The largest Jewish subethnicity and along with the Mizrahi Jews, they’re the people that Gentiles anthropologically associate with the religion itself. As the Jews were dispersed elsewhere some of them interacted with and married converts for security. While this isn’t always the case, this is how we get ethnic subgroups.
You have black Jews which include Beta Israel, Lemba Jews and Igbo Jews. Who knows if some Igbos have at least a degree of Middle Eastern DNA to validate their Jewish ancestry. (Conversely speaking, their Cameroonian counterparts the Bamilekes reportedly came from Egypt, which is where Moses was stationed in.)
Mizarhi Jews are genetically the closest to the Biblical Jews in that they never left the Middle East much. Ashkenazi Jews used to predominate Europe and according to some, they’re genetically and historically descended from Jews and Greco-Roman converts. They used to speak Yiddish and Israeli Ashkenazim predictably speak Hebrew.