Witches (Google Books)

Lewd Women and Wicked Witches: A Study of the Dynamics of Male …
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Marianne Hester – 2003 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
This argues that the Devil cannot create, and has power merely to make witches believe things to be true that do not … or Devill can cause such a transmutation of the bodies of witches into those severall shapes and forms of Cats, Dogges, …
A collection of rare and curious tracts, relating to witchcraft in …
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1838 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
… Devill can cause such a transmuta. tion of the bodies of Witches into those severall shapes and forms of Cats, Dogges, … are but seeming and jugling transmutations of the Devil]: And here that saying of Augustine may be alledged, De civit.
Early Modern Supernatural: The Dark Side of European Culture, 1400–1700
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Jane P. Davidson – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Thus, a werewolf was the Devil’s disciple. … To make matters more complicated, it was thought that witches could transmute themselves into dogs as well as wolves; and witches could enchant … Naturally, Nynauld understood that these items could frequently cause feelings of disorientation, being “out of body,” and flight.
Witch Daze – Page 84
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Patricia Della-Piana – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
1428 Matteuccia di Francesco, from the castle of Ripabianca di Deruta in Italy, was tried for witchcraft in the main square … in southern Norway, where the witches had arrived in the shapes of dogs and cats to drink and dance with Satan, who … The priest of the fortress pointed out that this must have been the reason to why alcohol had disappeared from the … or universal solvent, and denounced the deceptions of fraudulent people who pretended to effect the transmutation of metals.
Encyclopedia of Witchcraft: The Western Tradition
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Richard M. Golden – 2006 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
During the Civil War he had maintained that the Devil, hell, witchcraft, and the Antichrist were all essentially metaphors for evil … of body, soul, and ethereal spirit) lingered long enough after death to cause such phenomena as corpses bleeding in the presence of their murderer. … he insisted that devils were of necessity limited to natural actions, and therefore that transmutation into cats, dogs, or other …
An Abridgment Of Dr. Cudworth’s True Intellectual System of the …
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Ralph Cudworth – 1732 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
Again, that there are no Witches : Persons asted by the Devil, because they are not enrich’d,&c. by him. … It is against our Supposition, thất the Subfiance of a Wizzard or Witch i transmuted into that of a Dog, Cat, &c. tho they … that the Bodys of Persons fupPos’d to be Witches cannot be turn’d into Dogs, &c. that many Storys of these matters are false; … A Probable Reason of their Ignorance of the latter. ib.
The Cincinnati Lancet-clinic – Volume 61 – Page 29
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1889 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
He affirmed that he had been witness of a case of delirium caused by the presence of the devil in a patient, that which was denied … frogs, bats, crows, goats, mules, dogs, cats, wolves, and bulls ; they could be transmuted into men as well as into angels of … They are known by many names, such as cacodemons, incubi, succubi.coque- mares, witches, hobgoblins, goblins, bad angels, Satan, Lucifer, etc.
The Wonders of the Invisible World: Being an Account of the Tryals …
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Cotton Mather – 1862 – ‎Read – ‎More editions
A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High …
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2000 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
… or Devill car cause such a transmutation of the bodies of witches into those severall shapes aud forms of cats, dogges, … Mrs. Hicks and her daughter aged 9 years were hanged at Huntington for witchcraft, for selling their souls to the devil, …
The witch in northern European art, 1470-1750 – Page 94
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Jane P. Davidson – 1987 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
134 Goya chose to depict these witches as figures that are in the act of transmutation for flight. … There is every reason to assume that Goya could have seen a witchcraft painting by Teniers, perhaps one sold by the artist … Fred Licht commented on the fact that the dogs are the same »breed. … but in merely represents a nocturnal gathering of witches with the Devil represented as a large black male goat.

