successfully promoted and extended in the country. The bishops, at that time, joined with the Presbyterians in ordination; for which reason, the ministers enjoyed the churches and tithes till the time of Laud, although they remained Presbyterians, and used not the Liturgy. The bishops and they lived together in the utmost cordiality and friendship.”
Mr. Welsh, lived happily in Templepatrick, as a faithful minister of the gospel, till the year 1631, when he and several other ministers were suspended by the bishop of Down, for non-conformity. This was occasioned by James Law, bishop of Glasgow, sending information against them, by Henry Leslie, dean of Down, who, with the .# chief justice, stirred up the bishop against them. Mr. Livingstone, Mr. Blair, Mr. Dumbar, Mr. Welsh, Mr. Hamilton, and Mr. Colewort, applied to arch-bishop Usher, at Treda, who very cheerfully attended to their case, and had them then restored; information against them was sent to the king, who immediately wrote to the lord justices of Ireland, by them to the bishop of Down, that Mr. Dumbar, Mr. Blair, Mr. Welsh, and Mr. Liv. ingstone, should be tried, and censured the 4th day of May, 1632. The bishop, however, deposed Messrs. Blair, Dumbar, Livingston, and Welsh, without mentioning the king’s letter. Mr. Blair was sent as deputy to the king, who obtained a letter from his majesty to lord deputy Strafford, requiring a trial of the information against those gentlemen, and if they were found free, some favour . be shown them. The king wrote in the margin with his own hand, that the matter should be narrowly tried, and that the informers should be punished, if those gentlemen were found free. When this letter was shown to Strafford, he seemed to have got some orders from Laud, he refused to take any trial or show any favour, unless they could conform. But Strafford’s troubles beginning to appear at court, at the request of Lord Castle Stewart, he wrote they should be restored, which they were, after having been two ears under suspension. Most of those ministers removed to Scot}. during their suspension, and preached and assisted at communions where they were invited;” and sometimes visited their congregations in Ireland. … Mr. Welsh’s constitution being always delicate, he remained at Templepatrick, although he durst not preach in the church. His congregation often assembled on the Lord’s day, at his house; one of the doors opened into his garden, in which the greatest number met: in this door he stood, and performed the duties of public worship. This situation Mr. Welsh’s delicate constitution could not bear; he was thrown into a fever, of which he did not recover; it soon ended in his removal from this valley of sorrow to the world where the righteous cease from trouble. At the time of this awful period, he was attended by his esteemed and dear friends, Mr. Blair and Mr. Livingstone. A complete history of the life cf the Rev. John Livingstone, of Killinchy, would be very interesting to all who wish for a description of the patience, and perseverance of the Rev. dissenting fathers, in those days, under persecution by suspension, deprivation, excommunication, corporal punishment, imprisonment, fines, and other instruments of cruelty,for their firm adherence to that religion founded upon the scriptures of truth; or because they would not abjure oaths they had formerly taken, and which their consciences told them were still right and fit to be taken. From the death of Mr. Welsh, in 1634, till the ordination of Mr. Kennedy, in the year 1646, there was an interruption of public worship in Templepatrick. The history of the causes which produced this melancholy event is not only interesting to the present members of this congregation, but to the inhabitants of this country for ages to come. The finances of James I. were never equal to his extravagance or to his wishes. For the situation of his affairs and his family, he laid a scheme of probable relief:-his son Charles was young and handsome, and heir apparent to a great and respectable crown; a lucrative marriage promised immediate relief, a connection
* Presbyterian Loyalty, p. 161. History of the Puritans, vol. II. p. 93.
