Indipop

Kind of like India’s version of OPM (Philippine pop music) except in this context as India’s famous for Bollywood (you know, mandatory song and dance numbers in every film), it specifically refers to pop songs independent of being used in films. Not that musicals are nonexistent in the Philippines but I suspect it rarely happens and that if there are any pop songs used as soundtrack, it generally doesn’t occur much in every scene and used more often in credits (though I could be wrong, since I don’t watch much movies anymore).

OPM isn’t any better (sometimes taking cues from US counterparts but most of the OPM I’ve listened to/heard tend to be more consistently sentimental and nicer sounding to boot) but at least it permits musicians to make commercial, arguably manufactured songs without needing to be tied to movies. Conversely speaking, Indipop is still around in some form or another but according to the sources I’ve read they take a backseat to Bollywood songs. Indipop pretty much peaked in the 1990s.

Often coinciding with technologies at the time especially with relation to albums but I’d argue that India doesn’t seem to support that type of pop music anymore. Some blame it on Bollywood (which stole the more talented individuals) and remixes and stuff. Not that many of them have any staying power and Daler Mehndi’s internationally famous. Some of those Indipop singers still have solo careers (moreso depending on language and region).

But alas they pale in comparison to their 1990s heyday.

Arguing and misunderstanding

I often wound up getting into arguments whenever I become outspoken with my feelings. You see I often got scolded before for throwing tantrums and complaining/rambling is one of my tactics of trying to express my feelings without throwing a fit (methinks my emotion issues may have something to do with being spanked a lot before).

I tried many other things like telling stories and teasing but it’s not so much that they don’t work but that the people around me seem confounded. It’s like if I honestly tell them about how I feel about others, they’d counteract often out of respect. That’s understandable especially if it’s with family members because you’re not supposed to talk crap even if you know they mistreated you before.

Or sometimes they’d keep me secluded if I start rambling and arguing, often to try to minimise the situation though in my case it sometimes worsens it. Arguing is bad but not when the person who’s whining is trying not to throw a fit. (I argued with somebody over pets before, rambling a lot and stuff but I did understand and now generally tolerate him because he tells me about his troubles.)

If not complaining, then trying to understand their motivations but even if I tell them what I learnt they’d still counteract. Again I think it’s out of respect to others but not when they mistreat me in some manner. (Like I said, I’ve come to tolerate that person despite our arguments because he too gets angry whenever his father teases him a lot, I tell him that’s what somebody else did to me before.)

 

Alevism via Google Books

The Sunni-Shi’a Divide: Islam’s Internal Divisions and Their Global …

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1612345239
Robert Brenton Betts – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Alevi The Alevi, or ‘Alawi of central Anatolia, also known in Turkish as Qizilbashi, have even stronger Twelver religious roots but share little else with their similarly named fellow sectarian Shi’a of Syria, least of all their crypto-Christian tendencies and their … Despite their strong ancient Turkish associations, an estimated 20 percent of Alevis are ethnic Kurds, the large majority of whom in Turkey and elsewhere in the Middle East are Sunnis. Strictly monogamous, the Alevi are politically …
Turkish Democracy Today: Elections, Protest and Stability in an …

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1845111850
Ali Carkoglu, ‎Ersin Kalaycioglu – 2007 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
individuals who approve a jeriat based state in Turkey are found in an earlier study in 1999 to be overwhelmingly in support of the secular Civic Law which guarantees monogamy and equal treatment of women before the law for example. … to Turkish Alevism.r Those who place themselves on the religious conservative side on the statements given are likely to be of Sunni/Hanefi orientation while those who are on the opposing side are much more likely to be of Alevi orientation.
Le Multiculturalisme Et L’histoire Des Relations Internationales Du …

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=jaSQAAAAMAAJ
Pierre Savard, ‎Brunello Vigezzi, ‎Commission of History of International Relations – 1999 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
For the Alevis the State did not build a single cemevi and did not pay the salary of a single Alevi priest (din adami). For all these reasons… the … (i.e. where Haci Bektass tekke and turbe are situated) be immediately satisfied, because this district is the centre of the Alevis of Anatolia1. Could one say that … Alevis do not practice circoncision, women do not veil themselves, monogamy is a rule and divorce practically impossible, except because of adultery. They never accept to be …
Alevism-Bektashism: a brief introduction – Page 45