A collection of rare and curious tracts, relating to witchcraft in the

INGENUOUS READER;

THOU hast here presented to thee a sad Emblem of the strange sleights and cunning subtilties, whereby Satan labours daily to insnare soules, and at last to bring them to utter mine; who being that grand impostor, soone began this worke, even in the morning of the Creation, in the body ot’a Serpent miraculously, to reason, dispute, speake, and conferre with Evah; and never ceased till he had laid the honour of those lorious creatures in the dust : and therefore is call that old Serpent, that deceiveth all the world, by whose deceitfull promises and subtill devices (for his own end, and desire of their destruction ,) hath insnared and drawne these poore silly creatures, into these horrid and detestable practises, of renouncing God and Christ, and entrinv into a solemne league and contract with the Devil] ;“* the thought. whereof is sufficient to cause a man to be filled with horror and astonishment. The Law and expresse command of God doth allow of no familiarity or inquiry of any other spirit, but from liiruselfe; as Isa. 8. 19. And when lhey shall say unto you, aeeke unto them tha! have familiar spirits, andunlo lVizards, that peep and that muller, should not a people seeke unto their God, Q-o. Vnder this interrogative is understood this atlirmative, A people should inquire of no other spirit, but of their God onely. By which also it is evident, that all spirits that doe sufi’er themselves to be inquired at, are evi ll spirits, and therefore Devills. And though these devillish practises were frequent and common amongst heathens and infidells, who usually held familiarity with these spirits, and many inquired ofthem in their Oracles; and therefore called those spirits that gave answer by them, Daemons, of their skill and knowledge in foretelling things to come: yet now when the light of the Gospel shineth so gloriously, that such a generation of poore deluded soules (and to such a number as hath of late been discovered) should be found

* A: one of them witnessed in open Court, Rebecca West.

[graphic]
amongst us, is much more matter of admiration and astonishment. I doubt not but these things may seeme as incredible unto some, as they are matter of admire-s tion unto others. Nelle nimis aapere, saith the Poet, It is true wisdome not to be too wise, that is, not to know nor desire to know more then is allowed or needfull, needfull not in our desires, but in Gods decree: Here then let reasonable men he perswadcd not too much (as is usuall) to swell with indignation, or to be puifed with impatience, where God doth not apertly reveale and plainly (as they desire and thinke needfull) the subtile Engines and mysticall craft of the Devill in the machinations of Witches and Sorcerers ; but sobcrly, modestly, and discreetly, so far forth be contented to pursue the triall and just way of their discoverie, as with sense, with reason, with Religion, is just and righteous; knowing, that whatsoever is beyond these lists, is reasonlesse, senslesse and impious. The greatest doubt and question will be, whether it be in the power of the Devill to perform such asportation and locall translation of the bodies of Witches ; it seemeth in reason a thing whereunto the Devill is unable: And whether these supernaturall works, which are above the power of man to do, and proper only to Spirits, whether they are reall, or only imaginary and fained. In answer to which, it is very probable that the Devill hath power to dispose and transport the bodies of men and women, where God him-. self doth not countermand or prohibit: as instance, when hee tooke the body of our Saviour and set it upon a. pinacle of the Temple; and these supernaturall acts may appear to the outward sense, as Histories, and many other true reports and Records of other wonderfull works and supernaturall feats, all alike oflered to the outward sense. It is true, that a Spirit, and a spirituall work simply in it self, in the own nature and substance cannot be seen by any bodily eye, or be deprehended by any outward sense, notwithstanding, as they do mix themselves with bodily substances, are certainly tried and subject to the sense: For illustration hereof, instance may be given in the holy Scripture, as the Sorcerers of Egypt, where water was turned into blood, the rod into a Serpent, 8w. By a spirituall power their eyes did manifestly see the water, and as apparently after see the blood, and the rod turned into a Serpent, the eye being