* Livingstone’s Manuscript, p. 20.
with any Protestant, princes; as, to wealth, was unpromising. The treasures of Spain were his object, promising all and more than equal to his wishes, he entered into and agreed to a settlement with the embassador of that kingdom for the marriage of his son with the infanta, which was unfavourable to the desires of his subjects, but altogether favourable to the wishes of the bishop of Rome— This famous treaty consisted of seventeen articles, a few will show the principal design of the whole. An oratory, a church, a chapel with all popish ornaments, utensils and decorations, were to be provided for her highness. She must be allowed 24 priests and assistants, and over them a bishop, with full authority and jurisdiction. That the children of this marriage shall not lose their succession to the crown of England, although they be born Catholics. That the infanta shall be allowed to choose nurses for the children, who shall be brought up in her own religion, till they are ten years of age.— This settlement was broken off; a similar, with some alterations, concluded with Louis XIII. king of France, for his sister, Henrietta Maria. Her children were to continue with their nurses till thirteen years of age. The treaty was signed on the 10th of November, and consummated about the time of the king’s death, which happened about the 27th March, 1625. The character of queen Henrietta Maria, as she is described by many authors, particularly by Lord Clarendon and bishop Burnet, who write, that to this match the sequel of all the king’s misfortunes was owing. Bishop Kennet adds, the king’s match with this lady was a greater judgment to the nation than the plague, which then raged in London. Neal adds, “The queen was a very great bigot to her religion; her conscience was directed by her confessor, assisted by the Pope’s nuncio, and a sacred cabal of priests and jesuits. . These directed the queen and she the king, so that, in effect, the nation was governed by Popish councils.” From this time the laws against the Presbyterians and Puritans were increased in severity. With the intention of ruining the interest of the Puritans in Ireland, Laud was made chancellor of the university of Dublin; for the completion of his purposes, William Wentworth, afterwards Lord Strafford, was appointed his deputy. Thus prepared, he turned power and force against the Calvinists of this kingdom, and against the Puritans particularly; for which purposes, he procured the formation of a canon in a convocation: thus, We do receive and approve the book of articles of religion, agreed upon by the arch-bishops and bishops, in the year 1562, for the avoiding diversity of opinions, and for establishing consent touching true religion; and therefore, if any hereafter shall affirm, that any of these articles are in any part superstitious or erroneous, or such as he may not with a good conscience subscribe unto, let him be excommunicated. The Irish bishops thought they had lost nothing by this canon,
because they had saved their own articles. Laudsoon showed them
their error, . his chancellorship; for hereby the church of
Ireland denounced the sentence of excommunication against all that affirmed any of the 39 articles to be superstitious or erroneous; that is, against the whole body of the Puritans. Thus, their own articles which condemned Arminianism, and maintained the morality of the sabbath, were utterly excluded.—The persecutions in Ireland corresponded with similar transactions in England; and in addition to those means, the hands of the Romanists were strengthened, and this o in greater danger of its government being overturned. The Puritans continued in such a degree of affliction that most of their ministers were forced into exile; some returned to Scotland, where the reformation was more perfect, and where the persecution could not be so general. Many fled to the wilds of America, where numbers died with cold and hunger. To all those evils, the dreadful massacre in Ireland, in the year 1641, was added. While Laud was persecuting in Scotland, Wentworth was at the same work in Ireland. This was thought a proper time for securing the government of Ireland. A man of the nameof More laid schemes, for the completion of their designs. , Sir Phelim O’Neil and Lord M“Guire came into their designs, and the chiefs of the native Irish immediately concurred. It was resolved, that on a day appointed, Sir Phelim O’Neil and other conspirators should begin an insurrection in the provinces, and that More and M*Guire should surprise the castle of Dublin.” Of this massacre bishop Burnet, who had the best opportunities of knowing the causes and designs of the perpetrators, has left on record his intelligence, the truth of which he took the utmost pains to acquire. [Vol. I, Dublin folio edition, page 25:1. “Upon this the Earl of Essex told me that he had taken all the pains he could to inquire into the original of the Irish massacre, but could never see any reason to believe the king had any accession to it. He did, indeed, believe, that the queen hearkened to the propositions made by the Irish, who undertook to take the government of Irelandinto their hands, which they thought they could easily perform, and then, they said, they would assist the king to subdue the hot spirits of Westminster. With this the plot of the insurrection bean, and all the Irish believed the queen encouraged it. But in the first design, there was no thought of massacre; that came in
head as they were beginning the methods of executing it. As they .
were managed by the priests, they were the chief men that set on the Irish to all the blood and cruelty that followed.”—Such were the causes which prevented the Puritans from the enjoyment of the benefits of public worship in Templepatrick, from the year 1631, till theordination of Mr. Kennedy, as pastor of that congregation, in 1646.”
