I still think my point on the connection between affordability, accessibility, geography and cultural attitudes can have a say on how and why stray dogs persist to whatever degree in addition to owner irresponsibility. Same with cats really. You have owners who do want to stop their pets from straying and the like but can’t afford to go to the vet, let alone a good one that’s within their reach. Especially if it’s this far.
Likewise if dogs are believed to be dirty, not only people are made to clean their hands after touching them (as I know from personal experience) but also because it’s very tiring to constantly clean cat and dog poop and urine every now and then. Not that they’re bad but in the days before toilets and tissue paper (and even today), excluding them was and still is a practical hygienic necessity. Not that sheep, goats and pigs are any better.
I suppose the real excuse for them’s to keep them as food sources which came in handy before refrigerators. Though that involves a much more astute and considerate observation.