a true and undeceived witnesse of both: Things imagined and fancied, are easily discerned from those things that are reall and true objects. But it may he demanded, whether a Spirit or Devill can cause such a transmuta. tion of the bodies of Witches into those severall shapes and forms of Cats, Dogges, Birds, and other creatures, as is often reported, where Witches and Sorcerers have lived. The answer is, that it is impossible in nature, and in the ordinary unchangeable course of all things created by God, that one individuall and continued sub~ stance or entire thing should be wholly divided from it self, and yet be it self, for there can be no reall or true transmutation of one substance, or nature into another, but either by creation or generation. Now creation is the worke of an infinite power, and therefore of God alone. The Devill then cannot create, neither can he do it by any course of true generation, because a true and reall generation hath many precedent alterations, and by little and little, in space of time growes unto the perfection of that kind unto which it doth tend, or is begotten; therefore they are but seeming and jugling transmutations of the Devil]: And here that saying of Augustine may be alledged, De civit. Dei, lib. 18. cap. 18. (Nec sane Dmmonea natures creant, eed specie tenus, qua d Dec create aunt commutant, ut oideantur ease quot mm sunt) that is, Devils cannot create any nature or substance, but in juggling shew, 0r seemingly only, whereby with false shadowes covering those things which are created of God to cause them to seem that which they are not indeed. Take one instance of the jugglings and illusions of the Devill above all the rest, which doth most palpably detect him herein, is a History related by Johannes Baptists Porta, in his second book, de Magic natumh’ ,- hee there witnesseth, that upon the Devils suggestion, a Witch believed firmly and perswaded her self, that all the night shee had rid in the aire, over divers great mountaines, and met in convene ticles with other Witches, when the same night, the mentioned Author himself, with others that watched her and saw her all that imagined time of her transvection in the aire, to be within her chamber profoundly sleeping; yea, had smitten her, made her flesh blew with strokes, and could not awake her, nor perswade her afqterward when she was awaked that they had so used

her, or at all had seene or beheld her; thus prevalent was the juggling power of the Devill.

Many other like instances of like nature might be added, only what here is published and communicated unto the world, may sufliciently discover those strong delusions which these poor soules were given up unto, who now according to their demerits, and according to the Lawes of God and this kingdome established, have received their just reward.

The Cincinnati Lancet-clinic, Volume 61
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Pascal, Nicholas Malebranche, Thomas Hobbes, Francis Bacon, Leibnitz, and the immortal Newton. Unfortunately these great geniuses could not take part in the struggle between the clerical party and free thinkers. Honored as scholars, their governments never asked their advice on questions claimed to be under the control of religious orders. The clergy had all the latitude they desired in writing the history of demonology, and also the evidence wrung from those recused of sorcery— vague responses drawn out by fear, by torture, by suggestion imposed in the obscurity of a penitential tabernacle. A witness of veracity, as we have before stated, never gave testimony as to the conduct of the sorcerers at the secret vigils. Their invocations on initiation, their famous inunctions used on the body, with magical ointments while in a condition of absolute nudity; their equestrian position on broom sticks ; their flying tricks up the chimney and their bewitched reunions when horned devils rode on their shoulders, are legendary recitals which could only be accepted by ignorant fanatics and judges firm in the Faith. How a man with the seeming intelligence of Prosecutor Bodin, who was delegated by the state, who wrote six works on The Republic and The Constitution —works which have been compared in point of ability as ranking with Montes quieu’s Spirit of the Law, how a publicist of talent could support such stories as we have mentioned in his work on sorcery is a matter of profound amazement. Yet, Bodin testifies as to his faith in the story of that peasant of Touame ” who found himself naked, wandering around the fields in the morning,” and who gave as an explanation of his conduct that he had surprised his wife the night before as she was making preparations to go to a sorcerers’ vigil,, and that he had followed his better half, accompanied by the Devil, as far as Bordeaux, many leagues away. Bodin also believed the narration of that girl from Lyons “whom the lover perceived rubbing herself with magical ointment preparatory to attending a sorcerers’ vigil; and the lover, using the same ointment, followed his girl and arrived at the vigil almost as soon as she.”

As to that poor peasant who was found naked and alone in the field and forced to denounce his wife to the authorities, Bodin remarks impressively, “The woman con

fessed and was condemned to be burnt at the stake.”

Pierre de l’Ancre was never able to prove his stories by sentinels, sergeants, guards, or policemen, as to the appearance of the demon he described in his Traite sur Its demons; a spirit that showed itself as a large blood-hound or as a wild bull. It is true that in another part of his book he demonstrates the changeable character of his devil, and gives the following description, which methinks is more worthy the pen of an insane man rather than that of a magistrate: “The Devil of the sabbat (vigil) is seated in a black chair, with a crown of black thorns, two horns at the side of the head and one in the forehead with which he gores the assemblage. The Devil has bristling hair, pale and troubled looking face, large round eyes widely opened, inflamed and hideous looking, a goatee, a crooked neck, the body of a man combined with that of a billy goat, hands like those of a human being, except that the nails are crooked and sharp pointed at the ends; the hands are curved backwards. The Devil has a tail like that of a jackass, with which, strange to say, he modestly covers his private parts. He has a frightful voice without melody; he preserves a strange and superb gravity, having the countenance of a person who is very melancholy and tired out from overwork.”