* Burnet. &
The book containing the minutes of this congregation has still been preserved: it commences with the ordination of Mr. Anthony Kennedy to the pastoral care of the people of Templepatrick. Thus, “The admission of Mr. Anthony Kennedy, to the parish of Templepatrick, was (by the providence of the great God) on the penult day of October, 1646, Mr. Ferguson being that day moderator; and with him, ministers, Mr. Adair, Mr. D. Boswell, and Mr. Cunningham; with expectants, Mr. James Car, Mr. John Greig, and Mr. Jeremiah Dyning. The first transaction of the minister and congregation, after his ordination, was the ordination and admission of elders. Thus, the names of the men chosen as elders of the session of Templepatrick being called, and publicly admitted and sworn, with prayer and fasting, the 22d day of November, being the Lord’s day, 1646.”
NAMEs of THE SEssion. Gilbert M*Nielie.
Major Edmond Ellis. †. #.
Lieutenant James Lindsay. Al o — *
William Hall. ex. Pringle.
Adam M’Neily. D
John Petticrew. EACONS.
James Windrume. Hugh Sloane.
Hugh Kennedy. Wi. M“Cord.
John Inglis. Guian Herbison.
William Wallace. Gilbert Bellihill.
From the persecution to which the Nonconformists were exposed, even in the time of Elizabeth and James, they were under the necessity of appointing private meetings for prayers and exercises of devotion; and as many military settled here, who could not be supposed to have had opportunities of attending places of public worship; and as many poor could not conveniently attend pri- vate meetings for religious purposes, we may believe many irregular and ignorant people, at the time of Mr. Kennedy’s ministration, resided among the religious and regular inhabitants of this country. 2 * .
The pastor and members of this religious and zealous session, resolved to found a congregation of Christians, not only in name but in truth, took into their consideration such actions, reputed unchristian, and scandalous, which were seldom noticed by civil magistrates; and resolved, that they who were guilty of such, should be deprived of the Christian privileges of the congregation, until they professed sorrow for their offences, and resolutions of amendment, and newness of life. Those irregularities which were reckoned unworthy a member of a Christian assembly, were entered in the session book, as rules in their future proceedings.
1st, “It is enacted by the session of Templepatrick, that all complaints come into the session by way of bill; the complaintive is to put in one shilling with his bill; and if he proves not his point, his shilling forfeits to the session-book. This is done to prevent roundless scandal. 2d, “It is likewise enacted by this session, that all beer sellers, that sell best beer till people be drunk, shall be censured themselves, especially in the night time. 3d, “It is likewise enacted; if parents let their children vague or play on the slord’s day, that they shall be censured as profaners of the sabbath. . – 4th, “That all persons standing in the public place of repentance, shall pay the church officer one groat. 5th, “That no children be baptised, till they come to some of the elders of the parents who present them, and get their children’s names registered, that the elders may testify of them to the minister. 6th, “It is likewise enacted, 28th Dec., 1647, if there be any misdemeanor, as drunkenness or squabbling at bridals, that besides the censures the persons themselves come under who commit the abuse, the persons married shall forfeit their privileges.” This pious session properly thought, that due observance of the duties required on the Lord’s days, such as improvement of the mind in knowledge and pious exercises, by attention to religious ordinances, reading, and practice of devotion, were the most effectual means of retaining Christians in the praetice of every virtue. This session, therefore, inflicted the most severe of their censures upon those who profaned the Lord’s day. Their first censure upon record is, “That John Cowan shall stand opposite the pulpit, and confess his sin in the face of the public, of beating his wife on the Lord’s day.” – * The first communion after Mr. Kennedy’s ordination, was on the 4th July, 1647, which was so numerously attended, that 49 pottles of best claret were expended in the celebration of that solemn ordinance. * * As this institution was founded and enjoined by our Lord, in remembrance of his meritorious sufferings, and as it was intended to produce the best effects upon the minds of those who partake of it, a day of solemn meeting