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=e1XYAAAAMAAJ
Ali Yaman, ‎Aykan Erdemir – 2006 – ‎Snippet view
Another aspect of Alevism is the belief in the equality of men and women in all spheres of life. Men and women should be together while working and worshipping. Contrary to the Sunni tradition, monogamy is the principle form of marriage. Customs such as bride price (ba§hk parasi) are not accepted. Both men and women can make a complaint to dede about his/her spouse, and if s/he is found guilty, s/he could be excommunicated. The equality and togetherness of men and women …
Alevis and Alevism: Transformed Identities – Page 142

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=f8sQAQAAIAAJ
Hege Irene Markussen – 2005 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Another reader restricts his Alevi identity to a famous motto: The religious identity of the Alevis is concentrated in the term ‘eline, diline, beline sahip of (‘Control yourself!’): that means, control your hands (the demand not to grap at something you do not possess), your tongue (avoidance of lie and defamation), and your loins (the command to constrict sexual intercourse to the monogamous marriage). (Pupil at the age of 14 in Alevilerin Sesi 2002, 52/2: 29). Although the journal raises …
Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration and the Religious Imagination

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=113611260X
Dale F. Eickelman, ‎James Piscatori – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The way it is often phrased, “domuz kiskanmaz” (“pigs are not jealous”) euphemistically signifies that pigs are promiscuous animals, not monogamous, and that therefore those who partake of pork also become promiscuous, shameful, lacking in honour and virtue. It is the moral extension of “you are what … In western Anatolia most Alevis are formerly transhumant Turkoman; many in the east call themselves Kurds, or are labelled Kurdish by others. Pir Sultan Abdal, a sixteenth-century …
Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: A-C – Page 435

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0028657705
Philip Mattar – 2004 – ‎Snippet view
Estimated at between five and twenty million in Turkey in the I990s> devotees are divided between those, commonly known as Alevis, whose leaders claim descent from their patron saint, and those who assert that he had no children. According to … They are traditionally monogamous and proud of the equal participation of the women of their order. … Many Alevi Bektashis lost their lives when attacked by Sunni right-wing extremists at Kahra- manmaraj in 1978, and at Sivas in 1993.
Islamochristiana – Volume 29 – Page 174

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=J1pTAAAAYAAJ – Translate this page
2003 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
They venerate the 12 Imams and therefore count them as a special group within the Shia. With the exception of the “first pillar” of Islam, the pronouncing of the shahâda, the Alevis disregard and even reject the religious-cultic duties and the remainder of Islamic Law as it has been developed on the basis of Koran and Sunna. Thus, for example, they strictly follow monogamy and do not know of any prohibition of pork and alcohol nor do they have legal prescriptions concerning women’s …

Alevi Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives – Page 182

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1135797250
Tord Olsson, ‎Elisabeth Ozdalga, ‎Catharina Raudvere – 2005 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Muslim holy-men further appealed to Christians by presenting Islam as a syncretism of Muslim and Christian religious beliefs. Christian holy places were taken over; Jesus was venerated by Muslims. But the Christians themselves often brought Christian belief and practices after converting to Islam. Baptism, worship of saints, the celebration of Easter and belief in the healing efficacy of churches were introduced from Christianity into Islam.5 The roots of Alevism has to be sought for in …

Alevis in Europe: Voices of Migration, Culture and Identity – Page 49

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1317182650
Tözün Issa – 2016 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Alevis were also becoming a concern for the CUP, who feared possible cooperation between the Christians and Alevis. Baha Sait (1882–1939) was appointed by the CUP during World War I to travel throughout Anatolia and report on demographics, particularly those of the Alevi and Bektaşi (Bektashi). Sait suggested that his commission was ‘triggered by population statistics confiscated in Anatolia College and compiled by Protestant missionaries, listing the Alevis as a former …
Managing Invisibility: Dissimulation and Identity Maintenance among …

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=9004279199
Hande Sözer – 2014 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
In these circumstances, Alevis do not seem to have any other option but to show support for Sunni authorities for strategic purposes, with the hope these will open doors for various levels of advancements otherwise impossible for local Alevis. “Our Difference is Thinner than an Onion Skin” in Relation to Bulgarians Alevi Bulgarian Turks use the saying “our difference is thinner than an onion skin” in referring to Orthodox Christian Bulgarians. They draw upon several fields of …
Islam, Sufism and Everyday Politics of Belonging in South Asia

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1317435966
Deepra Dandekar, ‎Torsten Tschacher – 2016 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
What Sözer has identified, dissimulation, raises serious questions about other studies that see syncretism in practices such as supposedly non-Sunni groups following Sharia. Instead of manifesting either assimilation or syncretism, dissimulation actually reinforces separateness to the minority community, among its own members. Dissimulation helps the minority Alevi communities avoid conflict with Sunnis, while passing essentially unnoticed among Bulgarian Christians, and even …