This was the spirit of the lieutenants of justice called on by the Inquisitorial clergy to fix the penalty for the crime of sorcery. “Sorcery being a crime,” say they with the spirit of conviction, “consented to between man and the Devil; the man bowing to adore Satan, and receiving in exchange a part of his infernal power.

According to this compact, “The demon unites charnally with the sorcerer and female medium likewise; these unite themselves with Satan, denying God, Christ and the Virgin, and profaning all objects of sanctity by their profane presence.

” They become zealots for evil and render eternal homage to the Prince of Darkness.

“They are baptized by the Devil and dedicate to his service all children born to them by nature.

“They commit incests, poison people, and bewitch and work cattle to death.

“They eat the carrion from the rotting bodies of hanged criminals.

“They enter into a cabalistic circle laid out by the accursed one, and matriculate in a secret order which is engaged in all manner of outrages against society; they accept secret marks that affirm their complete vassalage to Satan.”

Finally, they repudiate all authority other than that of the master in the Cabala (Kabbala), and, abomination above all, “they incite the people to revolt.”

Meantime, while the Judges and Inquisitors pursued all intelligent people with the most wicked determination, Leloyer published his monograph on specters.”(‘) whose doctrines are closely connected with modern Spiritualistic theories.

This celebrated Councillor wrote that the soul, the spiritual essence which animates the organism, may be distracted and separated from the body for an instant, as we see in cases of ecstacy.

Now, we know that this nervous phenomenon, which may be natural, when connected with catalepsy, hysteria and somnambulism, or provoked when it is produced experimentally on subjects in a hypnotic condition, almost always coincides with an acute moral impression and a suspension of one or more- of the senses. It is during the duration of this phenomenon that the soul, according to Leloyer, performs far-off journeys,—not orthodox, however, for we are told that during the period of such exstacies, following cataleptic immobility, seven of these exstatics were burned alive at Nantes in 1549.

In another chapter, he adds that souls may, after death, impress themselves on our senses by taking fantastic forms. He supports this opinion by the incident relative to a daughter of the famous Juriscouncillor of the sixteenth century, Charles Dumoulin, who appeared to her husband and told him the names of assassins; and of the specter who informed the Justice of the crime committed by the woman Sornin on her husband, that the soul of Commodus appeared so often to Caracalla.

The author of the Spectres attributes to supernatural beings the frights experienced by certain persons who live in haunted houses. Every night they are awakened by the sound of noises,—blows resound on the floor and raps come on the partitions; every few minutes there are peals of ghostly laughter, whistling, clapping of hands to attract attention; these nervous persons

see spirits and are startled at sudden apparitions of the dead; specters seize them by the feet, nose, ears, and even go so far as sit on their chests. Such houses are said to be the rendezvous of demons.

The persons spoken of by Leloyer arc to-day known as mediums producing physical effects, and the phenomena observed centuries since are evidently the same as those investigated by William Crookes, with the collaboration of Kate Fox and Home.(‘)

“In the exstacy of sorcerers,” resumes Leloyer, “the soul is present, but is so preoccupied by the impressions that it receives from the Devil, that it cannot act on the body it animates. On awaking, such exstatics may remember things they have seen, events in which they have assisted, as in the case when the soul temporarily abandons its earthly tenement”

Meanwhile, it is but fair to observe that the author makes certain reservations; he admits that exstacy and hallucination may be provoked by a pathological condition of the nervous system, and are not always the result of the work of demons. He also comments on a certain number of vampires remaining in a lethargic sleep, from a nervous condition, after returning from a sorcerer’s vigil, a fact which, according to Calmeil, was of a nature to throw the theories of the Councillors of the Inquisition into disfavor.

