Andrei Poyarkov is a Russian scientist who was going to study wolves but ended up with stray and semi-feral dogs if only because the latter’s more abundant. He categorised them into four depending on the niche they inhabited. The one most owned dogs actually fall into are those that guard premises.
They do observe and sense human feelings but not as well as indoor owned dogs do since they often spend their time outside and sometimes interact with and see humans. The second one would be dogs socialised to humans but not so personally and often beg for food.
The third are less socialised to humans if because they spend more time with other stray dogs and scavenge other. The fourth hunt in packs like wolves and are nocturnal and wary of humans. Other studies include more complicated incidents of dog behaviour and socialisation.
It shouldn’t be surprising for people who usually keep dogs for guarding and hunting often have dogs acting more feral and arguably more canine than what is increasingly expected of them.
The only thing true about dogs is their behavioural polymorphy and how it varies depending on their socialisation and niche.