Europeanization and Tolerance in Turkey: The Myth of Toleration

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1137318198
A. Kaya – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Thefaultlinebetween the positions ofthetwo groups mainly derives from their interpretation of Alevism. Theformer defines Alevism primarily withinthe boundaries of Islam,thusthe AKP’s attempttoIslamize Alevism does notcreate a problem. The latter,on the otherhand, perceives Alevismas a heterodox and syncretic culture borrowing from different traditions such as shamanism, Islam, pantheism and Christianity. 1 Startingwith some theoretical issuesregarding the notionofthe attitude of …

 

Having a wife or two

Keep in mind that not all Muslims endorse and/or practise polygamy (some communities like Alevis and Berbers prioritise monogamy). In fact, the Berbers and Minangkabau people are one of the more matrilineal and matrifocal Muslim communities as far as I recall reading. That Sufism initially practised celibacy at some point or another (Alevis and Sufis also seemingly have more Christian like traits, albeit in the organised religion sense of the word).

I even read somewhere that Tunisia was one of those countries that revolutionised and shaped monogamy in Islam for centuries. This specifically has something to do with a dowry. That may or may not still be the case but like I said, not all Muslim communities endorse communities. Some like the Berbers discourage polygamy where I remember reading somewhere at Persee.fr that a man can’t have more than one wife.

 

Life after anime

Like I said, if the Japanese animation industry were to die soon then it’s inevitable that it’s going to have lots of successors elsewhere. But it would be damning for some that the biggest animation hubs by then (2030s to be exact) are in China, India and even Nigeria considering current developments from what I recall and read before.

The former two were even the biggest economies before, with formidable empires of their own and are quickly regaining that position. Of course, there are other powers are that regaining their positions of sorts such as Turkey, Russia and Arabia. Keep in mind that Japan has a near monopoly on Asian and non-Western animation in general for so long that unsurprisingly other non-Western animation industries pale in comparison.

That is until if Japanese animation dies for good, then those industries will leapfrog a lot thus effectively filling in Japan’s case. That might not always be the case as other countries like Turkey and Malaysia are capable of supporting at least several animated programmes but they’ll start growing in quantity and quality once anime declines.

If this happens in a few years time, we could be the last generation to experience anime as we know it and deal with its heirs instead.

 

Sufism via Google Books

Sufi Cults and the Evolution of Medieval Indian Culture – Page 224

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=I0XYAAAAMAAJ
Anup Taneja – 2003 – ‎Snippet view
Jaisi has, however, depicted the emotional insights of monogamous women and their adjustment with the polygamous husband. He has elaborately written about the contentions between the two wives and their reluctance to adjust with each other.89 One can therefore say that monogamous women did have difficulties in accommodating themselves with their polygamous husbands. It would not be wrong to say then that Jaisi had a certain degree of disliking for the polygamous …
The Oxford History of Islam – Page 735

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0199880417
John L. Esposito – 2000 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
684, 687; in Malaysia, 585 minority communities, of Muslims, 612 miracles, attributed to Sufis, 360, 361 Mir Damad, as Shiite scholar, 295, 368, 697 al-Mirdar,Abu Musa, as Mutazilite theologian, 278 Mirdasids, of Aleppo, 43 miri, Ottoman lands … Safavid legacy from, 370 monogamy, modernist sanction of, 648 Monophysitism, 3, 310, 311; in Ottoman Empire, 385 monotheism; Muhammad’s teaching of, 8, 13, 19, 305; Quranic doctrine of, 146–147, 517 Montreal, foreign populations of, …
Sufism in the Ottoman Arab World: Shaykh ʻAbd Al-Ghanī Al-Nābulusī

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=qBhNAQAAMAAJ
B. R. Von Schlegell – 1997 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
beyond. his. (mental). perception.” Rühāni initiation seems to have been refused by few Naqshbandis, but, again, as with his eventual insistence on monogamous master-disciple relationships, Tāj al-Dîn al-Rūmī stands out. Known for favoring in-person training and subbah with a living shaykh, Tāj al-Din’s biographer quotes …
Seeds of Conflict in a Haven of Peace: From Religious Studies to …

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=9042021888
Frans Jozef Servaas Wijsen – 2007 – ‎Preview
The issue was resolved and the Celestrian Church was granted membership, because it had ruled in 1986 that new clergy must be monogamous. In Islam religious orders (tariqas) or brotherhoods based on mysticism (Sufism) could be seen as a parallel. The major difference from the African Instituted Churches is that in Africa the Sufi brotherhoods are pretty much mainline, as the majority of Muslims in Africa are linked to them to some extent. In global Islam, however, the Sufi …
The ulema, sufis and intellectuals – Page 24

