I suspect the studies that emphasise on the human-like nature of dogs, though true to an extent, take place in highly urbansied, Western places where dogs often live indoors and are thus heavily socialised to humans. I’ve known many more studies about stray dog behaviour that’s in Russian from experience.
One would wonder about dog ownership. A more interesting category would be owned dogs that spent their time outside. That isn’t to say they lack human interaction, especially if they’re fed or made to join hunts and herd livestock. It would’ve been mild or moderate as they can be left on their own.
Inevitable if they spend an amount of time outdoors to be able to express their instincts more though that depends on the dog itself. It still says ironically a lot about the differences in dog ownership between certain places. That should warrant further studies.