is generally appointed for the express purpose of turning the attention of the people from the worldly avocationsgenerally necessary, to the consideration of the effects of Christ’s obedient sufferings, and the goodness and mercifulness of the Father, in sending him to reconcile us to God, and lead us to his eternal salvation; this too has a tendency to reconcile us to our neighbours, and raise in our minds fervent charity. Omission of the religious duties, required on those days was supposed similar to a profanation of the Lord’s day. Wherefore, Gilbert Young, miller, of Charai mill, was denied Christian privileges of the regular members of the congregation, because he set his mill a-going on the fast day before the communion. The people of Templepatrick continued thus in the promotion of the practice of piety and virtue till the year 1650. They, as their friends in Scotland, were Covenanters: they wished for the continuance of the government of the country under a mixed monarchy of king, lords, and commons, and not by the rump parliament alone. fhe ministers of Antrim and Down, met on the 15th February, 1648, and wrote an address to colonel Monk, which was presented to him by Mr. Kennedy, to dissuade him from his illegal proceedings. But the powers which then were, perceiving that the ministers could not be prevailed upon to omit praying for Charles and the restoration of the constitution, colonel Venables summoned them to appear before him on a certain day; but before the time appointed, he brought all who could be found, and imprisoned them, those of the county of Antrim (except Mr. Kennedy) in Carrickfergus; those of Down in Belfast, without any effect in changing their political opinions. At length a scheme was laid for transporting the ministers and principal members of their congregations, to the south of Ireland, where they would neither have influence nor friends; for which purpose, the ministers and people were summoned in 1653, to meet the commissioners at Carrickfergus. Consequently, a great multitude assembled, and met the commissioners: viz., colonels Venables, Jones, Hill, majors Allen and Barrow. The ministers spoke, and continued several hours. But when the commissioners were just ready to send the ministers on board to transport them to Tipperary, news arrived that Oliver Cromwell hadraised the parliament, dissolved the commonwealth, and declared himself lord protector. The commissioners then dismissed the people with unexpected mildness.” The ministers enjoyed considerable relaxation from their troubles during the mild lieutenantcy of Henry Cromwell; but being desirous of gaining the favour and assistance of the Presbyterians in Ulster, he summoned Mr. Greig and Mr. Hart before him, and reproached them for their ingratitude to the government from which they received £100 per annum, and yet opposed it. They answered, they accepted it not as a gift, but as part of their own, the tithes to which they had a prior right, and of which they had been deprived by the usurpers. In the year 1660, king Charles II. was restored to the throne of his ancestors, to the great joy of the Protestants of our three kingdoms, especially of the Presbyterians of Ireland, for which he often expressed his gratitude in the parliaments: thus, “When we were in Holland, we were attended by many grave and learned ministers from hence, who were looked upon as the most able and principal
* Presbyterian Loyalty, p. 300. *
asserters of the Presbyterian opinions; and to our great satisfaction, found them persons of full affection and zeal for the peace of the church.” He stated the great obligations he was under to the Presbyteri- . ans, for their activity in effecting his restoration, which he expressed in strong and affectionate terms to the lords of his first parliament. He said, “My Lords, if you do not join with me in extinguishing those fears which keep men’s hearts awake, apprehensive of safety and security, you keep me from performing my promise; which if I had not made, I am persuaded neither you nor I had been here. I pray you let us not deceive those who brought, or permitted us to come together.”