The theory of the author of Spectres resembles considerably, as will at once be noticed, that of the first Magii and the modern doctrine of Spiritualism. Leloyer, besides, has gathered a number of facts to support his affirmations; among others, he cites the observation given him by Philip de Melanchton, the learned Hellenist and author of the famous confession of Augsburg. This was a spiritual manifestation experienced by the widow of Melanchton’s uncle: One day, while weeping and thinking of the dear lost one, two spirits appeared to her suddenly,—”one habited in the stately, dignified form of her husband, the other specter in the garb of a gray friar. The one representing her husband approached her and said a few consoling

1 Leloyer, ” Des Spectres,” Angers, 1588.

I See “Psychologic Experimentale,” by Dr. Puol; ” L’HUtoire de l’occulte,” by Fliex Fabart; the ” Livre des Esprits,” by Allan Kardec, and “Fakirisme Moderne,” by Dr. Gibier,—many extracts from the latter having been translated and published in the Cincinnati LancbtCunic in 1887.

words, touched her hand and disappeared with his monkish companion.”

Melanchton, although one of the chiefs of the Reformation, was still imbued with the ideas of the Romish Church; after some hesitation he concluded that the specters seen by his aunt were demons. The same phenomena have been observed by modern mediums; William Crookes, the celebrated London scientist, relates facts to which he has been witness which are even more extraordinary than the one we have just narrated.

Jerome Cardan, of Paris, the celebrated mathematician, renowned for his discovery of the formula for resolving cubic equations, solemnly affirmed that he had a protecting spirit, and never doubted the reality of this apparition. Cardan also tells how his father one evening received a visit from seven specters, who did not fear to enter into an argument with the learned old man.

Imagination, exalted by chimerical fear of demons, sees the work of these evildoing spirits on every hand, in gambling, in sickness, in accidents, in infirmity, in all the ordinary accidents of life. The sorcerers are accused of attacking man’s virility by witchcraft. The victims say that some one has knotted their private organs (noue I’aiguilette). This pretended catastrophe in magic, the origin of which dates back to times of antiquity, may be classed among abnormal physiological effects under t’le influence of a moral cause, fear, timidity, and certainly the suggestion of a feeble mind.

Such are the sorcerers that Bodin accuses, perhaps not without reason always, since we see that im potency in some young melancholic subjects who appear easily impressed with fantastic notions. “Sorcerers,” says Bodin, “have not the power to remove but a single organ from the body, that is, the virile organ; this thing they often do in Germany, often biding a man’s privates in his belly, and in this connection Spranger tells of a man at Spire who thought he had lost his privates ind visited all the physicians and surgeons in the neighborhood, who could find nothing where the virile organs had once been, neither wound nor scar; but the victim having made peace with the sorcerer, to his great joy soon had his treasure restored.”

There was no need of this kind of

witchcraft, pour noner I’aiguilette, in a timid boy, already subjugated by fear of the devil. Certainly, if the sorcerers had ideas of that force which is known to-day as suggestion, they could very easily destroy the virile power of the subject by governing his will and thoughts, his physical and moral personality. When we can confiscate the physical anatomy of a man he is reduced to all manner of impotencies. Who will affirm that suggestion is not one of the mysteries of sorcery?

DEMONOLOGICAL PHYSICIANS.

After the theosophists, theurgists, and the priests, we will now interrogate the writings of the physicians of antiquity and of the Middle Ages, as to this question of spirits and their connection with the affairs of mankind.

We see that Galen is often drawn away by the beliefs of his time, to the most ridiculous prejudices and fancies, and that he is the defender of magical conjurations. He claimed that ^Esculapius appeared to him one day in a dream and advised bleeding in the treatment of pleurisy by which he ‘.vas attacked.