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=EzIKAQAAMAAJ
Mubarak Ali Khan – 2005 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Akbar favorued monogamy and disliked the practice of marrying more than once. He never allowed the practice of illicit sexual relations. According to Badauni, he founded a settlement of prostitutes outside the city and named it Shaitanpura (the place of Satan). There was a supervisor and a clerk who checked those who visited the prostitutes and registered their names. Similarly, the religious reforms of Akbar were called Din-i- Ilahi and condemned as an attempt to replace Islam.
In the Eye of the Storm: Women in Post-revolutionary Iran – Page 202

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0815626339
Mahnaz Afkhami, ‎Erika Friedl – 1994 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The advice to treat women with justice has been interpreted by some to imply monogamy. It has been argued that it would be impossible for a man to treat co-wives equally, and that therefore the Quran is indirectly advising men to be monogamous. See Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam (New … She refers to the practices of the early Sufis and Qarmatians as evidence of equal spiritual treatment of women in Islam. In their methodology of spiritual practices, the Sufis have …
Re-searching Indian women – Page 113

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=oihkAAAAMAAJ
Vijaya Ramaswamy – 2003 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
The negotiation in these poems between Sufi and Rajput ethics is not always so successful, however. The clearest instance of a disjunction is in the polygamous status of the hero. Polygamy for the hero in medieval romances, and the upper-caste patriarchy it articulated, always implied monogamy for the woman. Once again, the prior marriage of the heroine Chanda in the Chandayan is a deviation from this norm indicative of the poem’s Ahir moorings. A sixteenth-century Sufi treatise …
Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs – Page 122

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0932885306
Nadia Maria El-Cheikh – 2004 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
… the texts criticize Byzantine concepts of celibacy, marriage (including monogamy), and divorce. In Islam, the question of celibacy versus marriage is resolved largely in favor of the latter. The centrality of marriage in Islam is best captured by a tradition of the Prophet: “There shall be no monkery in Islam.” The clear example of the Prophet established marriage and, more generally, legal sexual intercourse, as sunna, although celibacy did crop up at intervals, especially among the Sufis.

The Sufi Message of Hazrat Inayat Khan: Gayan, Vadan, Nirtan

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=f-8IAQAAIAAJ
Inayat Khan – 1960 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
MONOGAMY and polygamy depend upon temperament. A monogamous temperament could never be otherwise than monogamous. And there are temperaments that will always have a tendency towards polygamy; no matter how happily placed in life, or how carefully guarded, these naturally seek variety of experience in sex. In the lower animal creation, the polygamous temperament is seen to predominate. There one male has a number of females. One male is capable of …

The Many Lives of a Rajput Queen: Heroic Pasts in India, c. 1500-1900

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0295997850
Ramya Sreenivasan – 2017 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
The inexorable fact of elite polygyny seems to coexist uneasily with a Sufi monogamous ethic here. As the values of lay elites and their courtly genres take precedence at this point, the heroine now contends with a rival for her husband’s affection. In the Padmavat Ratansen simply re-enters his old relationship with Nagmati and the co-wives are left confronting each other. They come to blows before Ratansen intervenes and reminds them that they are united by a common duty (seva) to …
The Moslem World – Volumes 6-7 – Page 35

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=rOI7AAAAIAAJ
Samuel Marinus Zwemer – 1966 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
This, with the following view, will perhaps enable us to estimate the real value of this modern form of Sufism. “Polygamy may be natural to man, and monogamy to the female . . . but monogamy is the ideal life.” This statement is hardly in accord with the professed idealistic views of womanhood which we have noticed. A good test for any system of religion or ethics is to analyse their attitude towards women — Christianity in all its mystical aspects is dignified by its regard for woman …

Misadventure in the Middle East: Travels as Tramp, Artist, & Spy

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1857884892
Henry Hemming – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
He was light years ahead of his contemporaries in the way he championed monogamy, religious tolerance and an end to slavery, among other things. The poet Ted Hughes once described Sufis as “the biggest society of sensible men there has ever been on earth”. Sufism minus the music and dance first formed in the centuries after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, in some ways as a reaction to the dogmatic approach to Islam taking root throughout the Arabian peninsula, …
Inside Central Asia

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=0715640380
Dilip Hiro – 2011 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Explanation by the tongue makes most things clear, But love unexplained is clearer. Rumi’s open-mindedness and liberal interpretation of Islam are well captured in “Take the road to rebirth, O hoja [religious teacher]! Leave what’s old, / On your journey you’ll find dull earth will turn to gold.”14 The great Sufi saint was against slavery and for monogamy and giving women a higher role in religion and public life. He called on his disciples to pursue all forms of truth and beauty, irrespective …

Indian and Chinese animation after Japan

The Japanese animation industry isn’t declining badly, at least not yet but since India and China have rapidly rising economies with their own animation industries quickly catching up (in fact India has several computer generated productions) that’s going to pose a threat to the Japanese animation industry. Also if the Japanese animation industry were to die soon, then China and India will quickly fill in the gap.