—With the king’s restoration, a spirit of extravagant joy spread over the whole nation, that brought on with it, the throwing off the very professions of virtue and religion. All, ended in entertainments and drunkenness.” This extravagance was soon followed by grief and lamentation, , especially of those who were most active and zealous for the restoration. In the year 1661, monarchy and episcopacy were raised to the greatest degree of power and splendor: bishops were permitted to ii. their seats in the house of peers, and to the enjoyment of their former benefices and privileges. They procured an act which struck at the root of the Presbyterian form of church government. It is required that every clergyman should bere-ordained; if he had not before received episcopal ordination, that he should declare his assent to every thing contained in the book of common prayer, and should take the oath of canonical obedience. This act is founded upon an act made in the ninth century, by a council held in a place in the kingdom of Kent, called Kealhithe, Chalk harbour: thus, “It is decreed that no Scotchman shall be allowed to baptize, to say mass, to give the eucharist to the people, nor perform any part of the sacred office, because it is not known by whom the Scotchmen were ordained, or whether they were ordained or not, since they came from a country where there was no metropolitan, and very little regard is paid to other orders.” And whoever did not comply with this act, before the first of August, 1662, were deprived of all their ecclesiastical benefices; 2000 underwent the parliament’s deprivations, 2 refused bishopricks, rather than comply with such terms of communion. To this act of uniformity, the conventicle act was soon added:
viz. “Any meeting for religious worship, at which five more than .
the family were present, was declared a conventicle; and every person above sixteen who was present at the meetings, must lie , three months in prison, or pay five pounds for the first offence; six months for the second offence, or pay twenty pounds fine. Ror the first and second offence, justices of the peace were to correct offend- . ers without juries; and for the third offence being convicted by
* Burnet, p. 54 — f Henry.
r; or to: * o
– *, * * * * * *
jury, was to be banished to any plantation except New England cr Virginia, or pay one hundred pounds.” This time of persecution for such inmaginary offences was imputed to the prelates only. It is necessary to observe, those acts were not executed with such severity in to…, as is o in #. because the government of the country could be supported only by those against whom those acts were enacted. However those acts continued in such force as occasioned the interruption of public worship in Templepatr ck, from the 4th of December, 1660, till the 19th of June, 1670, when the Temple was opened, and the Lord’s supper was celebrated on the § of the same month. Public worship and the communions were regular during the remainder of Mr. Kennedy’s life. he separation of Protestants from the church of Rome, was considered in the time of queen Elizabeth only an imperfect reformation. They who wished for a reformation more agreeable to the scriptures, were called Puritans, al… on account of their refusing to comply with articles contained in the act of uniformity, they were called Non-Conformists. Their descendants are known by the name of Protestant Dissenters, who separated from other j. on account of their belief that they should have the right of private judgment, liberty of conscience, and the perfection of the scriptures, as a Christian’s only rule of faith and practice. The principlcs and worship of Dissenters are not formed upon such slight foundation as the unlearned and thoughtless may imagine; They were thoroughly considered; they were judiciously reduced to the standard of scripture, and the writings of antiquity, by a great number of men of learning and integrity, especially by the ministers ejected in the year 1662; men prepared to lose all, and to suffer martyrdom itself; and who actually resigned their livings, which, with most of them, were id: God) all that they and their families had to subsist upon, rather than sin against God, and desert the cause of civil and religious liberty, which with serious religion would have sunk to a very low ebb in the nation, had it not been for the noble stand which those worthies made against profaneness, and arbitrary power,t However it must be confessed, that a Dissenting Minister may, unawed by a conclave, exercise in its fullest extent the right of private judgment, which is the pride and pleasure of the human mind. In Pierce’s Vindication of Dissenters, Towgood’s Letters to White, and Palmer’s Protestant Dissenters’ Catechism, are stated the grounds upon which the dissent from the established church is founded. A scheme was laid by major Blood, founded on the tyranny of the ecclesiastical courts, the maladministration of the civil government.