After Galen, Soranus of Ephesus used magical chants for curing certain affections. Scribonius Largus, a contemporary of the Emperor Claudius, indicated the manner of gathering plants, so that they might possess the strongest healing properties (the left hand must be raised to the Moon). Plants thus gathered cured even serpent bites. Archigenes suspended amulets on the necks of his patients. And although Pliny often declared that he wished “to examine everything in nature and not to speculate on occult causes,” he reproduces in his works all the superstitious practices employed in medicine. – In the sixth century, ^Etius, physician to the Court of Constantinople, acquired great surgical renown by the preparation of applications of pomades, ointments, and other topical remedies, in which superstition played a leading role.(l) Thus, in making a certain salve it was necessary to repeat several times in a low voice, “May the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob accord efficacy to this medicine.” If one had a foreign body in the throat it was necessary to touch the neck of the patient and say, “As Jesus Christ raised Lazarus

I Sprengel, work cited, tome iii,

and made Jonah come out of a whale, come out thou bone “; or, better still, ” The Martyr Blase and the Servant of Christ commands thee to come out of the throat or descend to the stomach.”(‘)

After vEtius, we see Alexander of Tralles indulge in the same follies. In the colic he bids us use a stone on which is represented Hercules seated on a lion, a ring of iron on which was inscribed a Greek sentence, and, on the other, the diagram of the Gnostics (a figure composed of two equilateral triangles); and he adds that sacred things must not be profaned.

Against the gout, the same Alexander of Tralles recommended a verse from Homer, or, better still, to engrave on a leaf of gold the words met’, dreu, trior, phor, teus, za, zcnvn. He conjured, by the words Iao, Sabioth, Adonai, Eloi, a plant he employed in the same disease. In quotidian fever he advised an amulet made of an olive leaf on which was written in ink, Ka Poi. A.Q)

In the thirteenth century, Hugo de Lucques said a Pater noster. and other prayers to the Trinity to cure fractures of the limbs. But in th<; following century astrology replaced the magic of religious superstition. Arnauld de Villeneuve attributed to each hour of the day a particular virtue which influenced, according to the influence of the horoscope, the different parts of the body. According to Arnauld, we can use bleeding only on certain days when such and such a constellation is in place, and no other time; but the position of the moon more particularly needed attention. The most favorable time for phlebotomy was when Luna was found in the sign of cancer; but the conjunction of the latter with Saturn is injurious to the effects of medicines, and especially of purgatives. (*)

His contemporary, Bernard de Gordon (of Montpellier), gives as a sure method of hastening difficult accouchments the reading of passages from the Psalms of David. He explains the humors of certain hours of the day in the following manner: the blood in the morning moves towards the sun, with which it is in harmony; but it falls towards evening, because the greatest

1 Tetrabiblon, ii. et iv.

2 Sprengel, tome ii., et Alexandar Trallian. I.iber ix. et xii.

3 Arnauld de Villeneuve: “De Phlebotomia.”

amount of sanguification occurs during sleep. In the third hour of the day the bile runs downwards, to the end that it may not make the blood acidj(‘) the black bile moves at the ninth hour and the mucus towards evening.

The efficacy of precious stones for bewitching, and many other superstitious ideas, were likwise noted by medical authors, notably Italian writers, as, for instance, Michel Savonarola, Professor at Ferrara, one of the most celebrated physicians of his age. In Germany, Agrippa of Nettesheim, philosopher, alchemist and physician, had a predilection for magic and the occult sciences, if we are to judge from his works published in 1530 and 1531, i.e., De incertiiudiana et vanitate sciintiarum, De occulta phUosophia, in which he mentions action induced at a distance and forsees the discovery of magnetism.

Like him, his contemporaries, Raymond Lulle in Spain, and J. Reuchlin, published books oh the Cabala {Kabbald), and, in Italy, Porta founded, at Naples, the Academy of Secrets, for the development of occult sciences, which are explained in his treatise De Magia Naturali.

At almost the same epoch, Paracelsus, Professor at Basle, claimed that he possessed the universal panacea; that he had found the secret of prolonging life, by magic and astrology, for he diagnosed diseases through the influence of the stars. After him, Van Helmont defended animal magnetism, and gave himself up to the study of occult science, in company with his student, Rodolphe Goclenius.