To be fair, China and India were already major world powers and economies before. They even have vast empires and greatly influenced Southeast Asian countries. Especially with the Chinese where there’s a substantial diaspora over there and that India imported Buddhism and Islam to Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Logically it also imported Buddhism to Japan and that there are shrines to elephant gods in both countries.

That’s saying because at this point they’re quickly regaining that status. It’s been predicted by economists that both India and China will become the world’s top largest economies soon so if Japan declines substantial, these two will overtake it and may become major animation hubs soon after.

Congolese dogs via Google Books

The Dark Wind: Witches and the Concept of Evil – Page 78

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1430318139
Gary R. Varner – 2007 – ‎Preview
living in what is now Sudan, Zaire and parts of Central Africa believed that dogs and certain birds were closely associated with witchcraft and, in fact, are witches. Evans-Pritchard wrote, “The dog has a malicious way of looking at people and is so greedy that it resembles human beings, and on account of these and other deficiencies Azande think that dogs are often witches.” 102 Owl also are greatly feared and when heard at night “a man…knows that a witch is abroad and blows his …
Reading Leviticus: Responses to Mary Douglas – Page 98

https://books.google.com.ph/books?isbn=1850756287
John F. A. Sawyer – 1996 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
When I first went to study the Lele people in present day Zaire, accusations of sorcery were only credible if they indicted old men,“ children, young men and most women were stereotypical victims; in consequence old men had to be careful how they behaved lest they got accused and … In the first stage witchcraft beliefs were like a house dog trained to protect the social structure from abuse of power; in the second stage the dog had gone mad and was biting the householders. At such …

Surnoms et sobriquets yansi: (Rép. du Zaïre) – Page 54

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=7rgNAAAAYAAJ – Translate this page
Tango Muyay – 1980 – ‎Snippet view
(Rép. du Zaïre) Tango Muyay. s’était procuré un fétiche qui pouvait lui produire de l’argent. Le fêticheur qui lui avait remis ce fétiche exigeait 9 personnes dont cinq. femmes et quatre hommes. Grâce à cette magie ? il avait déjà hypnotisé aA.x … Chien: “Chien d’un sorcier”. Mbwa muleok Cette expression explique: un homme qui est souvent près d’un homme connu comme sorcier. Les grands amis d’un sorcier sont souvent des hommes mûrs et parfois même de petits enfants.

Nicknames and nicknames yansi: (Rep. Of Zaire) – Page 54

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Tango Muyay – 1980 – Snippet view
(Rep. Of Zaire ) Tango Muyay. had bought a fetish that could produce him money. The fetish that gave him this fetish required 9 people including five. women and four men. Thanks to this magic? he had already hypnotized AA. x … Dog : ” Dog of a sorcerer “. Mbwa muleok This expression explains: a man who is often near a man known as a wizard . The great friends of a wizard are often mature men and sometimes even small children.

Recits epiques des Lega du Zaire – Volume 135 – Page 34

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N’Sanda Wamenka – 1992 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Des sorciers puissants sont sensés avoir réussi à domestiquer pour leur compte l’énergie vitale des personnes qu’ils auraient tuées par ensorcellement. L’jkynda (ou lungubu) est … Le mu I i ki est un paquet de feuilles dans lequel le sorcier emprisonne une énergie vitale; ce paquet est habituellement caché dans la forêt à un endroit seulement accessible à son propriétaire. Le mu 1 i k a … la nuit où il réussit à se métamorphoser en hibou, en chien, en chat, en insecte, etc. 2° muq i la .

Epic tales of the Lega of Zaire – Volume 135 – Page 34

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N’Sanda Wamenka – 1992 – Snippet view – More editions
Powerful wizards are thought to have managed to domesticate on their behalf the vital energy of the people they would have killed by bewitching. The jkynda ( or lungubu) is … The mu i i ki is a bundle of leaves in which the sorcerer traps a vital energy; this package is usually hidden in the forest at a place only accessible to its owner. The mu ika … the night he manages to metamorphose into an owl, a dog , a cat, an insect, etc. 2 ° muq i la.

Bulletin des juridictions indigènes et du droit coutumier congolais

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1945 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Les ouvrages de démonologie et de sorcellerie citent que les sorciers et sorcières du temps jadis, Moyen âge, Renaissance et même au grand Siècle, étaient aidés en leur sombre besogne par quelqu’animal familier, une souris, un rat, un chat, un chien ayant usage de la parole mais ne correspondant qu’avec son maître, le conseillant et surtout l’assistant en ses maléfices. Cet animal semblait immortel, se léguait, se cédait et passait de père en fils et de mère tn fille, la sorcellerie …

Bulletin of Indigenous Jurisdictions and Congolese Customary Law

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=lB8QAQAAMAAJ – Translate this page
1945 – Snippet view – More editions
The works of demonology and witchcraft mention that the witches and witches of the old days, Middle Ages, Renaissance and even the great century, were helped in their dark work by some familiar animal, a mouse, a rat, a cat, a dog having use of the word but corresponding only with his master, the counselor and especially the assistant in his evil spells. This animal seemed immortal, bequeathed itself, yielded and passed from father to son and from mother to daughter, sorcery …

Etudes bakongo – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

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Joseph van Wing – 1941 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Mbwa yamba ou grand chien, est incorporé à la statue d’un chien. Il est emprunté aux Bayaka, les raies rouges et blanches qui zèbrent la statue, trahissent de suite cette origine. Elle porte sous le ventre une cavité dans laquelle on met de la glaise rouge et blanche, de la poudre de noix de kola et des têtes de serpent. A chaque cérémonie le fétiche reçoit une libation de sang de poule ou de chèvre. Son pouvoir s’exerce contre les sorciers, les voleurs et les ennemis, qu’il couvre de …
Études Bakongo – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=ezoUAAAAIAAJ – Translate this page
Joseph van Wing – 1941 – ‎Snippet view
Mbwa yamba ou grand chien, est incorporé à la statue d’un chien. Il est emprunté aux Bayaka, les raies rouges et blanches qui zèbrent la statue, trahissent de suite cette origine. Elle porte sous le ventre une cavité dans laquelle on met de la glaise rouge et blanche, de la poudre de noix de kola et des têtes de serpent. À chaque cérémonie le fétiche reçoit une libation de sang de poule ou de chèvre. Son pouvoir s’exerce contre les sorciers, les voleurs et les ennemis, qu’il couvre de …

Bakongo Studies – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=_stCAQAAIAAJ – Translate this page
Joseph Van Wing – 1941 – Snippet view – More editions
Mbwa yamba or big dog , is incorporated in the statue of a dog . It is borrowed from the Bayaka, the red and white stripes that zebra the statue, betray this origin immediately. It carries a cavity under the belly in which we put red and white clay, kola nut powder and snake heads. At each ceremony the fetish receives a blood libation of chicken or goat. His power is exercised against wizards , thieves and enemies, whom he covers with …
Bakongo Studies – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=ezoUAAAAIAAJ – Translate this page
Joseph van Wing – 1941 – Snippet view
Mbwa yamba or big dog , is incorporated in the statue of a dog . It is borrowed from the Bayaka, the red and white stripes that zebra the statue, betray this origin immediately. It carries a cavity under the belly in which we put red and white clay, kola nut powder and snake heads. At each ceremony the fetish receives a libation of chicken or goat blood. His power is exercised against wizards , thieves and enemies, whom he covers with …

Proverbes Des Bakongo – Page 135

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Oscar Stenström, ‎Gösta Stenström – 1999 – ‎Snippet view
La calomnie est liée au commérage et détruit également l’unité du village :42 « Tu calomnies la civette, le chat sauvage tend l’oreille ». Kela mbala, nsinzi weti teka matu. B87. Quelqu’un de proche de celui que l’on calomnie peut lui … Croit-elle avoir des enfants là-bas? » Nkwa kisita welefwemi. Koko kele i kaba- kila bana? M90. Plus injurieux est de dire à quelqu’un qu’il est ndoki (sorcier) et que sa mère a été soumise à l’épreuve du poison : « Ta mère est morte de nkasa (poison).
Etudes bakongo – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

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Joseph van Wing – 1941 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
L’ouverture est fermée au moyen d’argile blanche mêlée de sel et de vin de palme, le tout étant recouvert d’un morceau de peau de mbongi ou chat sauvage. A chaque utilisation du fétiche ainsi qu’à son installation, on l’abreuve de sang de poule et on … A chaque cérémonie le fétiche reçoit une libation de sang de poule ou de chèvre. Son pouvoir s’exerce contre les sorciers, les voleurs et les ennemis, qu’il couvre de plaies sur tout le corps et dont il déchire les entrailles. Aussi sert-il …
Études Bakongo – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