In the sixteenth century, Ferneil, who, inasmuch as he was a mathematician and an astronomer, published his Cosmotheria, where he indicated the means of measuring a meridian degree with exactitude; his remarkable works on physiology {De naturali parte medicines, 1542), on’ pathology and therapeutics, which gave him the nickname of the French Galen. Fernel fully admitted the action of evil spirits on the body of man; he believed that adorers of the Demons could, by the aid of imprecations, enchantments, invocations and talismans, draw fallen angels into the bodies of their enemies, and that these demons could then cause serious sickness. He compared the possessed to maniacs, but that the former had the gift of reading the

I Bernard Gordon: “Lillium Medicinae.”

past and divining the most secret matters. He affirmed that he had been witness of a case of delirium caused by the presence of the devil in a patient, that which was denied by several doctors at the epoch. (‘) He also believed in lycanthropy. . . . In the same century, another of our medical glories, Ambroise Pare, the Father of French surgery, also adopted the theory of the Inquisitors regarding sorcery in his works,(‘) in which may be found his remarkable anatomical and surgical discov eries. We read the following quaintly conceived passage: “Demons can suddenly change themselves into any form they wish; one often sees them transformed into serpents, frogs, bats, crows, goats, mules, dogs, cats, wolves, and bulls; they could be transmuted into men as well as into angels of light; they howl in the night and make infernal noises as though dragging chains, they move chairs and tables, rock cradles, turn the leaves of books, count money, throw down buckets, etc., etc. They are known by many names, such as cacodemons, incubi, succubi.coquemares, witches, hobgoblins, goblins, bad angels, Satan, Lucifer, etc.

“The actions of Satan are supernatural and incomprehensible, passing human understanding, and we can no more understand them than we can comprehend why the loadstone attracts the needle. Those who are possessed by demons can speak with the tongue drawn out of their mouth, through the belly and by other natural I parts; they speak unknown languages, cause earthquakes, make thunder, clear up the weather, drag up trees by the roots, move a mountain from one place to another, raise castles in the air and put them back in their places without injury, and can fascinate and dazzle the human eye.

“Incubi are demons in the disguise of men, who copulate with female sorcerers; swubi are demons disguised as women, who practice vile habits not only on sleeping, but wakeful men.”

“Ambroise Pare,” says Calmeil, “believed that demons hoarded up all kinds of ‘foreign bodies in their victims’ persons, such as old netting, bones, horse-shoes, nails, horse

1 J. Ferneil, “Opera Universa Medicina,” iiber H, chapter 16.

J Ambroise Pare, Oevres,” ninth edition, Lyons, 1633, p. 780.

hair, pieces of wood, serpents, and other curious odds and ends, and cites the wellknown case of Ulrich Neussersser.”

The celebrated surgeon concludes from this that “it was the Devil who made the iron blades and other articles found in the stomach and intestines of the unfortunate Ulrich.”

What would Pare have thought had he seen the strange objects so commonly found by modern surgeons in ovarian cysts? How many demons would it take to produce the numerous objects noticed at the present day?

Happily these demonological physicians accepted purely and simply the suggestion that demons could act on men, and abandoned the victims to the tender mercy of the theologians and their tools the lawyers. Yet, even in this time of atrocities there were a few courageous physicians who struggled for humanity as against ecclesiastical despotism. Let us quote, according to Calmeil, one Francoise Ponzinibus, who destroyed one by one all the arguments that served to support the criminal code against demons. It was this brave doctor who dared to write that demonidolatry constituted a true disease; that all the sensations leading the ignorant to believe in spirits who adored the Devil were due to a depraved moral and physical condition; that it was false that certain persons could isolate their souls from their bodies at night and thus leave their homes for far off places inhabited by demons; that the accouplement of sorcerers and all the crimes attributed to them could not be logically supposed but must be legally proven; that it was cruel and atrocious to burn demented people at the stake for witchcraft.

Let us also quote from Andre Alciat, another courageous physician, who dared accuse an inquisitor of murdering a multitude of insane people on the plea of witchcraft. He considered the vigil (sabbat) of sorcerers as an absurd fiction, and saw in so-called possessed only so many poor demented women given over to fanatical delusions and wild dreams.

Paul Zeechias. the author of ” MedicoLegal Questions” (Questiones Medico-legales), a work in which he shows himself to be as wise an alienist as Doctor of Laws. The avowed and open enemy of supernaturalism, he boldly denounced the cruelties committed against the demented.

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