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Joseph van Wing – 1941 – ‎Snippet view
L’ouverture est fermée au moyen d’argile blanche mêlée de sel et de vin de palme, le tout étant recouvert d’un morceau de peau de mbongi ou chat sauvage. A chaque utilisation du fétiche ainsi qu’à son installation, on l’abreuve de sang de poule et on … À chaque cérémonie le fétiche reçoit une libation de sang de poule ou de chèvre. Son pouvoir s’exerce contre les sorciers, les voleurs et les ennemis, qu’il couvre de plaies sur tout le corps et dont il déchire les entrailles. Aussi sert-il …

Bakongo Proverbs – Page 135

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Oscar Stenström , Gösta Stenström – 1999 – Snippet view
Slander is linked to gossip and also destroys the unity of the village: 42 “You slander the civet, the wild cat hears”. Kela mbala, nsinzi weti teka matu. B87. Someone close to the one being slandered can she … Does she think she has children there? Nkwa kisita welefwemi. Koko kele i kaba- kila bana? M90. It is more insulting to tell someone that he is a ndoki ( sorcerer ) and that his mother has been tested for poison: “Your mother died of nkasa ( poison).
Bakongo Studies – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

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Joseph Van Wing – 1941 – Snippet view – More editions
The opening is closed by means of white clay mixed with salt and palm wine, all covered with a piece of mongi skin or wild cat . With each use of the fetish and its installation, it is drenched with chicken blood and … At each ceremony the fetish receives a blood libation of chicken or goat. His power is exercised against wizards , thieves, and enemies , whom he covers with wounds all over his body and whose heart he tears. Also serves it …
Bakongo Studies – Volume 9, Issue 1 – Page 152

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Joseph van Wing – 1941 – Snippet view
The opening is closed by means of white clay mixed with salt and palm wine, all covered with a piece of mongi skin or wild cat . With each use of the fetish and its installation, it is drenched with chicken blood and … At each ceremony the fetish receives a blood libation of chicken or goat. His power is exercised against wizards , thieves, and enemies , whom he covers with wounds all over his body and whose heart he tears. Also serves it …
African Abstracts – Volumes 4-6 – Page 22

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1953 – Snippet view – More editions
Burial-taking and lifting of mourning among the Bakongo . Voice of the Congolese, 8, 75 , … The general idea is that the bad omen is not sent by a wizard , although there is a close connection between the two. Natural omens … Among the animals, they are the cat , the owl, the bat, some birds, the chicken, the snakes, the mole, the turtle, the chameleon, the rats and the mice, the bees , the termites, cow and sheep, etc. who can be ruba. Among the elements …

Zaïre-Afrique – Issues 267-271; Issues 274-276 – Page 464

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1992 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Il est évidemment impossible de prouver que la foudre qui a tué Mr X ou le chien enragé qui l’a mordu ou encore le cancer qui le mine, ont bien été envoyés par son oncle maternel Y, même si cet oncle maternel le “reconnaît”. Il n’existe donc pas d’infraction de sorcellerie. La sorcellerie, elle-même, n’est pas une infraction. 2. L’infraction d’accusation de sorcellerie Mais il existe une infraction, bien précise celle-là : l’infraction d’accusation de sorcellerie (Code Pénal, article 78).
Sorcellerie et ordalies: l’épreuve du poison en Afrique noire : …

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Anne Retel-Laurentin – 1974 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
164-165). Voici l’exemple d’une nourriture non empoisonnée qui devient anti-aliment sous l’effet du serment chez les Lulua du Zaïre. (Au cours d’un litige), chacun se défend : « La sorcellerie m’est inconnue depuis ma naissance. Si je suis sorcier, que ce léopard et que ce chien que je mange aujourd’hui me donnent la diarrhée, et que j’en meure. « Cependant, un officiant distribue les morceaux en disant à chacun : « Avale, avale » . « Quand tout le monde a mangé, un autre officiant …
Recits epiques des Lega du Zaire – Volume 135 – Page 34

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N’Sanda Wamenka – 1992 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Fétichisme et sorcellerie Comme dans toutes les sociétés africaines traditionnelles, le fétichisme et la sorcellerie, pratiqués par les femmes et les hommes, n’ont cessé d’exister. 1° La sorcellerie. Le terme lega pour désigner la sorcellerie est … Voici quelques termes lega liés à la sorcellerie et au port des charmes : bug {la, jkunda, kankvalé (kabunkvalé) kibongelo, lung ubu, mu 1 i ki et mu 1 j ndi. … la nuit où il réussit à se métamorphoser en hibou, en chien, en chat, en insecte, etc.
Fétiches à clous du Bas-Zaïre – Page 91

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Raoul Lehuard – 1980 – ‎Snippet view
Ces grands esprits, en effet, de même que le Nzazi, le chien céleste que nous appelons « foudre », ni les bakulu, ancêtres, bavàndungu ko, ne s’acquièrent pas, ne sont pas sous le commandement d’un féticheur ; tandis qu’on n’est véritable nganga de Dilemba, d’un khonde ou d’un autre fétiche de sorcellerie, de malazi, etc., que par le vanda, l’initiation, longue et quelquefois dure, au bunganga respectif ». L’accession au grade des grands maîtres se fait donc à partir d’une initiation …

Zaire-Africa – Issues 267-271; Issues 274-276 – Page 464

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1992 – Snippet view – More editions
It is obviously impossible to prove that the lightning that killed Mr. X or the rabid dog who bit him or the cancer that undermines him, was sent by his maternal uncle Y, even if this maternal uncle “recognizes” him. . There is therefore no offense of witchcraft . The witchcraft itself, is not an offense. 2. The offense of witchcraft accusation But there is an offense, very precise: the offense of witchcraft accusation (Penal Code, article 78).
Sorcery and ordalies: the test of poison in black Africa: …

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Anne-Retel Laurentin – 1974 – Snippet view – More editions
164-165). Here is the example of a non-poisoned food that becomes anti- food under oath in the Lulua of Zaire . (During a dispute), everyone defends themselves: ” Witchcraft has not been known to me since my birth. If I’m a wizard, that leopard and dog that I eat today give me diarrhea, and that I die. “However, an officiant distributes the pieces by saying to each one:” Swallow, swallow “. “When everyone has eaten , another officiant …
Epic tales of the Lega of Zaire – Volume 135 – Page 34

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N’Sanda Wamenka – 1992 – Snippet view – More editions
Fetishism and Sorcery As in all traditional African societies, fetishism and witchcraft , practiced by women and men, have continued to exist. 1. The witchcraft . The term lega for sorcery is … Here are some lega terms related to witchcraft and the wearing of charms: bug {la, jkunda, kankvalé (kabunkvalé) kibongelo, lung ubu, mu 1 i ki and mu 1 j ndi. … the night he manages to metamorphose into owl, dog , cat, insect, etc.
Fetishes with nails from Lower Zaire – Page 91

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Raoul Lehuard – 1980 – Snippet view
These great minds, indeed, just as the Nzazi, the celestial dog we call “lightning”, nor the bakulu, ancestors, bavàndungu ko, are not acquired , are not under the command of a witch doctor ; while one is a true nganga of Dilemba, of a khonde or of another fetish of sorcery , of malazi, etc., only by the vanda, the initiation, long and sometimes hard, with the respective bunganga “. The accession to the rank of the great masters is therefore from an initiation …

Paradoxes in normality

Though not unique to superhero media but it seems from my experience at this point, usually the only way for a character to be considered normal or relatable is if it’s very much like a very specific demographic like say Batman or Arrow fans. As stereotypical as it sounds, most programmes normies watch tend to either be competition programmes (The Voice), soap operas, certain reality programmes of the normie variety or news programmes.

Not necessarily always the case but it’s inevitable that programmes with a loud cult following are usually nerdy. Something in the lines of Breaking Bad, Game of Thrones and whatever CW airs. These are the ones with fans who post fanmade stories and art more often than Voice viewers do. Again not necessarily always the case but when The Voice has far more viewers than Arrow does, that’s saying.

That too can be said of books and music to whatever degree but since I’m specifically talking about superheroes it’s inevitable that the likes of Stephanie Brown and Tim Drake are vocal cult followings smaller than that of pop star fandom. The latter’s much better known to the public so it’s likelier for someone to have a passing familiarity with a pop diva than they do with whatever the former two are up to.

The fact that comic books are generally inaccessible, so inevitably more people are exposed to pop stars than they are to superheroes and logically have more of an idea of what pop stars are up to in some form or another.

Again not always the case but since pop stars are generally more accessible in that one can actually listen to what they make (whatever that means) illegal or otherwise (especially via YouTube clips, telly and radio), thus even relatively unknown-in-other places popstars like Natali and Mina Mazzini are going to have more listeners (especially casual listeners) than Tim Drake will have casual readers.